Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Introduction
Geography
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgements
Literature Cited
Appendices
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.

 

   

Biodiversity

 

Literature Cited:
- Colwell, Robert K., 2008.
- Savard, Jean-Pierre L., Philippe Clergeau, and Gwenaelle Mennechez, 2000.  

What is biodiversity?

 

 

   

Appendices

1 — Introduction

2 — Geography

3 — History of Botanic Exploration

4 — Useful Publications

  • 411 — Floras
    • 4112017w — "411" & publication year & author.
  • 412 — Botanical but not a flora.

5 — Methods

6 — Results

  • 61 — Collections Found
  • 62 — Collections Made

63 — Discussion

  • 631 — Rare Plants
  • 632 — Notable Native Plants
    • 6321 -- Ferns, if any.
    • 6322 -- Gymnosperms, if any.
    • 6323 -- Dicots
      • 6323280Erinaugra -- "6323" & family & genus & species & subspecies or variety
    • 6324 -- Monocots
  • 633 — Notable Non-Native Plants
  • 6330 — Noxious Weeds
    • 63402 — Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape.
      • 63404020Agrcri -- "63404" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6342 — Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape
      • 6342106Alyaly -- "6342" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6343 — Non-Native Sunflowers in the Golden Landscape
    • 6349 — Other Families

7 — Conclusion

8 — Acknowledgements

  • 90 — Ecological Systems of Colorado
  • 91 — GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora
  • 92 — How the Flora is Built
  • 93 — Source Data
    • 931 — Types from the Golden Area
    • 932 — Namesakes of the Golden Area
    • 933 — General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes
    • 934 — Studies of Prairie or Foothill Ecosystems
    • 935 — Restoration, and Effects of Attempts Thereof
    • 936 — Recreation in Foothill and Prairie Ecosystems
  • 94 — Keys
  • 95 — Schemas
  • 96 — Vegetation Descriptions
  • 97 — Reminders
  • 98 — Mystery Locations

 

   

Ecological Systems of Colorado

 
  The Colorado Natural Heritage Program page on Ecological Systems of Colorado is found at: http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/download/projects/eco_systems/eco_systems.asp .

Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Don, Ralph H. Crawford, and David L. Tart, 2009.
- Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2008.
- Jennings, Michael D., Don Faber-Langendoen, Orie L. Loucks, Robert K. Peet,m and David Roberts, 2009.  

 
  Comparison of published vegetation types.
 
CNHP, 2005O'Shea-Stone, 2002Kilburn & White, 1992Zeise, 1976
    Lichen-rock type. Lichen stand types. Areas of bare rock from steep lava cliffs to the conical peaks on the mesa surface.
  Grasslands
  • Short-grass grassland. Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Alyssum parviflorum, and Opuntia sp., Echinocereus viridiflorus, Coryphantha missouriensis, Coryphantha vivipara var. vivipara. Also Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), and Yucca glauca. Some short shrubs of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. graveolens, Prunus virginiana (Syn: Padus v.), Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata. Celtis reticulata at edge of mesa. Traditionally dominated by Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides, but now dominated by Bromus tectorum.
Grassland type. Bromus tectorum and Alyssum simplex (Syn: A. minus. Occasional Achnatherum scribneri (Syn: Stipa s.) and Andropogon gerardii. Mixed-grass stand types. Dominated by Bromus tectorum and Agropyron sp. (Elymus sp. ?), with Buchloe dactyloides, and Alyssum alyssoides, Eriogonum umbellatum Torr., Heterotheca villosa, Opuntia compressa, Yucca glauca, and Ericameria nauseosa (Syn: Chrysothamnus nauseosus). West, south, and east exposures.
  Mixed-grass grassland. Stipa comata, Pascopyrum smithii, Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Aristida purpurea, and Nassella viridula, with a large number of forbs. Mesa slopes and toe areas of STM.
RM Aspen Forest and Woodland - - -
RM Cliff, Canyon and Massive Bedrock - - -
RM Dry-Mesic and Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest and Woodland - - -
SRM Pinyon-Juniper Woodland - - -
SRM Ponderosa Pine Woodland - - -
Rocky Mountain Lower Montane - Foothill Shrubland.
  • Cercocarpus montanus Shrubland Alliance
    • Series determination requires more data collection.
Upland shrubland. Cercoparpus montanus, with sparse cover of Bromus tectorum intermixed with Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), Yucca glauca, and many cacti.

Ravine shrubland. Skunkbush, chokecherry and Prunus americana, in dense thickets. Few plains cottonwoods and Salix amygdaloides

Shrubland type

  • Mixed shrub community. Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum, Prunus americana, and Prunus virginiana. Understory of Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum), Eriogonum umbellatum, Alyssum alyssoides, etc.
Mixed shrub stand types. Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum Dougl., Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Prunus virginiana L., Prunus americana Marsh. Acer glabrum in dense patches. Mostly north exposures.
    Shrubland type.

  • Mountain mahogany community. Cercocarpus montanus with an understory of Alyssum alysoides, Bromus tectorum, Agropyron cristatum (Syn: A. desertorum), Eriogonum umbellatum, etc.
Pure shrub stand types. Cercocarpus montanus, with Bromus tectorum, Alyssum alyssoides, and Eriogonum umbellatum.
    Grassland-shrub type. Common foothills species: Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Prunus americana, Rhus trilobata, and Ribes cereum. Grasses are Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum). Also Cercoparpus montanus, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius (Syn: S. oreophilus), Prunus virginiana melanocarpa, Rosa arkansana, Physocarpus monogynus, and Ribes aureum. Shrub cover within grassland matrix is significant, but less than 50%. Shrub-grass stand types. Shrubs of Crataegus succulenta (Syn: C. erythropoda), Rosa sp., Rhus trilobata, Prunus virginiana, Prunus americana, Celtus reticulata, and Ribes cereum, with Agropyron sp. (Syn: Elymus sp. ?), Bromus tectorum, Achnatherum hymenoides (Syn: Oryzopsis h., and Alyssum alyssoides. Patches of shrubs in mixed grass-forb areas.
NA Arid West Emergent Marsh - - -
  Wetlands. Cottonwoods and willows, with Carex spp., and Juncus spp., and a variety of grasses and forbs. Patches of Typha spp.. Hydrology alteration.   Riparian (streamside) stand types. Salix exigua, Populus sargentii, Eleocharis macrostachya, Scirpus lacustris L., and Mentha spicata L.
    Woodland type.

  • Mountain maple community. Dense community of small Acer glabrum just below cliffs or in ravines with a dense understory of mixed shrub. North and east slopes.
  • Cottonwood woodland community. Scattered cottonwoods (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera (Syn: P. sargentii), and P. angustifolia) along permanent and intermittent streams. In Big Ravine, Acer negundo, Salix exigua, and S. amygdaloides also occur. Other shrubs also form a dense understory.
  • Juniper Savannah community. Juniperus scopulorum with an understory of typical grassland.
Woodland stand types. Juniperus scopulorum, with Bromus tectorum.
WGP (Western Great Plains) Cliff, Outcrop, and Shale Barrens - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Closed Depression Wetland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Foothill and Piedmont Grassland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Riparian Woodland, Shrubland and Herbaceous - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Shortgrass Prairie - - -
  Disturbed/reclaimed    
  Developed    

Notes:

  1. [R3C3] Stipa comata grassland of 30-60 acres near western rim of mountain, may be partly due to effects of the 1988 fire.

   

Recognized Ecological Systems

 

   

Ecological Systems Recognized by the Colorado Natural Heritage System

 

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  

Ecological systems are dynamic assemblages or complexes of plant and/or animal communities that 1) occur together on the landscape; 2) are tied together by similar ecological processes, underlying abiotic environmental factors or gradients; and 3) form a readily identifiable unit on the ground. These systems provide a coarser level unit than plant associations and alliances as defined under the International Vegetation Classification standard, and are more easily identified on the ground.

The descriptions and summarized viability guidelines presented here are intended to serve as a tool for conservation and management planning by providing a context for conservation and management (i.e., what systems do we have in Colorado), and by providing easy access to ranking and evaluation criteria for key ecological attributes of each system (i.e., what is the condition of our systems).

System descriptions and viability guidelines are based on materials compiled by NatureServe or developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Funding for the development of these documents was provided in part by the Bureau of Land Management, The Nature Conservancy, and the USDA Forest Service (CNHP, 2005).

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  

 

   

Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)

 

Literature Cited:
- Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague, 2011.  

The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was a mapping and assessment of biodiversity for the five-state region encompassing Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The area comprises approximately 150 million hectares (560,000 square miles) representing 1/5 the coterminous United States. The primary objective of the project was to use a coordinated approach to create detailed, seamless maps of the land cover, habitat for native terrestrial vertebrate species, land stewardship, and management status for the Southwest region. This information was analyzed to identify animal species habitats and natural land cover types that are underrepresented on land managed for their long term conservation. SWReGAP was a multi-institutional effort with scientists based in all five southwest states.

   

USNVC -- United States National Vegetation Classification

 
  http://usnvc.org/
  The U.S. National Vegetation Classification is supported by a formal partnership between the federal agencies, the Ecological Society of America (ESA), and NatureServe, working through the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee. Primary signators include the U.S. Forest Service (which chairs the subcommittee), ESA, NatureServe, and the U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Systems (USGS/CSS). Together we are committed to supporting the implementation and maintenance of the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) Standard (FGDC 2008).
  The overall objective of the Vegetation and Information Standards is to support the use of a consistent national vegetation classification system (NVCS) to produce uniform statistics in vegetation resources from vegetation cover data at the national level. It is important that, as agencies map or inventory vegetated Earth cover, they collect enough data accurately and precisely to translate it for national reporting, aggregation, and comparisons. Adoption of the Vegetation Classification and Information Standards in subsequent development and application of vegetation mapping schemes will facilitate the compilation of regional and national summaries. In turn, the consistent collection of such information will eventually support the detailed, quantitative, geo-referenced basis for vegetation cover modeling, mapping, and analysis at the field level.

   

EcoVeg

 

Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Dom, Todd Keeler-Wolf, Del Meidinger, Dave Tart, Bruce Hoagland, Carmen Josse, Gonzalo Navarro, Serguei Ponomarenko, Jean-Peirre Saucier, Alan Weakley, and Patrick Comer, 2014.  

http://www.natureserve.org/biodiversity-science/publications/ecoveg-new-approach-vegetation-description-and-classification

 

   

GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora

 

 

   

How the Flora is Built

 

 

   

Source Data

 

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Colbry, Vera Lyola, 1957.  

Sporobolus

 
 

Mentzelia

 

Literature Cited:
- Hufford, Larry, Michelle M. McMahon, Anna M. Sherwood, Gail Reeves, and Mark W, Chase, 2003.  

Names recognized by Harrington (1954) Names recognized by Snow (2009) Names recognized by Weber and Wittmann (2012) Names recognized by Ackerfield (2015) Names recognized by FNANM Mentzelia (s.l.) represented by collections in Jefferson County, Colorado
Section Bartonia
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
(Syn: M. speciosa Osterhout., Nuttallia multiflora (Nutt.) Greene, N. speciosa (Osterh.) Greene, N. sinuata Rydb.)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray var. multiflora Nuttallia multiflora (Nuttall) Greene
(Incl: N. sinuata, N. speciosa)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray M. multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill
Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterhout
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) T. & G.
(Syn: Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene)
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & Gray
Section Trachyphytum
Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl ex Hook. Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray Acrolasia albicaulis (Douglas) Rydberg Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray
(Syn: M. montana (Davidson) Davidson)
M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray
Not recognized Mentzelia montana (Davids.) Davids. Not recognized M. montana (Davidson) Davidson M. montana (Davidson) Davidsona
Mentzelia dispersa Wats. Mentzelia dispersa S. Watsonb Acrolasia dispersa (S. Watson) Davidson Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson M. dispersa S. Wats. M. dispersa S. Wats.
Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Denver, CO.: Sage Books., 1954. Snow, Neil. 2009. Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region (Version 3). 316 p. Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope. 4th Edition. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2012. Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. The Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+. New York and Oxford. Published on the Internet; http://www.efloras.org/ (accessed 2013 through 2019) Source: Southwest Environmental Information Network, SEINet. 2014. http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php. Accessed on September 04, 2014.

Notes:

  1. bMentzelia dispersa S. Watson. Snow (2009) follows Dorn (2001) in not recognizing varieties in our region.
  2. aMentzelia montana (Davidson) Davidson is represented by two collections made by George E. Osterhout with Ira W. Clokey, Osterhout's #3095 (RM95508) and #5741 (RM162001). The collections were made 22 June 1918 and the locality is Morrison, Jefferson County, Colorado.
 

Symphoricarpos

 

Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

Authors for Symphoricarpos in FNANM are: Applequist, Wendy L./wendy.applequist at mobot.org and Bell, Charles D./valerianaceae1969 at gmail.com. Caprifoliaceae will be contained in Volume 18, which, as of this date, 3 August 2014, is under production.

Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

“Towards a Species Level Phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA”

 

   

Botanical Explorers

 

   

Thomas Nuttall

 
 

1810-1811 Missouri River

 
 

1815-1816 The Carolinas

 
 

1816-1817 Ohio River to South Carolina

 
 

1818-1820 Arkansas

 

 

   

Names of Historical Reports

 
  The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
… full name of publication … URL: … if available …

 

Literature Cited:
- Gmelin, Johan Georg, 1747-1769.  

Gmelin, 1747-1769, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gmel. Sibir.
Gmelin, Johan Georg. 1747-1769. Flora Sibirica sive Historia Plantarum Siberiae. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences. URL: https://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/id/PPN330224352

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium carolinianum, Walter, 1788;  

Walter, 1788, Flora Caroliniana

Thomas Walter (1740-1789) was a British-born American botanist. He is best known for his book Flora Caroliniana (1788), an early yet fairly complete catalog of the flowering plants of South Carolina.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fl. Carol.
Flora caroliniana : secundum systema vegetabilium perillustris Linnaei digesta; characteres essentiales naturalesve et differentias veras exhibens; cum emendationibus numerosis: descriptionum antea evulgatarum: adumbrationes stirpium plus mille continens: necnon, generibus novis non paucis, speciebus plurimis novisq. ornata URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/38202

 

Literature Cited:
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel van, 1791.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris, Schreber, 1791;  

Schreber, 1789-1791, Publication Details

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a]
Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. (Ed. 8[a]). URL: … if available …

 

Literature Cited:
- Gaertner, Joseph, 1788-1807.  

Gaertner, 1791, Publication Details

Joseph Gaertner (1732 – 1791) was a German botanist, best known for his work on seeds, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1788-1792).

He was born in Calw, and studied in Göttingen under Albrecht von Haller. He was primarily a naturalist, but also worked at physics and zoology. He travelled extensively to visit other naturalists. He was professor of anatomy in Tübingen in 1760, and was appointed professor of botany at St Petersburg in 1768, but returned to Calw in 1770. Much of his productive work involved hybridization of plants and expression of traits in progeny.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fruct. Sem.
De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum: accedunt seminum centuriae quinque priores cum tabulis Aeneis LXXIX. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/37208351

Gaertner (1791) appears here because of his publication of Troximon. Today we treat Troximon as a synonym of Krigia Schreb. and the published names in Troximon have been dispersed primarily to Agoseris with one to Krigia and two to Nothocalais. Krigia biflora (Walter) S. F. Blake “Two-Flower Dwarf Dandelion” is found in Colorado, including one collection near Deckers in southwest Jefferson County. Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene “Prairie False Dandelion” is common around Golden s.l.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Greene, Edward L., 1889.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus crassicarpus, Nuttall, 1813;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Nuttall, 1813;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Fraser, 1813;  Coryphantha vivipara, Fraser, 1813;  Oenothera cespitosa, Fraser, 1813;  Ratibida columnifera, Fraser, 1813;  

Fraser's Catalogue, 1813

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana
Fraser's Cat.
Fraser catal.
Catalogue of New and Interesting Plants Collected in Upper Louisiana and Principally on the River Missouri, North America, for Sale at Messrs. Fraser's Nursery for Curious American Plants, Sloane, Square, King's Road, Chelsea, [London 1813] A reprint is available at URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/52475#page/119/

Remarks the International Plant Names Index (accessed 16 August 2020): Originally distributed by Messrs. Fraser’s Nursery for Curious American Plants and was referred to as Frasers’ catalogues. Reprinted in: Pittonia. 2: 114-119. 1890. Although Nuttall is not cited as the author, he has been generally accepted as the author (see St. Louis Code Art. 46 Ex. 26). Regarding the precise date of publ.: a reference to this Cat. Is made in Bot. Mag. Ad t. 1574. 1 Aug 1813. For several names in the supplement and addenda et corrigenda portions, Pursh (Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 727-751. Dec 1813) referred to Fraser's Catalogue, e.g, pp. 728, 729, 750. For the validly and invalidly published names in this Catalogue, see: J. L. Reveal, Rhodora 70: 25-54. 1968.

  • Amorpha canescens Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [1] (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Amorpha nana Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 5 (1813).
  • Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 6 [unpaged] (1813).
  • Cactus viviparus Nutt. (= Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 22 (1813). .
  • Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [unpaged] (1813).
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 45 (1813).
  • Malva coccinea Nutt. (=Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 51 (1813).
  • Oenothera albicaulis Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 54 (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 53 (1813).
  • Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 75 (1813).
  • Yucca glauca Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 89 (1813).

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibiba columnifera, Reveal, 1968;  

Multiple authors have considered the names published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, the author of the names, and the legitimacy of the names. One recent such paper was Reveal (1968) “On the Names in Fraser's 1813 Calalogue.” Original copies of Fraser's Catalogue are quite rare, leading Greene (1890) to republish. Reveal acknowledges that Greene essentially accurately reprinted the catalogue. One change that Greene acknowledges was the addition “[ By T. Nuttall. ]” to the title page, which he says Nuttall wrote in ink on the original.

Possibly among other taxa, the legitimacy of the names in Fraser's Catalogue is important for our Priairie Coneflower Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, A, D. D. Keck, and B. Maguire, 1956.
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Reveal, James L., 1968.
- Shinners, Lloyd H., 1955.
- Shinners, Lloyd H., 1956.  

Reveal (1968) thought the author must have been Nuttall, referring to several other papers on the question.
… The interested reader on this subject is invited to refer to the series of arguments presented by Shinners (1949, 1955, 1956) for Nuttall not being the author and the Catalogue as an invalid source of publication; Graustein's (1956) contentions that Nuttall was the author but that he considered the species not validly published because of an agreement with his sponsor, Benjamin Smith Barton of Philadelphia, not to publish any new species without Barton's consent; and Cronquist, Keck, and Maguire (1956) who believe that Nuttall was the author and that the Catalogue is a valid place of publication.
 
It has been common knowledge that Nuttall was at least associated with the names found in the Catalogue. Pennell (1936) and Graustein (1967) point out that he was in England and associated with the Fraser Brothers' Nursery at the time of publication. From Nuttall's two subsequent publications (1817, 1818) which followed shortly after the Catalogue, we know that he considered at least some of the names as his own. Several of the early authors attributed the names in the Catalogue to Nuttall, and they certainly could have asked Nuttall if they had any doubt as who the author was. Pennell (1936) gives the impression that Nuttall was a rather shy and inhibited person. It would seem out of character for a man of such temperament to assume responsibility for the names in Fraser's Catalogue if he was not in any way responsible for them. It is inconceivable to me that someone else could have assigned names to Nuttall's own collection without Nuttall stating this fact later. If Nuttall was not associated with the entities, why should he later accept some of them as his unless he actually had given the names to the Fraser Brothers, helped someone who was employed by them to prepare the Catalogue, or perhaps have written the text himself. It should be noted here, however, that I do not say that Nuttall was the author of the paper, although Greene (1890) suggests this after seeing the copy of the Catalogue in Philadephia. What I do contend is that Nuttall is the author of the names in the paper, and thus, as provided by the International Code (1966), the species should be cited as "Nutt. In Fras."
 
Shinners (1956) goes to great length to show that several of the names in Fraser's Catalogue were not claimed by Nuttall in his later publications, and while this is true, I suspect that it was for reasons other than those given by Shinners. Some species were found to have been adequately described between 1813 and 1818 with names acceptable to Nuttall, but for those that were not, he used his own names that he had published in the Fraser's Catalogue. Nuttall occasionally cited only "Frasers Catalogue" and did not give himself credit for the name. Shinners uses this argument to show that Nuttall was not the author. The species with which I am most familiar that was published in the Catalogue is Eriogonum flavum. The name is credited to “Fras. Catal. 1813” and not starred as a new species in Nuttall's 1818 book, The Genera of North American Plants, and for this reason, Shinners suggested that Nuttall did not consider this ispecies as his. Nothing is further from the truth. In a detailed paper on this species in particular, and the genus Eriogonum in general, which Nuttall published in 1817, he makes a point of stating that he published the name E. flavum in Eraser's Catalogue. The reason why Nuttall simply stated “Fras. Catal. 1813.” instead of “T. N. in Fras. Catal. 1813.,” as he sometimes did, was probably to save space. To say that Nuttall was not the author of Fraser's Catalogue I believe is on more tenuous bases than to say that he was indeed the sole author. As no one else has come along to claim authorship of the species published in the list, this, I believe, proves the point that only Nuttall could have given the names to his own collection.
 
The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1966) states in Article 34 that "A name is not validly published … when it is not accepted by the author who published it …" As Nuttall did not specifically reject the names in the Catalogue, they must be considered as published. The arguments put forth by Graustein (1956) are immaterial. She states that under the terms of a contract, Nuttall's journals and observations became the exclusive property of Barton, and Nuttall was not supposed to do anything else but what was specifically stated in the con- tract. Thus, Graustein believes that Nuttall could not legally publish any new species in Fraser's Catalogue, for if he did, he would be breaking the terms of the contract. How- ever, as McKelvey (1955) has pointed out, Nuttall's mere presence with the Overland Astorians as they ascended the Missouri River was breaking his contract with Barton, as was the shipping of his plants to England instead of Philadelphia. Certainly one more step in the breaking of the contract by publishing his findings would not be totally surprising.
Reveal (1968) then goes on to review each name published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, rendering an opinion about their validity.

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus communis depressa, Pursh, 1814;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Pursh, 1814;  Agoseris glauca, Pursh, 1816;  Ratibida columnifera, Pursh, 1814;  Pseudoroegneria spicata, Pursh, 1814;  

Pursh, 1814-1816, Publication Details

Pursh (1814-16) is an often cited reference for taxa found in Golden s.l.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh, Frederick. 1814. Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, A Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America. 2 vols. London: White, Cochrane, and Co., 1814. URL: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/1987

There are forty-four taxa named by Pursh that are known to occur in Golden s.l..

  • Juniperus communis var. depressa Pursh. Common juniper
  • Calligonum canescens Pursh (=Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.)
  • Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf.. Leafy Wild Parsley
  • Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf.. Pale Goat-Chicory, as Troximon glaucum Pursh
  • Arnica fulgens Pursh. Shining Leopardbane
  • Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt.. Arrow-Leaf Balsamroot
  • Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt.. Hoar False Tansy-Aster
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. Dwarf Mountain Fleabane
  • Gaillardia aristata Pursh. Great Blanket-Flower
  • Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. Curly-Cup Gumweed
  • Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby. Kindlingweed
  • Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners. Hairy False Golden-Aster
  • Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook.. Rush Skeleton-Plant
  • Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene. Wavy-Leaf Prairie-Dandelion
  • Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartman. Lacy Sleepy Daisy
  • Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC.. Prairie Bluebells
  • Phacelia heterophylla Pursh. Variable-Leaf Scorpion-Weed
  • Cleome serrulata Pursh. Rocky Mountain Beeplant
  • Euphorbia marginata Pursh. Snow-on-the-Mountain
  • Amorpha canescens Pursh. Leadplant ???
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh. American Licorice
  • Lupinus argenteus Pursh. Silver-Stem Lupine
  • Oxytropis lambertii Pursh. Stemless Locoweed
  • Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh) J. Grimes. Silver-Leaf Indian-Breadroot
  • Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydb.. Lemon scurfpea
  • Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb.. Slimflower scurfpea
  • Ribes aureum Pursh. Golden Currant
  • Linum lewisii Pursh. Prairie Flax
  • Mentzelia decapetala (Pursh ex Sims) Urb. & Gilg ex Gilg. Gumbo-Lily
  • Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray. Goodmother
  • Claytonia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Springbeauty
  • Lewisia rediviva var. rediviva Pursh. Bitter root
  • Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl. Narrow-Leaf Four-O'clock
  • Oenothera albicaulis Pursh. White-Stem Evening-Primrose
  • Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh. Great Plains Indian-Paintbrush
  • Mimulus lewisii Pursh. Great Purple Monkey-Flower
  • Ipomopsis aggregata (Pursh) V. Grant. Scarlet Skyrocket
  • Rumex venosus Pursh. Veiny Dock
  • Androsace occidentalis Pursh. Western Rock-Jasmine
  • Clematis hirsutissima Pursh. Sugarbowls
  • Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh. Alkali Buttercup
  • Geum triflorum Pursh. Old-Man's-Whiskers
  • Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Figwort
  • Viola nuttallii Pursh. Yellow Prairie Violet
  • Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve. Bluebunch-Wheat Grass

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.  

Rafinesque (1818) had the following to say in his review of Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text
We have abundant proofs that [Pursh] has introduced many new species, not discovered by, nor belonging tohimself, and without the leave of the owners. Mr. Bradbury, for instance, has loudly complained to us, against him, for having so many of his new plants collected in the Missouri, without his permission, which he meant to publish them himself ; but the blame, if any, appears to lay with those friends who put the plants into the hands of Mr> Pursh, since the author of a general Flora is perfectly at liberty to avail himself of all the materials which come to his knowledge, and ought rather to be blamed for omitting them than otherwise.
It is advisable therefor for the discoverers of new plants to publish them speedily themselves, or keep them out of sight, and buried, as misers do their gold.
Many new plants are stated by Mr. P. to grow on the Mississippi and Missouri, without reference to their discoverers, and as he never was there himself, it is to be presumed they were collected by Mess. Lewis or Nuttall, and probably the latter ; the circumstance from which they were derived is illiberal and disingenuous.
After all, let no one suppose that we despise the labours of Mr. P : far from it. Few can value them more than we do ; we shal at all times be happy to give credit to any botanist for his real personal exertions : for such, and for the compilation of his Flora, Mr. Pursh does really deserve our thanks, notwithstanding so many errors and omissions. We therefore with him complete success in his future labours, and particularly in the completion of a Flora Canadensis, which we understand he has lately undertaken on the spot.

C. S. R.

Literature Cited:
- Robin, C. C. (Charles-Ce´sar), 1817.  

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Ludov. Florula Ludoviciana ; or, A Flora of the State of Louisiana URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/275247

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Delphinium carolinianum virescens, Nuttall, 1919;  Erysimum asperum, Nuttall, 1818;  Amelanchier alnifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Nuttall, 1818;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Nuttall, 1818;  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1818;  Collomia linearis, Nuttall, 1818;  Dracocephalum, Nuttall, 1818;  Solanum triflorum, Nuttall, 1818;  Orthocarpus luteus, Nuttall, 181;  Ambrosia tomentosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Artemisia ludoviciana, additional information;  Cirsium undulatum, Nuttall, 1818;  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Erigeron pumilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Erigeron pumila, Nuttall, 1818;  Ratibida columnifera, Nuttall, 1818;  Senecio integerrimis, Nuttall, 1818;  Solidago speciosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Bouteloua gracilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Elymus elymoides, Nuttall, 1818;  Hordeum pusillum, additional information;  Schedonnardus paniculatus, Nuttall, 1818;  

Nuttall, 1818, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Nutt. 
Gen. Am.
Nuttall, Thomas. 1818. The Genera of North American Plants and a catalogue of the species to the year 1817. 2 Vols.. Philadelphia: 1818. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/290

Types published by Nuttall in this volume that are found in Golden s.l.

  • Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. (Calligonum canescens Pursh)
  • Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt.
  • Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver Wormwood.
  • Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Wavy Leaved Thistle, as Cnicus undulatus Nutt.
  • Erigeron pumilis Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Iva xanthiifolia Nutt. Carelessweed, =Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fesen.
  • Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Columbia Ragwort.
  • Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Goldenrod.
  • Collomia linearis Nutt. Tiny Trumpet.
  • Solanum triflorum Nutt. Cutleaf Nightshade.
  • Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. “Yellow Owls Clover.”
  • Delphinium virescens Nutt. (=Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R. E. Brooks)
  • Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. (=Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus) Buffalo Grass
  • Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley, on the plains of the Missouri.
  • Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. False Buffalograss.
  • Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. Tumblegrass, as Lepturus paniculatus.

    Nuttall types published elsewhere.

  • Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb., published in Fraser (1813) as Malva coccinea.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. Tufted Evening Primrose, published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue.
  • Monarda pectinata Nutt. “Plains Beebalm”, published in 1848, Plants Collected by Gambel.
  • Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry,” published in 1834, Flora of Arkansas
  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory,” published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes.” published in 1841.
  • Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Golden Tickseed, published in Arkansa report, 1821.
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower. Published in 1841.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye. Published in 1841.
  • Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. (Syn: Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt.) “Upright Prairie Coneflower.” Published in Fraser (1813) Catalogue, with the name attributed to Nuttall.
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a.
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. Ex A. Gray. Star Lily, published by Gray (1848).
  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn, published in Nuttall (1834) account of his trip to the Arkansa Territory.
  • Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. Mountain Muhly, published as Calycodon montanus by Nuttall in his 1848 account of the collections by Gambel.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibida columnifera, Rafinesque, 1818;  

American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Rafinesque, 1817-1818

One of Rafinesque's several publication series.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. Vols. 1-4, 1817-18 [1819] Available through Google Books.

 

Literature Cited:
- Elliott, Stephen, 1821-1824.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia, Elliott, 1823;  

Elliott, 1821-1824, Publication Details

Elliott (1821-1824) published his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia
Sketch Bot. S. Carolina
Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia
Elliott's Botany 
A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia. Elliott, Stephen, 1771-1830. Hoff, John, , printer. Charleston, S.C. :J.R. Schenck,1821-24. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/9508

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coreopsis tinctoria, Nuttall, 1821;  

Nuttall, 1821, Publication Details

Nuttall (1821) describes his nearly disastrous exploration of the Arkansas River in 1818-1820.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2: (1821). A Description of some new species of Plants, recently introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia, from the Arkansa territory. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 2: URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/26373612#page/124/

 

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, Johann Jacob, and Josef August Schultes, 1817-1830.
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.  

Sprengel, 1826, Publication Details.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Syst. Veg., ed. 16 Systema vegetabilium [Caroli Linnaei ... ]. Editio decima sexta. Gottingae URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/822

Although purporting to be 16th edition Linnaeus' Systema vegetabilium, this work must be attributed to Sprengel. In fact this should count as the 17th edition, as the real 16th edition that of Roemer & Schultes.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   1827;  Eriogonum umbellatum;  Acer glabrum;  

Torrey, 1828, Rocky Mountain Plants of Dr. Edwin P. James.

Torrey's final account of plants collected by Edwin James in 1820.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York ii. (1828)
Some account of a Collection of Plants made during a journey to and from the Rocky Mountains in the summer of 1820, by Edwin P. James, M. D. Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/part/240415

   

Rafinesque, 1833, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Atlantic J
Atlantic Journal, and Friend of Knowledge. Philadelphia, PA. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104571

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana, Nuttall, 1834;  Phlox longifolia, Nuttall, 1834;  Crepis occidentalis, additional information;  Solidago missouriensis, additional information, Nuttall, 1834;  Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule, Nuttall, 1834a;  

Nuttall, 1834a, Wyeth Expedition

Nuttall (1834a) described plants brought back by Nathaniel Wyeth from his expedition to the Oregon Territory.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: pp (1834). Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII. A Catalogue of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Valleys of the Rocky Mountain or Northern Andes, towards the sources of the Columbia River, by Mr. Nathaniel B. Wyeth, and described by T. Nuttall Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA

Read February 18, 1834.

URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/79407#page/39
New names of plants found in Colorado that were published in this paper.
  • Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox.”
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard.
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod.

   

Nuttall, 1834b, Flora of the Territory of Arkansas

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 5: 145 (1835). Article VI. Collections towards a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas. By Thomas Nuttall. Read before the American Philosophical Society April 4, 1834. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/110958

  • Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry.”
  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fresenius, Georg, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Fresnius, 1836;
Full Size ImageFootnotes from Index Seminum in which Cyclachaena is proposed  

Fresenius, 1836, Publication Details

Johann Baptist Georg (George) Wolfgang Fresenius (1808-1866) was a German physician and botanist, known for his work in the field of phycology. He was a native of Frankfurt am Main.

He studied medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg, Würzburg and Giessen, earning his doctorate at the latter institution in 1829. Afterwards he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he worked as a general practitioner of medicine while maintaining an active interest in botany.

As a student in Heidelberg and afterwards, he studied botany with his friend George Engelmann (1809-1884), who later became a renowned German-American botanist. From 1831 Fresenius was curator of the Senckenberg herbarium and a teacher at the Senckenberg Research Institute (Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg). With his student Anton de Bary (1831–1888), he conducted microscopic investigations of algae and fungi. He died in Frankfurt on 1 December 1866 at the age of 58.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Index Sem. (Frankfort/M) Index Seminum. Frankfort am Main. Universita¨t Frankfurt am Main. Botanischer Garten. URL:
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/84379
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/160600

In the online publication, the various parts are mixed up as to the date order.

Full Size Image
Page 1 from Index Seminum Frankfort/Am Main

 

Literature Cited:
- Lawson, Peter & Son, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pinus ponderosa, Lawson, 1836;  

Lawson, 1836, Agriculturist's Manual

Published in Edinburgh; see Linzer Biol. Beitr. 28: 1048. 1996
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Agric. Man.
The Agriculturalist's manual : being a familiar description of the agricultural plants cultivated in Europe, including practical observations respecting those suited to the climate of Great Britain, and forming a report of Lawson's Agricultural Museum in Edinburgh URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/165048

Names in this publication:

  • Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson. “Ponderosa Pine”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana, Torr. & A. Gray, 1838;  Delphinium carolinianum virescens, Torrey & A. Gray, 1838;  Rorippa sinuata, Torrey & Gray, 1838;  Holodiscus dumosus, Torr. & A. Gray;  Vicia ludoviciana, Torr. & A. Gray, 1838;  

Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, Flora of North America

Torrey & A. Gray (1838-1943) in two volumes …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fl. N. Amer.
A flora of North America :containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/9466
Names published in this volume:
  • Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. ex Torr & A. Gray

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  Troximon glaucum, Nuttall, 1841;  Agoseris parviflora, Nuttall, 1841;  Franseria discolor, Nuttall, 1841;  Antennaria parvifolia, Nuttall, 1841;  Crepis occidentalis, Nuttall, 1814;  Helianthus pumilus, additional information;  Heterotheca foliosa, Nuttall, 1841;  Packera plattensis, Nuttall, 1841;  Solidago nana, Nuttall, 1841;  

Nuttall, 1841, Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands

In 1834, Nuttall resigned his post and set off west again on an expedition led by Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, this time accompanied by the naturalist John Kirk Townsend. They travelled through Kansas, Wyoming, and Utah, and then down the Snake River to the Columbia. Nuttall then sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Hawaiian Islands in December. He returned in the spring of 1835 and spent the next year botanizing in the Pacific Northwest, an area already covered by David Douglas. On the Pacific coast, Nuttall heard of the ship Alert leaving San Diego in May 1836, bound for Boston.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 7 (1841).
Descriptions of new Species and Genera of Plants in the natural Order of the Compositae, collected in a Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands and Upper California, during the Years 1834 and 1835. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting useful Knowledge. Series 2, Volume 7. Philadelphia. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/95918

Nuttall types published in this volume:

  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr., published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. Small-Leaf Pussytoes.
  • Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. Tasselflower Brickellbush.
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye.
  • Psilochenia occidentalis Nutt. (Syn: Crepis occidentalis Nutt.)
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod.

No mention is made of any Salix.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix exigua;  

Nuttall, 1842-1849, North American Sylva

Nuttall extended Michaux's three-volume North American Sylva, with three additional volumes, containing all the forest trees discovered in the Rocky Mountains, the territory of Oregon, down to the shores of the Pacific and into the confines of California, as well as in various parts of the United States.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
    N. Amer. Sylv. [Nuttall]
The North American Sylva; or, A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, considered particularly with respect to their use in the arts, and their introduction into commerce; to which is added a description of the most useful of the European trees … Tr. from the French of F. Andrew Michaux …, The. Philadelphia URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/92584

Dates


Vols. 1-3 (issued as vols. 4-6 of a 6-volume series), 1842-1849
1(1): 1-56. med 1842
1(2): 57-136. Jul-Dec 1842
2: 1-123. 1846
3: 1-148. 1849.

Remarks

With Illustrated by 122 finely colored plates. By Thomas Nuttall … The whole forming six volumes, and comprising 278 plates --Note on t.-p.

Names first published in these volumes:

  • Salix exigua Nutt.

 

Literature Cited:
- Fremont, John C., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum, Frémont 1845;  

Fremont, 1845, Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Frémont Rep.
Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842 and to Oregon and North California in the years 1843-'44. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/101327

The Catalogue of Plants for Frémont's 1842 expedition starts on page 75. The Polygonaceae is listed on page 96, those listed being Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt., E. caespitosum Nutt., E. umbellatum Torr., E. fremontii n. sp. (=E. brevicaule Nutt.), and E. annuum Nutt.

The descriptions of plants for Frémont's 1843-'44 expedition begins on page 311. The Eriogonum described include E. inflatum Torr. and Frém., E. reniforme Torr. and Frém., and E. cordalum Torr. and Frém. (=E. cordatum Torr & Frém., and is impossible to place unequivocally, per FNANM.)

No mention is made of E. alatum though Frémont and Torrey were aware of it.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca, Dietrich, 1847;  Agoseris parviflora, Dietrich, 1847;  

Dietrich, 1847, Publication Details

David Nathaniel Friedrich Dietrich (1800 – 1888) was German botanist and gardener. In 1828 Dietrich worked as a botanical gardener in Jena. In 1836 he received his doctorate at the University of Jena, and later served as a curator at the botanical garden in Jena. Dietrich wrote pamphlets on poisonous plants, mosses, and forest flora and fauna of Germany as well as several botanical encyclopedias. His five-volume, 1839-1852 Synopsis Plantarum, cited here, included about 80,000 species and 524 genera. The five-volume Flora of Germany published from 1833 to 1864 contains 1150 colored panels. The two-volume Forst Flora and the 476 booklets of the comprehensive Flora Universalis are his most famous work (Wikipedia, 2020).

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Syn. Pl.
Synopsis Plantarum seu enumeratio systematica plantarum…. 4. Issued in five volumes: Vol. 1, Jul 1839, Vol. 2, 1-20 Dec 1840, Vol. 3, late Dec 1842, Vol. 4, early Jan 1847, Vol. 5, Apr 1852 URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/688583

 

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saskatoon Serviceberry;  

Roemer, 1847, Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr.

Max Joseph Roemer (1791–1849) was a German botanist who worked in Weimar. He served as a Landrichter (country judge) in the Bavarian town of Aub, afterwards working as a private scientist in Würzburg. He is the taxonomic authority of the genera Heteromeles, Pyracantha and Erythrocarpus as well as of numerous plant species.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr.
Familiarum naturalium regni vegetabilis synopses monographicae; seu, Enumeratio omnium plantarum hucusque detectarum secundum ordines naturales, genera et species digestarum, additis diagnosibus, synonymis, novarumque vel minus cognitarum descriptionibus.

Monographic synopsis of the families of plants; or, An enumeration of all the natural orders of plants according to those that hitherto have been detected, the genera and species in four parts, with the addition of diagnoses, synonyms, and descriptions of new or less known species.


URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/49482
Fascicle 1-2: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104538
Fascicle 3-4: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104545

 

Literature Cited:
- Emory, William H., 1848.  

Emory, 1848, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Emory's Rep.
Emory, Notes milit. Reconn. 1848
Emory, William H. 1848. Notes of a military reconnaissance, from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California, including parts of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila rivers. Washington: Wendell and Van Benthuysen, printers, 1848. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/99257

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heliomeris multiflora;  Gray, 1849, publication details;  Quercus gambelii, additional information;  Eucycla, Nuttall, 1848;  Eriogonum effusum, additional information;  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1847;  Ipomopsis spicata, Nuttall, 1848;  Monarda pectinata, Nuttall, 1848;  

Nuttall, 1848, Plants collected by William Gambel

This paper describes collected by William Gambel in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, between June and September, 1841, and in February-July, 1842, in California. Nuttall also used the paper to describe additional plants he collected on his 1834 trip to Oregon Territory. The publication appears in two forms.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Nutt. Pl. Gamb. in Proceedings, Acad, Philad. vol. 4.
Descriptions of Plants collected by William Gambel, M. D., in the Rocky Mountains and Upper California. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/84785
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Nutt. Pl. Gamb. In Jour, Acad, Philad. N. ser. 1
Art. XIII. — Descriptions of Plants collected by William Gambel, M. D., in the Rocky Mountains and Upper California. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/95920

A related publication would be Gray's (1849) Planta Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.

Names published in this volume that Gambel collected:

  • Quercus gambelli Nutt. “Gambel's Oak.”

Names published int his volume that Nuttall collected:

  • Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat.”
  • Eucycla Nutt., now treated as a subgroup of Eriogonum Michaux.

No mention is made of any willows.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Abronia fragrans, Hooker, 1853;  

Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany, 1849-1857

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/236

Names published here:

  • Vol. 5, Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  Holodiscus dumosus, Gray, 1849;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Gray, 1849;  Mentzelia multiflora, Gray, 1849;  Gray, 1849;  Brickellia californica, Gray, 1849;  Notes on Erigeron tracyi, Gray, 1849;  Packera fendleri, Gray, 1849;
• Field Notes:  Gray, A., 1849;  

Gray, 1849, Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae

This publication describes some of the plants collected by Augustus Fendler in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 1846 to August 1847. It ends with the phrase “To be continued,” though it was not.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gray, Pl. Fendl.
Mem. Am. Acad. 4
Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae; An Account of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Augustus Fendler; with Descriptions of the New Species, Critical Remarks, and Characters of other undescribed or little known Plants from surrounding Regions. Memoirs of the American Academy. IV(I):1-116. URL:
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55373
https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/49963

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum, Gray, 1852;  

Gray, 1852-1853, Plantæ Wrightianæ

Gray (1852-1853) account of plants collected by Charles Wright.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Plantæ Wrightianæ

Wright

Plantae Wrightianae: Texano — Neo – Mexicanae: an account of a collection of plants made by Charles Wright in an Expedition from Texas to New Mexico, in the Summer and Autumn of 1849, with Critical Notices and Characters of Other New or Interesting Plants from Adjacent Regions, &c. by Asa Gray, M. D., Fisher Professor of Natural History in Harvard University. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/55374

 

Literature Cited:
- Sitgreaves, L., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum, Sitgreaves, 1853;

Locations: Zuni River.  

Sitgreaves, 1853, Expedition Down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers

Sitgreaves, 1953 …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Sitgr., Rep. Exped. Zuni & Colorado Rivers

L. Sitgreaves, Rep. Exped. Zuni Colorado Rivers

Report of an expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers, by Captain L. Sitgreaves, Corps Topographical Engineers. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/124223

Report on the Natural History of the country passed over by the exploring expedition under the command of Brevet Captain L. Sitgreaves, U. S. Topographical Engineers, during the year 1851. By S. W. Woodhouse, M.D., Surgeon and Naturalist to the Expedition. … pae 31

Mr. Wright, an enterprising botanist, has passed over this route several times, and the plants have been described by Doctors Torrey and Gray, many of which have been already published by them in the Smithsonian Contributions, under the title, “Plantae Wrightianae.”

Zoology. Mammals and Birds, by S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. Reptiles, by Edward Hallowell, M. D. Fishes, by Prof. S. F. Baird and Charles Girard. … page 41

Botany. by Professor John Torrey. … page 153

For Eriogonum alatum, the citation is “(Torr., l. c.;)” Two entries up, i.e., that for Eriogonum orthocladon, the citation is “(Torr. mss., in D. C. Prodr. ined.:)” which I think means “I, Torrey, described this in a manuscript I gave to DeCandolle for his use in his Prodromo.”

 

Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

Marcy, 1854, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Explor. Red River Louisiana
Marcy, Randolph B., 1854. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson, Public Printer, 1854. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/95580

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum, DeCandolle, 1857;  

DeCandolle, 1824-1874, Prodromo

Multi-volume …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

D. C. Prodr. ined.
Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, sive, Enumeratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarium, juxta methodi naturalis, normas digesta
URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/286
URL, Vol. 14: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/109211

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amaranthus blitoides, Watson, 1879;  

Watson, 1871, Botany, United States Geological Explorations on the Fortieth Parallel

Sereno Watson was the botanist and wrote the Botany volume, with assistance from D. C. Eaton and others.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Botany [Fortieth Parallel]
United States Geological Expolration [sic] of the Fortieth Parallel. Botany. Washington, DC URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/104490

 

Literature Cited:
- Wheeler, George M., 1878.  

Wheeler, 1878, Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian

The Wheeler Survey was a survey of a portion of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian. It comprised multiple expeditions, and was supervised by First Lieutenant (later Captain) George Montague Wheeler.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Wheeler's Rep.
Wheeler report
Wheeler survey
Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian

Title Variants:

Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Explorations and surveys.
Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Geographical Surveys West of 100th Meridian
Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Report upon explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.
Report upon geographical and geological explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.
Report upon United States Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
United States Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
United States Geographical Surveys West of 100th Meridian
United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian

URL: ttps://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/49058
URL of Vol. 6: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/115739

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pinus ponderosa, Watson, 1880;  

Brewer, et al., 1889 , Botany, California.

Botany report form the Geological Survey of California.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Bot. California [W. H. Brewer]
Geological Survey of California. J. D. Whitney, State Geologist. Botany. Cambridge, MA URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/22424

 

Literature Cited:
- Sargent, Charles Sprague., 1897.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus scopulorum, Sargent 1897;  

Sargent, 1888-1897, Garden & Forest

Garden & Forest was edited by Charles S. Sargent, who was the Director of the Arnold Arboretum and Professor of Agriculture in Harvard College, etc.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gard. & Forest
Garden and Forest; a Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and Forestry
Vols. 1-10, 1888-1897
URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/50609#/summary

Names published in this publication:

  • Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. “Rocky Mountain Juniper”

Literature Cited:
- Heller, A. A., 1898.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Holodiscus dumosus, Heller, 1898;  

Amos Arthur Heller (March 21, 1867 – May 19, 1944) was an American botanist. Heller was born in Danville, Pennsylvania. In 1892, Heller received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Franklin & Marshall College. In 1897, he received a Master's degree in Botany from Franklin & Marshall College. From 1896 to 1898, Heller was a professor of Botany at the University of Minnesota. From 1898 to 1899, Heller worked on the Vanderbilt Expedition to Puerto Rico under the auspices of the New York Botanical Garden. Starting in 1905, Heller was a professor of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, California. After moving to California, Heller and his wife, Emily Gertrude Heller, founded the botanical journal Muhlenbergia and Heller continued to edit that journal until 1915.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Cat. N. Amer. Pl.
Catalogue of North American Plants North of Mexico, Exclusive of the Lower Cryptograms URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/38325

 

   

Types from the Golden Area

 

   

Namesakes of the Golden Area

 

 

   

General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes

 

   

Equisetum L. “Horse Tail”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Equisetum laevigatum;  

Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun “Smooth Horsetail”

 

Literature Cited:
- Braun, Alexander, and George Engelmann, 1844.  

 

Literature Cited:
- Windham, Michael D., 1987.  

Original Text
Argyrochosma (J. Smith) Windham, stat. nov. — Notholaena sect. Argyrochosma J. Smith, J. Bot. (Hooker) 4:50. 1841. — Lectotype (chosen by Christensen, 1906, Ind. Fil., p. XL); Pteris nivea Poir. [Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham].
... [Diagnosis omitted.] ...
Distribution. — A strictly American genus of approximately 20 species occupying rupestral or (rarely) terrestrial habitats from near sea level to an elevation of 4200 m in the Andes. Ranging from Missouri, Wyoming, and California to Chile (including the Juan Fernandez Islands), Argentina and the highlands of southeastern Brazil. There is a large geographic gap between the North and South American elements of the genus (only A. incana is found in Central America and the West Indies), with the greatest diversity of species occurring in the highlands of central and northern Mexico.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Argyrochosma fendleri;  

Argyrochosma fendleri (Kunze) Windham “Fendler's False Cloak Fern”

 

Literature Cited:
- Kunze, Gustav, 1851.  

First collected by A. Fendler 1847 in New Mexico, his No. 1017, described by Kunze from a specimen apparently deposited in the General Herbarium of Berlin (https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.c026306023?urlappend=%3Bseq=181). The quality of the scan presents difficulty for one unfamiliar with German to transcribe

Literature Cited:
- Windham, Michael D., 1987.  

Original Text
4) Argyrochosma fendleri (Kunze) Windham, comb. nov. — Notholaena fendleri Kunze, Farnkr. 2:87, t. 136. 1851. — Pellaea fendleri (Kunze) Prantl

 

Literature Cited:
- Fee, A. L. A., 1852.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cheilanthes feei;  

Cheilanthes feei T. Moore “Slender Lipfern”

First described as Myriopteris gracilis by Fee (1852) citing habitat on rocks around Hillsboro, in North America.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Selaginella underwoodii;  

Selaginella underwoodii Hieron “Underwood's Spikemoss”

Described from specimens collected by Fendler, in 1847, in the mountains near Santa Fe.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cystopteris fragilis;  

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. “Brittle Bladderfern”

The fern was first described by Linnaeus (1753) as Polypodium fragile from habitats described as the cooler hills of Europe. Cystopteris was proposed by Bernhardi in 1805, who placed C. fragilis therein. This was done in German which, I confess, I have not tried to translate.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Woodsia oregana ssp. cathcartiana;  

Woodsia oregana D.C. Eaton ssp. cathcartiana (B.L. Rob.) Windham “Rocky Mountain Woodsia”

 

Literature Cited:
- Robinson, B. L., 1908.  

Robinson (1908, v. 10, n. 110, p. 30) published ...
Original Text
Woodsia Cathcartiana, n. sp. W. scopulinae affnis et simillima, sed minute glanduloso-puberula nee hispidula; frondibus 2-3 dm. altis obscure viridibus firmiusculis lanceolatis 25-55 mm. latis bipinnatifidis; pinnis oblongis, inferioribus distantibus, lobis sinubus modice latis separatis oblongis denticulatis; soris submarginalibus ; indusio obscuro eo W. scopulinae simile. — W. scopulina D. C. Eaton apud Gray, Man. ed. 6, 691 (1890), non D. C. Eaton, Can. Nat. ii. 90 (1865). — Nearly related and very similar to W. scopulina, but minutely glandular-puberulent, not hispidulous; fronds 2-3 dm. high, dull green, rather firm in texture, lanceolate, 25-55 mm. wide, bipinnatifid; pinnae oblong, the lower distant; lobes oblong, denticulate, separated by rather wide sinuses; sori snbmarginal; indusium obscure, similar to that of W. scopulina. — Taylor's Falls of the St. Croix River, Minnesota, 1874, Miss Ellen Cathcart (type, in hb. Gray); also on rocks, Lower Falls of the Menomine River, Michigan, 31 August, 1892, C. F. Wheeler. This species was sent to Dr. Gray soon after its original collection. It was referred by him to Prof. Eaton, who evidently was somewhat puzzled by it. He reported it as belonging to his W. scopulina remarking, however, upon its peculiar glandular puberulence. Much additional material of the real W. scopulina, a species frequent from the Rocky Mountains westward, is now at hand and the constancy of the distinctions pointed out above is such as to warrant the publication of the plant of Minnesota and Michigan as a separate species.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Azolla mexicana;  

Azolla mexicana C. Presl “Mexican Mosquito Fern”

 

Literature Cited:
- Presl, Karl B., 1845.  

Carl Presl (1845, ser. 5, part 3, p. 580) barely noted the presenence of a new species of Azolla. Some sources give the page number as 150. Others note that the publication on p. 580 is as isonym. I did note see anything on page 150 that looked like publication of a name in Azolla
Original Text English Translation
— Nova Azollae species est: Azolla mexicana; fronde pinnata, foliolis imbricatis laevibus subrotundis coloratis, radicibus capillaribus. Habitat in Mexico, ubi legit clar. Schiede. Affinis videtur A. portoricensi, differt foliolis margine non hyalinis. A new species of Azolla is: Azolla mexicana; fronds pinnate, subrotund overlapping leaflets smooth colored capillary roots. Lives in Mexico, where it is described by Schiede. It seems related to A. portoricensis; the edge of the leaves are not hyaline.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Juniperus comminis depressa;  

Juniperus communis var. depressa “Common Juniper”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (1814, vol. II, p. 646) described our common juniper from plants he had seen in New York and Maine.
710. JUNIPERUS. Gen. pl. 1552.
communis 1. J. foliis ternis patentibus mucronatis bacca longioribus Willd. sp. pl. 4. p. 853.
erecta. α. J. ramis erectis.
depressa. β J. ramis depressis.
  α. About rocks, near the falls of rivers, in Canada and the western part of New York. β. in New York, and particularly in the province of Maine, in rocky or gravelly situations. ♄ May. v. v. The Common Juniper may probably have been originally brought from Europe ; but the variety β., or probably a distinct species, seems to be really an original native ; it does not grow above a foot or two high, and one single root will cover sometimes a space of from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Juniperus scopulorum;  

Juniperus scopulorum “Rocky Mountain Juniper”

The Rocky Mountain Juniper — Juniperus scopulorum Sargent — is found in all the hilly areas around Golden s.l. It was originally treated as J. virginiana L. or the Red Cedar. C. S. Sargent (1897) recognized J. scopulorum as a separate species. The Rocky Mountain Juniper is found as far east of South Dakota and Nebraska, where it is known to hybridize with its eastern relative J. virginiana in zones of contact in the Missouri River basin. To the west, J. scopulorum is known to occur in Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, though not California. Hybrids of J. scopulorum and J. osteosperma are known from from Walnut Canyon [Arizona?] north into Utah and east to Mesa Verde.

Literature Cited:
- Sargent, Charles Sprague., 1897.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sargent, 1888-1897, Garden & Forest, publication details.;  

Original Text
Juniperus Virginiana has usually been considered to cross the continent to the shores of Puget Sound and Vancouver Island, and to be pretty widely distributed through the interior Rocky Mountain region from the northern border of the United States to northern New Mexico and Arizona.
After having seen, however, a good deal of this western tree during the past two seasons, I am inclined to believe that the so-called western Red Cedar as in grows in Wyoming, Montana and Colorado, at least, and perhaps everywhere, will have to be considered another species, and should this supposition prove correct on further investigation, I should propose the name of Juniperus scopulorum for it.
The habit of the Rocky Mountain tree, as may be seen in our illustration near the Mammoth Hot Springs in the Ywllowstone National Park, where this Juniper is very common, and the only arborescent, and where it grows on gravelly slopes at elevations of six or seven thousand feet with Pinus flexilis.
It has the slender branchlets and opposite leaves in pairs of the eastern tree, but the fruit is larger, and does not ripen until the second year, while that of our Red Cedar ripens during its first autumn.
The branches are stouter and covered with more scaly bark, and the bark of the trunk, which is often forked near the ground is unlike that of the eastern tree, which separates into thin narrow scales fringed on the margins, but, like that of some other western Junipers, divides into irregular, narrow, connected flat ridges, which break up on the surface more or less freely into persistent shreddy scales.
The wood has the same fragance as that of the eastern tree, although it is rather less powerful, and the color is a duller red.
The habit and the character of the bark may be due, perhaps, to differences of soil and climate, which might also affect the color of the wood, and the only really tangible character by which the western tree can be separated from the eastern is the biennial fruit.
The fact, moreover, is significant that unless the eastern and western trees come together in north-western Nebraska, the meeting place of the eastern and western floras, they are separated by a continuous belt of country through the middle of the continent several hundred miles wide; and moreover, with the exception of Juniperus communis, which encircles the northern hemisphere, and the White Spruce, which crosses this continent far northward and reaches the Pacific coast within the Arctic Circle, no coniferous tree grows in both eastern and western North America.
But before the question of the distribution of the Red Cedar can be satisfactorily determined more observations should be made on the time of ripening of the fruit, expecially in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona, in the valley of the Columbia River and on Vancouver Island, for it is, of course, possible, although hardly probable, that the proposed Juniperus scopulorum may be confined to the northern Rocky Mountains and that Juniperus Virginiana really reaches the southern part of that range and even the Pacific coast.

According to Sargent (1897) the only character to distiguish J. scopulorum from J. virginiana is the biennial development of the fruit. FNANM, key by Robert P. Adams, distinguish the two by the extent of which the scalelike leaves overlap, by not more than 1/5 for J. scopulorum, and by the shapes of exfoliating bark, in addition to development of the fruit. J. scopulorum is distinguished from J. osteosperma by the leaf margin entire for the former, whereas leaf margin denticulate for the latter. Ackerfield's (2015) Flora of Colorado follows the same scheme, but does not accept J. virginiana occurring in Colorado, though the author has found it as a garden escapee.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pinus ponderosa;  

Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson. “Ponderosa Pine”

 

Literature Cited:
- Lawson, Peter & Son, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lawson, 1836, publication details;  

Lawson & Lawson (1836) described the ponderosa pine from plants they were growing in pots at their Agricultural Museum near Edinburgh, Scotland. Material to grow the plants (seeds?) was obtained through David Douglas from his second and most successful trip to the American Pacific Northwest.
Original Text
XXV. PINUS PONDEROSA — Heavy Wooded Pine.
From not possessing the advantage of deriving information from any previous description of this species, and having only young trees in the Museum to refer to, an oppostunity has not been afforded of giving any details regarding its flowers, cones, &c. It is hoped, however, the following will be sufficient to enable those less acquainted with the general appearance of this seemingly valuable and highly interesting tree to distinguish it from others of the three-leaved pines. In its habit of growth P/. ponderosa seems to surpass all others of the genus for strength and luxuriance, the branches are few, regularly verticillated, horisontal, and seem incluned to assume a pendulous or drooping habit as the three becomes older ; central or top-shoot often more than an inch in diameter, and or proportional length ; buds large and free from resin ; leaves thickly set, nine inches to a foot or fourteen inches in length, thick rigid, and nearly straight, rounded on the exterior, and having a longitudinal prominent rib, together with minute channels on the interior side ; smooth, with very indistinctly serrated margins ; sheaths short, of a dull blackish colour, and lacerated or torn at their extremities ; timber said to be so ponderous as almost to sink in water. Introduced by Mr Douglas from the west coast of North American in 1828.
Such of the above remarks as cannot be supposed to apply to small plants in pots, are derived from a specimen, perhaps the finest in Scotland, growing in the Caledonian Horticultural Society's Gardens, Inverleith Row. Judging from its rapid growth and hardiness, this seems to be one of the most valuable species which has yet been introduced, particularly should the wood, when grown in this country, be found to possess the valuable qualities which have been ascribed to it.

Literature Cited:
- Brewer, W. H., Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray, 1880.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brewer, 1880, publication details;  

Our Rocky Mountain variety scopulorum was proposed by George Engelmann, writing in his section about Tribe III, the Abietineae in Volume II, Watson's completion of the Botany report of the California Geological Survey. Engelmann included variety scopulorum that is not known from California and other comments about conifers in the western United States in what was perhaps intended to provide regional treatment to the family.
Original Text Comments
Order CIII. CONIFERAE  
 
Tribe III. ABIETINEAE (By Dr. George Engelmann.) Engelmann's tribe Abietineae contained Abies, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga, Picea, and Pinus, and thus contains taxa in our current family Pinaceae.
 
11. PINUS, Tourn. ; Link. Pine.  
 
8. P. ponderosa, Dougl. One of the largest pines known (200 to 300 feet high and 12 to 15 feet in diameter), with very think red=brown bark, deeply furrowed and split in large plates : leaves on stout branchlets in the axils of strongly fringed somewhat presistent bracts, 5 to 9 or even 11 inches long ; the thin sheaths at first 9 or 10 (later 3) lines long : male flowers cylindric, flexuous, 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, crowded into a short head ; involucre of 10 or 12 bracts ; anthers with a large semicircular scarcely dentate crest : cones oval, 3 or 4 (rarely 5) inches long, 1 1/2 to 2 inches thick, of a rich brown color, sessile or subsessile, spreading or slightly recurved, often 3 to 5 together ; umbo high, with a stout straight or incurved prickle : seeds dark brown, 4 lines long ; wing 10 to 12 lines long, widest above the middle : cotyledons 6 to 9. — Loud. Arbor. iv. 2243 ; Newberry, 1. c. 36, t. 4 ; Parlat. 1. c. 395 ; Engelm. Wheeler's Rep. vi. 261. P. Benthamiana, Hartw. Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 189. P. Beardsleyi and Craigana, Murr. Edinb. New Phil. Journ. i. 286.  
Var. Jeffreyi. A tree 100 to 200 feet high, with a more rounded top, more finely cleft and darker bark, and paler leaves 4 to 9 inches long : male flowers 1 1/4 inches long : cones larger, 5 to 12 inches long, lighter brown, on short peduncles, fewer in a cluster, with thinner apophyses, and slender prickles hooked backward : seeds 4 to 7 lines long ; wings 12 or 13 lines long : cotyledons 7 to 11. — P. Jeffreyl, Murr. l. c. xi. 224, t. 8, 9 ; Parlat. l. c. 393. I have included the Jeffrey pine here because that is the dominant pine on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, for example, at Sagehen Meadow.
Var. scopulorum. A smaller tree (80 to 100 feet high) : leaves 3 to 6 inches long, often in pairs : male flowers an inch long : cones smaller, 2 or 3 (rarely 4) inches long, grayish brown, with stout prickles : seeds 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lines long, the wings 9 to 12 lines : cotyledons 6 to 9. — P. ponderosa of the Rocky Mountain floras.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca;  

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco. “Douglas Fir”

 

Literature Cited:
- Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, Esq., F.R.S, F.S.A, 1802.  

The first publication of “Douglas fir” was as the “Nootka fir” from a specimen that Lambert saw in Banks' herbarium.

Banks was a member of the landed gentry who who inherited extensive family estates. Banks was educated at Eton College and at Oxford University where he developed a keen interest in natural history. He made his name as a naturalist on voyages first to Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada in 1766 and subsequently on Captain Cook’s Endeavour voyage during 1768-1771. He was a friend and advisor to King George III and pivotal in the early development of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lambert is best known for his work A description of the genus Pinus, issued in several parts 1803–1824, a sumptuously illustrated folio volume detailing all of the conifers then known. A second folio edition was produced between 1828 and 1837, and a third, smaller (octavo) edition in 1832. Individual books even of the same edition are often very different from one another, which causes problems when the illustrations have been used as types to fix the application of names.

Lambert was also the host of Frederick Pursh while the latter worked on his Flora of North America.

Original Text Comments
TAB. 33.  
27. PINUS TAXIFOLIA  
NOOTKA FIR  
Pinus taxifolia, foliis solitariis planis integerrimis, strobilis oblongis, antheris inflato-didymis.

Habitat ad Americae borealis oras occidentales.

Pinus taxifolia, leaves in a single plane, entire, cone oblong, anthers inflated in two lobes.

Lives on the western coast of North America.


 
DESCRIPTIO  
Habitus P. canadensis, at folia angustiosa et paululum longiora, integerrima. Amenta mascula ovata, subsessilia, multiflora ; antheris inflato-didymis, cristâ reflexâ, minimâ. P. canadensis is a synonym of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

 
The figure was taken from a specimen in the Banksian herbarium, brought home by Mr. Menzies, by whom it was discovered on the North-west coast of America, and who has favoured me with the following particulars respecting this species.

In general habit this tree resembles P. canadensis, and attains considerable height and size. The leaves are also very like those of the species just mentioned, but narrower, and their edges are entire, whereas the others are visibly serrated. The inflorescentia is much larger than in P. canadensis and there are more antherae. As for the Cones, I can give no account of them, those which were brought by Mr. Menzies having been unfortunately mislaid. That gentleman however, informs me that they differ in their form from the cones of P. canadensis, and that they are longer.

 
Explanation of the figure is omitted.  

Literature Cited:
- Mayr, Heinrich, 1890.  

The epithet “glauca” was first proposed by Mayr (1890).
Original Text Translation and Comments.
Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. glauca, Colorado Douglasia ist ausgezeichnet durch eine auffallende, hellweissliche Farbung der Nadeln; doch zeigen nur die einjahrigen Nadel, diese schone Bereiftheit; an den zwei- und mehrjahrigen Trieben verschwindet wiederum die weissliche Farbe, weshalb eigentlich nur jungen Exemplaren besondere Schonheit verliehen ist; auch andere solche glauca- Varietaten und -Arten, wie Pinus pungens, zeigen dieses Verhalten. Colorado Douglasia is characterized by a striking, bright white color of the needles; but only the one-year-old needles show this beautiful frostiness; the whitish color disappears on the biennial and perennial shoots, which is why only young specimens are particularly beautiful; other such glauca varieties and species, such as Pinus pungens, also show this behavior.
Die glauca - Douglasia ist in Colorado, New-Mexico und Arizona (Santa Rita) heimisch. Auch der Zapfen zeigt einige Verschiedenheiten ; er is namlich kleiner und armer an Schuppen als die westliche Form (Tafel VI); die kleinfruchtige Douglasia van Montana bildet hierin die Verbindung zwischen der glauca und der typischen Douglasia. In trockenem un im Winter kalterem Klima erwachsen hat sich diese Varittat im Osten der Union als frosthart, das heisst wohl in den allermeisten Fallen als trockenhart, wenn man so sagen kann, erwiesen. Sie is in ihrer Heimat wie uberall, wo sie kultivert wird (auch im deutschen Walde) langsanwuchsig (verglichen mit der typischen Form), eine unangenehme Eigenschaft, die ihre sonstigen Vorzuge wieder aufhebt; auch als Nutzholz soll sie weit hinter der Kustenform zuruckstehen. The glauca - Douglasia is native to Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona (Santa Rita). The cone also shows some differences; it is namely smaller and poorer in scales than the western form (Plate VI); the small-fruited Douglasia from Montana forms the link between the glauca and the typical Douglasia. Grown up in dry climates and colder climates in winter, this variety has proven to be frost-hardy in the east of the Union, that is to say, in most cases, dry-hardy, if you can say that. In her homeland, as everywhere where she is cultivated (also in the German forest), she is long-growing (compared to the typical shape), an unpleasant quality that cancels out her other advantages; Even as timber, it should lag far behind the coastal shape.
  Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britton ex Sudw., in U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. For., Bull. No. 14, 46 (1897); et in U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. For., Bull. No. 14, 46 (1897) Bull. No. 17, 24 (1898), in adnot.; Rehder apud Sprague & M. L. Green in Kew Bull. 1938, 80.

I have been unable to find a copy of Division of Forestry, No. 14 in any online form.

Literature Cited:
- Editors of Wikipedia, 2021.
- Franco, João do Amaral, 1950.
- Heywood, Vernon, 2009.  

Joao do Amaral Franco (1921-2009) was a professor of botany at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia from 1950 until his retirement in 1991. At the beginning of the 1950s, he started his duties as a teacher, maintaining constant research on conifers, which resulted in the publication of several notes and the proposal of several taxonomic arrangements in that group. Over time his research interests broadened, establishing contact with European researchers, with emphasis on those based at the Royal Botanical Garden in Kew and at the Natural History Museum in London, institutions where he worked.
Original Text Translation and Comments
CEDRUS LIBANENSIS
ET PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII
Cedrus libanensis
and Pseudotsuga menziesii
a by
JOÃO DO AMARAL FRANCO
( Olisiponis Instituti Superioris Agronoraiae Assistente )
João do Amaral Franco
(Higher Institute of Agronomy at the Technical University of Lisbon)
Recebido em 14 de Janeiro de 1950. Received 14 January 1950.
Discussion of Cedrus libanensis Mirb. omitted.  
Pseudotsuga Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, nov. comb. Pseudotsuga Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pinus taxifolia Lamb., Descript. Gen. Pinus ed. 1, 1: 51, t. 33 (1803) ; non Salisb. (1796).
Abies taxifolia (Lamb.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. VI : 523 (1804) ; non Du TOUR (1803).
Abies Menziesii Mirb. in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) XIII: 63, 70 (1825) «Menziezii».
Abies Douglasii Hort, ex Loud., Hort. Brit. ed. 1: 388 (1830) ; nom. nud.
Pinus Douglasii Sabine ex D. Don in Lamb., Descript. Gen. Pinus ed. 3, II: 1 p., 1 t. (1832).
Abies mucronata Raf., Atl. Journ. I: 120 (Autumnus 1832).
Abies Douglasii (Lamb.) Lindl, in Penny Cycl. 1: 32 (1833).
Picea Douglasii (Lindl.) Link in Linnaea XV : 524 ( 1841) «Douglassi ».
Tsuga Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 1: 192 (1855).
Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 2 : 256 (1867).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt., in N. Y. Acad. Sei. Trans. VIII : 74 (1889) comb, illegit.
Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. ap. Holz., U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Botany, Contrib. U. S. Natl. Herbarium 3: 266 (1895).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia ( Poir. ) Britt. ex Sudw., U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Forestry Bull. 14: 46 (1897).
Abietia Douglasii (Lindl.) Kent in Veitch, Man. Conif. ed. 2: 476 (1900).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Rehd. ap. Sprague et Green in Kew Bull. Misc. Inform. 1938 (2) : 80 (23-III-1938) comb, superfl.
 
In hodiernum haec species novissime Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudw. vocabitur.

Pinus taxifolia Lamb. (1803) hujus speciei primum nomen est sed ante art. 61 Nomenclaturae Botanicae Regularum (1935) legitimum non est ob vetustiorem homonymum Pinum taxifoliam Salisb. (1796) Abietis balsameae (L.) Mill, synonymum. Ob earn causam Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt. (1889) legitima combinatio non est.

POIRET (1804) Abietem taxifoliam (Lamb.) Poir. hanc speciem nominavit. Ut combinatio nova Abies taxifolia (Lamb.) Poir. nomen legitimum non est sed ut nomen novum Abies taxifolia Poir. ante art. 69 licet. SPRAGUE et GREEN (1938) nominem Abietem taxifoliam Poir. in Indice Kewense non perscriptum a cl. REHDER ex occasione inventum dicent. Notandum est quod HENRY in ELWES et HENRY, Trees Great Brit. & Irel. IV : 814 (1909) ut Pseudotsugae Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr. synonymum nominem « Abies taxifolia Poiret, in Lamarck, Dict. vi. 523 (1804)» refert. SPRAGUE et GREEN ad REHDER novam combinationem imputaverunt et sie hanc speciem nominaverunt : « Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Rehd. » Autem LITTLE in Amer. Journ. Bot. XXXI (9): 594 (1944) demonstravit hanc combinationem novam non esse quoniam SUDWORTH (1897) ad BRITTON jam imputavit.

Novissime duo nova nomina in Indice Kewense non perscripta reperimus quae hujus speciei nomenclaturam omnino mutant.

Re ipsa Du TOUR in Nouv. DiCt. Hist. Nat. XX (1803) in articulo «SAPIN» generem Abietem recognoscet et ut prima species (op. cit. 114) describet:

 
«SAPIN COMMUN, SAPIN ARGENTÉ, SAPIN BLANC, SAPIN A FEUILLES D'IF, Pinus picea Linn.; Abies alba Mill.; Abies taxifolia Mus., très-grand arbre don’t la tige est droite et nue jusqu'à son sommet, et don’t les branches sont parallèles à l'horizon; sa tête forme une pyramide. Son bois, tendre et résineux, est revêtu d'une écorce blanchâtre, sèche et friable. Ses feuilles sont étroites, assez longues, échancrées à leur extrémité et blanchâtres en dessous ; ses fleurs mâles disposées en grappes axillaires, et ses cônes rougeâtres,… Ce bel arbre habite les hautes montagnes et les pays élevés où il forme de vastes forêts ; il est très-commun en Suisse, en Allemagne, dans les environs de Strasbourg…»
“COMMON FIR, SILVER FIR, WHITE FIR, YF-LEAF FIR, Pinus picea Linn .; Abies alba Mill .; Abies taxifolia Mus., A very tall tree with the stem straight and bare to the top, and the branches parallel to the horizon; his head forms a pyramid. Its wood, soft and resinous, is covered with a whitish bark, dry and crumbly. Its leaves are narrow, fairly long, indented at their end and whitish below; its male flowers arranged in axillary clusters, and its reddish cones,… This beautiful tree inhabits high mountains and high countries where it forms vast forests; it is very common in Switzerland, in Germany, in the surroundings of Strasbourg… ”
In exemplo supra nomen Abies taxifolia vestustior quam Abies taxifolia Poir. et alia specie assignatum liquet.

In Du TOUR articulo Mus. verisimiliter Musaei abbreviatio est, in hoc casu Lutetiae Musaei Historiae Naturalis.

 
Adversum synonymiam etiam nunc cognitam expectanda erat, casu non legitimae fuissent combinationes supra Pinum taxifoliam Lamb, vel Abietem taxifoliam Poir. fundatae, inter Pinum Douglasii Sabine ex D. Don (1832) et Abietem mucronatam Raf. (1832) vetustatis electio. Autem hoc supervacuum agnovimus quia MIRBEL (1825: 63) explanat :

« Les bords du Tachoutché-Tessé, lequel coule à l'ouest des Rocheuses, sont garnis des mêmes arbres que les bords de l'Oungigah. Cette riche végétation se porte dans la Nouvelle--Hanovre jusqu'aux plages de l'Océan Pacifique, par 52° 20' de latitude, vis-à-vis l'île Nootka, où le naturaliste Menziez, compagnon de Vancouver, découvrit un Abies, que Lambert a nommé taxifolia, et que j'appellerai Menziezii pour le distinguer de l'Abies taxifolia du Jardin du Roi, qui a pour lui l'antériorité. »
 
Idem auctor (1825: 70) in enumeratione generis Abietis specierum sequentem offert :  
« 11. Menziezii. Mirb. Nootka. Nouvelle-Géorgie taxifolia. Lamb, non Desf. (lat. 51° à. …)»
 
Notandum est quod MIRBEL (1825) europaeam speciem ut Abies taxifolia Desf. refert.  
Tali modo Abies Menziezii Mirb. primum legitimum nomen est et hinc novam combinationem Pseudotsugam Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco proponimus. Haec species in honorem ARCHIBALD MENZIES qui eam anno 1797 in Nootka sinu detexit nominata est et ideo epithetum a Menziezii ad Menziesii emendamus.  
Notandum est quod multis Coniferarum operibus nomen Abies Menziesii (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl. (1833) supra Pinum Menziesii Dougl. ex D. Don (1832) fundatum et Piceae sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. synonymum reperitur. Tamen Abies Menziesii (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl, ut posterior detrimentum afferre Abiete Menziesii Mirb. non potest.  
Pseudotsugae Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco specimen typicum sub nomine Pini taxifoliae Lamb, et ab ARCHIBALD MENZIES lecto in Herbario Musei Historiae Naturalis Londinensis servatur ubi aestate priore cum cl. J. RAMSBOTTOM permissu eum vidimus.  
Diversas varietates formasque continet inter quas :  
α — Var. viridis (Schwer.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. viridis Schwer, in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XVI : 257 (1907).

 
for. densa (Slavin) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga taxifolia for. densa Slavin in Chittenden, Conif. Cultiv. 137 (1932).

 
for. dumosa (Carr.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii [var.] dumosa Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 2: 258 (1867).

 
β — Var. caesia (Schwer.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. caesia Schwer, in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XI : 86 (1902).

 
γ — Var. glauca (Mayr) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. glauca Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 307 (1890).

P. glauca (Mayr) Mayr in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XI : 86 (1902).

P. taxifolia var. glauca (Mayr) Schneid, in Silva-Tarouca, Uns. Freiland-Nadelholz. 269 (1913).

 
for. pumila (Beissn.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. pumila Beissn., Handb. Nadelholzk. ed. 2: 110 (1909).

P. taxifolia var. pumila (Beissn.) M. L. Green in Kew Bull. Misc. Inform. 1938 (2): 85 (23-III-1938)

 

Literature Cited:
- Little, Elbert L., 1952.  

Little (1952, p. 181) rejects Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and accepts the Rocky Mountain variety as P. taxifolia var. glauca (Beissn.) Sudw.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.  

Harrington (1954) accepts Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudworth, U. S. D. A. For Div. Bull. 14:46. 1897

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) continues to accepts Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudworth, U. S. D. A. For Div. Bull. 14:46. 1897

Literature Cited:
- Lipscomb, Barney, 1993.  

Typically, the varieties of P. menziesii are distinguished geographically. But what of those that might be planted? If one encounters an itinerant Douglas fir around Denver, is it more likely the local variety glauca, or an import from the Northwest? Flora of North America (Lipscomb, 1993) distinguishes the varieties as follows:
Original Text
1 Bracts straight, appressed; seed cones 6-10 cm; leaves yellowish green; Pacific Coast region. 2a var. menziesii
+ Bracts spreading, often reflexed; seed cones 4-7 cm; leaves bluish green to dark green or gray-green; Rocky Mountain region. 2b var. glauca

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1502, 12 Jul 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1502, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca  

My collection no. 1502, 13-Jul-2016, made on the northwest slope of North Table Mountain looks to be variety glauca.
  There are two Douglas firs planted in my neighborhood. Are they the local variety? Or, the non-native variety?

   

Populus angustifolia E. James

James provided a validating diagnosis: "The long leaved cotton-wood … is found intermixed with the common cotton-wood, resembling in size and general aspect. Its leaves are long and narrow, its trunk smoother, and its branches more slender and flexile than those of Populus anuglata. Some of its fruits was fortunately still remaining …"

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix exigua;  Nuttall, 1842-1849, publication details;  

Salix exigua Nutt. “Coyote Willow”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1842-1849.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.  

The species was described by Nuttall (1842, vol. 1, p. 90) in his extension of Michaux's North American Sylva as being found in the Territory of Oregon without any additional information about collector, location, date, &c. At the time Oregon extended from central Wyoming to the Pacific coast.
Original Text Comments
SLENDER WILLOW.  
Salix exigua. Foliis linearibus utrinque acutis subintegerrimus sericeis, stipulus nullis, amentis scrotinis elongatis, capsulis lanceolatis sessilibus, demum nudiusculis.  
This species is also a native of the Territory of Oregon, and grew with the preceding, which it strongly resembles: it is, however, a smaller species; the serrulations are mostly wanting, though very minute ones are sometimes seen: the capsules are smaller and not pedicellated. The male plant I have not seen. The branches are reddish brown and smooth. The preceding was River Willow Salix fluviatilis that is now treated as a synonym of Salix melanopsis Nutt.

It is a little curious that Nuttall mentions no willows in either his report of his residency in Oregon (Nuttall, 1840) or in his descriptions of plants collected by William Gambel (Nuttall, 1848).

Literature Cited:
- Argus, George W., 2010.  

The treatment of Salix in FNANM, written by Geoge Argus, treats S. exigua with one variety hindsiana, which is not known to occur in Colorado. Argus (2010) treats S. interior at the rank of species saying:
Sometimes Salix interior is treated as a subspecies of S. exigua (R. D. Dorn 1998). Salix exigua and S. interior hybridize and apparently intergrade in the western Great Plains; because the area of overlap is relatively small and distinctiveness of the two taxa is not compromised by hybridization and introgression, it is best to treat them as separate species.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not accept any varieties of S. exigua, treating S. interior at the rank of species.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) treats S. interior Rowlee as S. exigua var. interior (Rowlee) Cronquist.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Quercus gambelii;  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2288, Quercus gambelii  

Quercus gambelii Nutt. “Gambel Oak”

Gambel Oak — Quercus gambelii — is found mostly in southern Jefferson County and, until recently, not in Golden. However, the writer found it recently in a canyon in Apex Park. It is also found on Dinosaur Ridge just south of Interstate 70 and therefore just south of the Golden city limits. The Gambel oaks on Eagle Ridge Drive near Kinney Run were planted.

The oak is broadly distributed throughout the American Southwest. For example, the writer has also collected it in the Spring Mountains, Clark County, Nevada, about 45 km. northwest of Las Vegas.

Literature Cited:
- Jercinovic, Gene, n.d..
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Locations: Rio Grande.  

William Gambel (June 1823 – December 13, 1849) was an American naturalist, ornithologist, and botanist from Philadelphia. As a young man he worked closely with the renowned naturalist Thomas Nuttall. At the age of eighteen he traveled overland to California, becoming the first botanist to collect specimens in Santa Fe, New Mexico and parts of California.

In March 1841, at the age of eighteen, Gambel set off on his own for California to collect plants and other specimens for Nuttall. He planned to take a more southerly route than that taken in 1834 by Nuttall and John Kirk Townsend. Upon reaching Independence, Missouri he joined a group of traders and headed for Santa Fe following the Santa Fe Trail. Gambel reached Santa Fe in June and spent the next couple months collecting plants. In September Gambel joined a party heading to California and accompanied them along the Old Spanish Trail, arriving in Mexican Alta California in early November, 1841, becoming the first botanist to enter California overland from the east.

Nuttall (1848) described an oak collected on the Rio Grande by William Gambel.

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
QUERCUS.
Q. Gambelii. Leaves obovate, shortly petiolate, narrowed below, sinuately lobed, dilated and somewhat 3-lobed at the summit, beneath pubescent, the lobes rather obtuse, the upper ones subdentate ; fruit sessile, small, the cup hemispherical, scales ovate-acute ; the glande ovate and acute, about half immersed in the cup ; the conic summit short.
HAB. On the banks of the Rio del Norte, but not abundant. With the aspect of our northern oaks, but very distinct ; in the leaf approaching a little to L. obtusiloba, but without any near affinity. [The Rio del Norte is now called the Rio Grande. – Ed.]

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

The collections around Golden may be the northernmost occurrences along the Front Range. Gambel oak has been collected in the vicinity of Boulder, though Weber & Wittmann (2012) note that they were planted.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Comandra umbellata pallida;  

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl. “Pale Bastard Toadflax”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753) first described Comandra umbellata from plants collected in Virginia and Pennsylvania.
Original Text Comments
umbellatum THESIUM floribus umbellatis, foliis oblongis.
Centaurium luteum afcyroides virginianum. Plnk. mant. 43. t. 342. f. 1.
Habitat in Virginiae, Penfylvaniae pafcuis ficcis Kalm.
Radix . Folia alterna, ovali-lanceolata, integerrima. Rami alterni, in fummitate caulis: Umbellulae terminales: involucro tetraphyllo, parvo: Flofculi 5.
“Kalm Petr. Plante canadenfes propediem edendae.” Although, I think his first name was actually “Pehr” and that his name is the source of the genus Kalmia.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) defined a new genus, Comandra, and places the North American Thesium into it. Nuttall also suggests that some of Linnaeus' eastern hemisphere Thesium might belong in Comandra. The genus Thesium L. remains accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, South America and Asia-Temperate.
Original Text Comments
233. *COMANDRA.† Thesium. L. Calix angular, tubular-campanulate, coalescing with an internal 5-toothed, glandulous disk. Petals 5, ovate, ingrafted upon the margin of the calix, persistent. Anthers attached to the petals by a tuft of filaments! Germ 3-seeded, immersed in the glandulous disk. Capsule valveless, 1-seeded, coated by the base of the calix.
Perennial, root ligneous, stem herbaceous; leaves simple, alternate, stipules none; radical gemmaceous scales numerous, persistent; flowers in a corymbulose terminal panicle.
Species. 1. C. umbellata
Thesium umbellatum. Linn. Willd. Sp. Plant.
Stem round and erect, sending out 2 or 3 infertile beanches below the panicle. Leaves approximating, erect, oblong-ovate, obtuse, smooth, reflected in the margin, and reticulately veined. Panicle short, ramuli axillary, corymbulose, corymbs about 5-flowered, with 4 involucrate bractes, uppermost peduncles fewer flowered. Calix uniting with the glandulous and nectariferous germinal disk; disk 5-toothed, obtuse. Petals 5, calycine, often 4 and 6, with the same number of stamina, ovate, acute, persistent, growing to the margin of the calix, white, internally villous (Seen through a lens), before expansion parallel. Stamina seated at the base of the petals, alternating with the dentures of the glandulous disk; filaments subulate, about half the length of the petals; anthers oval, 2-celled, connected at their summits to the petals near their base by a fascicle of yellow filaments — Style terete, simple; stigma round, entire; germ about 3-seeded, ovula pendulous, attached to the apex of a filiform contractile funiculus arising from the base of the capsule. Capsule nearly globular, and angular, 1-seeded, not opening, thin and brittle, not osseus, coated by the base of the calix. Seed round, about the size of a small pea, consisting almost entirely of a large carnose and oily perisperm, embryon inverted, small flat, nearly in the axis of the perisperm; radicle superior, thick and obtuse; cotyledons linear and acute.
Obs. The connecting fibres of the petals, appear to be a separation of a portion of the central vessels, for at that point the petal is greenish and callous, and the central nerves there commencing trichotomously, disappear above the connectile fibres, and the rest of the petal is then white.
This plant has some relation to the preceding, and they both appertain to the Natural Order Santalaceae of R. Brown, approaching at the same time very nearly to the Rhamnei of Jussieu. The genus here proposed may probably include some of the species of Thesium indigenous to the Cape of Good Hope.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.
- Wikipedia contributors, 2020.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Nothocalais cuspidata, Gray, 1884;
• Glossary:  Suffrutex;
• U. S. Highway 95:   in Lapwai;

Locations: Lapwai.  

DeCandolle (1857) proposed C. pallida from a collection in Oregon Territory.
Original Text Comments
3. C. pallida, foliis lividis inferioribus elliptico-oblongis acutis supremis lineari-acuminatis, lobis perigonii erecto-patentibus. Suffrutex Prope Clear Water, Oregon (Rev. Spalding ! Sub nom. Erroneo C. livide Hook. In h. meo et Boiss.). Caules semipedales, sublignosi, striati, erecti, apice solum ramosi. Folia non pellucida, ima squamaeformia, late ovata, 2 lin. Loga ; media 8-10 lin. Longa, 2-3 lin. Lata, mucronata-acuta, summa variabilia, pleraque 1-2 lin. Solum lata et 5-7 lin. Longa, quaedam latiora vel angustiora breviora. Cymae pauciflorae. Bracteae lineari-lanceolatae, 2 lin. Longae. Pedicelli graciles, lineam longi. Flos ut in C. umbellata, sed lobi magis papilloso-velutini praesertum ad marginem et intus. Differt a C. umbellata praecipue foliis angustis elongatis ramorum non florentium. (v. s.) I assume “Rev. Spalding” was Henry H. Spalding who travelled the Oregon Trail in 1836 and established a mission to the Nez Perce at Lapwai near present-day Lewiston, Idaho. Present-day Lapwai is several miles south of the Clearwater River, just up-river from Lewiston.

“The name C. livide Hook. is erroneous.” This refers to the currently named Geocaulon lividum (Richardson) Fernald.

“In my herbarium and that of Bossier.” The type is now at G: Conservatoire & Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Piehl (1965) states there is a photograph of this type at MICH, but I have been unable to find it online.

β. angustifolia, foliis mediis et superioribus omnibus lineari-acutis. Suffrutex In Novo Mexico (Wright ! N. 1783 in h. Boiss.). Folia ima ut in specimine oregonensi. (v. s.)  

Another first collection by Spalding was Nothocalais troximonoides.

Literature Cited:
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.  

Oliphant (1934) published a paper on the botanical labors of the Reverend Henry H. Spalding. Spalding collected for one year and sent one box of dried plants east. He was apparently stimulated to this activity by contact with Charles A. Geyer, a German botanist, who was in Oregon Country in 1843-44. Spalding sent one box in 1846, which was received in Boston in 1848. By the time that Gray's encouragement for Spalding to continue collecting was sent to him in March 13, 1849, a massacre at Waiilatpu had sent Spalding and others fleeing to Lower Oregon ending his botanical career.

I don't know how Spalding's collections ended up in DeCandolle's herbarium, and why it was he and not Asa Gray who published Spalding's Comandra collections.

Literature Cited:
- Piehl, Martin A., 1965.  

Piehl (1965) wrote a natural history and taxonomy of Comandra. It is almost a monograph, but I don't think we do monographs about single species.
Original Text Comments
The name Comandra is from the Greek Kome (hair) and aner (man), alluding to the hairs superficially attached to the anthers, which actually are not staminal, but develop from the base of the sepals … … The name has frequently been misspelled “Commandra.”  
4. Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Subsp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl, comb. nov.

Comandra pallida A. DC., in DC. Prodr. 14:636-37. 1857
Comandra pallida β angustifolia A. DC., in DC. Prodr 14:637. 1857. Isotypes: New Mexico, in 1851-52, C. Wright 1783 (GH!, NY!).
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. angustifolia (A. DC.) Torr. Rept. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. (Bot.) 2 (Part 1): 185. 1859.
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. pallida (A. DC.) M. E. Jones, Proc. Calif. Acad., Ser. 2, 5:722. 1895.
Comandra linearis Rydb., Fl. Rocky Mts. 818, 1066. 1917. Holotype: Green River, Utah, 19 Aug. 1887, S. M. Tracy and Evans 716 (NY!).

 
Holotype: Clear Water, Oregon (now Idaho), s.d., Rev. Spalding s.n. (G!; photograph 1454 (MICH)) ; two probable isotypes (GH!). Another specimen labeled “plains — Oregon, May 7,” (GH!) could also be type material.  
… subsp. pallida intergrades with both subsp. californica and subsp. umbellata … is also quite variable, but more of the vaiation appears to be correlated with various habitats … contracts with the other species in that it characteristically sprouts from buds which are at or below the soil surface … the aerial part of the plant dying each season ….  
Selected Specimens Examined. COLORADO. Denver Co.: hilltops, Clear Creek near Denver, Clokey & Bethel 3260 (CAS, GH). Collection date: 8 June 1919, also at RM; Piehl does not cite any specimens from RM.

Literature Cited:
- Der, Joshua P., and Daniel L. Nickrent, 2008.  

Der and Nickrent (2008) … phylogenetic analysis supports a Comandra clade consisting of Comandra and Geocaulon lividum, i.e., the C. livide rejected by DeCandolle. Their work also supports a Thesium clade distinct from a Comandra clade.

   

Eriogonum Michx. “Hairy Plant”

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Michaux (1803, Vol. 1, pg. 246) published the first Eriogonum neaning “hairy plant.”
Original Text Comments
246 ENNEANDRIA. MONOGYNIA.  
  ERIOGONUM.  
  Εριον, lana, Γονυ, genu : planta lanata , geniculata.  
  Caulis herbaceus , dichotomus. Folia terna , verticillata , sessilia , basi subcommata. Flores singulorum fasciculorum e communi involucro subcampanulato erumpentes.  
  Cal. subcampanulatus, 6-partitus : laciniis ovalibus , obtusis ; tribus interioribus paulo majoribus.  
  Stam. 9 : filamenta capillaria , calyce paulo longiora : antheræ breves , ovate.  
  Pist. ovarium 3-quetrum : stylus brevissimus : stigmata 3 , longiora , subfiliformia.  
  Fruct. semem calyce tectum , acute triquetrum , apterum.  
  Obs. Genus inter Polygoneas defectu vaginæ stipularis insolitum.

Tomentosum.
tab. 24.
E. erectum ; partibus omnibus tomentosis : foliis ternis, cuneato-obovalibus.  
  Obs. Flores candicantes.
Hab. in aridissimis , pinetis Carolinæ et Georgiæ.
 

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, J. L., 2005.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Eriogonum subgroup Eucycla;   Eriogonum subgroup Oligogonum;   Eriogonum subgroup Pterogonum;  

Subgroups of Eriogonum as described by Reveal (2005) in his treatment of the genus in Flora of North America.
  • Eriogonum
  • Oligogonum
  • Ganysma
  • Oregonium
  • Eucycla
  • Micrantha
  • Clastomyelon
  • Pterogonum

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum, additional information;  Eriogonum arcuatum, additional information;  Eriogonum effusum, additional information;  Eriogonum umbellatum, additional information;  

Those that have been collected in Golden are found in three of the subgroups:
  • Oligogonum
    • E. arcuatum
    • E. umbellatum
  • Eucycla
    • E. effusum
  • Pterogonum
    • E. alatum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Eucycla Nutt.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  

Nuttall (1848b, p. 166) published Eucycla as a genus name for wild buckwheats he had collected, probably on his 1834 expedition to Oregon Territory.
Original Text Comments
*EUCYCLA.†  
Perianth membranaceous, coloured, petaloid, dimorphous, the three outer divisions orbicular, concave; the three inner linear-oblong, emarginate, connivent into a cylinder. Stamens nine; with short filaments, membranous at base. Styles three, of moderate length, with small, capitate stigmas. Achenium attenuated, triangular. Embryo excentric ; radicle superior ; cotyledons flat.  
E. *ovalifolia. — Leaves all redical, short and roundish-ovate, whitely tomentose; capitulum made up of several sessile, whitely tomentose involucres; outer segments of the yellow perianth rather narrower at base, the inner emarginate segments exserted.
Eriogonum ovalifolium. Nutt. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.
Hab. Sources of the Missouri. Flowers bright yellow.
Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt. is an accepted name, common in south and east California.
E. *purpurea. Leaves all radical, short and roundish-ovate, whitely tomentose; capitulum made up of several sessile, smoothish, tomentosely margined involucres; outer segments of the purple perianth orbicular, sometimes emarginate at base; the inner emarginate, narrow, segments scarcely exserted.
Scape about a span high, arising from a multifid woody caudex; flower larger than in the preceding, and purple; filaments much shorter than the perianth, with a torn membranous margin, at base three stamens seated on each of the inner narow segments; embryo rather short.
Hab. Rocky Mountains.
This is a synonym of Eriogonum ovalifolium var. purpureum (Nutt.) Durand
† In reference to the circular figure of the perianth.  

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 2005.  

The characters of subgroup Eucycla are primarily: perennial, stems not jointed, flowers without a stipe-like base.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum effusum, additional information;  

The one representative of subgroup Eucycla that is found in Golden s.l. is E. effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat.”

Other wild buckwheats in subgroup Eucycla in the author's eperience are E. microthecum Nutt. “Slender Buckwheat” from the Mono Lake Basin and E. wrightii Torr. ex Benth. “Bastardsage” from the eastern Mojave Desert. All three of these wild buckwheats are very similar appearing.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Oligogonum Nutt.

Nuttall (1848b, p. 165) discusses the differences between E. tomentosum on which Michaux (1803) founded the genus Eriogonum, noting some key differences and proposing a subgenus Oligogonum which contains some of our more common wild Buckwheats.
Original Text Comments
The character of the genus Eriogonum, of which there are so many species, perhaps deserves some additional consideration. The genus, as founded on E. tomentosum of Michaux, possesses yet some peculiarities not common to the rest of the genus; among the rest of its characters I may remark, that in place of the interior segments of the perianth being smaller, it is the reverse; the perianth increases in size with the perfecting of the fruit, and as in Rumex, the three inner segments are larger and erect, the three outer reflected ; the next discrepancy in the character, as given by authors, is in the condition of the embryo, which is placed in the centre of axis of the seed, and is not as described excentric.  
In E. longifolium, besides a remarkable difference in habit, the perianth is wholly herbaceous, very lanugunous, and the segments all so very equal, as to appear, at length, almost disposed in a simple series; the achenium is also lanuginous, and the seed presents, as in E. tomentosum, a concentric embryo. For E. longifolium I would therefore propose the name of Trachytheca, excluding every other species. It is the first species of the section Eriantha of Bentham, which name, in not being exclusive, and too near Erianthus, cannot properly be employed for the present plant. It is very peculiar in its solitary leaves and alternate beanches.  
In all the rest of this numerous genus, the outer segments of the perianth, which increase a little in size, are either larger and erect, or all nearly equal. In these, some of which have the embryo excentric and others concentric, the subgeneric name of Olygogonum may be applied, but whether any other subdivision may be made by the condition of the embryo is at present uncertain. In E. flavum, I believe the embruo is excentric, but how far that species connects itself to any others of similar form, remains to be examined. Olygogonum has become Oligogonum and is now the name of an Eriogonum subgroup that contains E. arcuatum, E. flavum, and E. umbellatum.

Oligogonum is the larger of the subgroups and contains many of the caespitose or mat-forming perennials, those with a stipe-like base on the flowers.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gross-Konigsberg, Hugo, 1913.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Pterogonum Gross

Gross (1913, vol. 49, pg. 239, footnote 1) in his “Contributions to the knowledge of the Polygonaceae” proposed Pterogonum for some Eriogoneae but I cannot read the original German well enough to understand the basis for segregation from the remainder of Eriogoneae.
Original Text Comments
1) Pterogonum H. Gross nov. gen. Eriogonearum. Involucrum pluriflorum, gamophyllum, ± campanulatum, 5-dentatum. Perigonium profunde 6-partitum, tepalis ternis in 2 cyclis dispositis. Stamina 9. Ovarium trigonum, 1-loculare, ovula unico basilari orthotropo, stylis 3 capitato-stigmatosis. Achaenium maturum perigono longius, trialatum. — Herbae perennes Eriogonis simillimae, indumento subsericeo. Folia radicalia, caulina pauca, altrerna. Rami floriferi apice caulis in di-usque pleiochasium conferti nonnumquam etiam racemosi. Embryo fere rectus v. subexcentricus, cotyledonibus sat amplis.  
Species adhuc certae: Pterogonum alatum (Torr. sub Eriogono) Gross, P. atrorubens (Engelm. sub. Erigono) Gross, P. hieracifolium (Bth. sub. Eriogono) Gross.  

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, J. L., 2005.  

Reveal (2005) places six North American taxa in subgroup Pterogonum of which only one, E. alatum occurs in Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum;   Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  

Eriogonum alatum Torr. “Winged Buckwheat”

 

Literature Cited:
- Fremont, John C., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fremont, 1845, publication details;  

No mention of Eriogonum alatum in the report of Frémont's 1842 and 1843-'44 expeditions, though Torrey (1853) notes they were aware of it.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1852-1853, Plantæ Wrightianæ;  

No mention of Eriogonum alatum in Gray's (1852) account of Wright's collections in Texas and New Mexico in 1849. In fact, there are no Polygonaceae in either part of Gray's account, although DeCandolle (1857) will say he has seen a collection of Eriogonum alatum by Wright. Gray's preface notes that the cacti were given to George Engelmann, of St. Louis, for examination. The seeds were divided between the Botanic Garden of Harvard University, under Gray's charge, and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, under the direction of Sir Wm. Hooker. Sets of plants were distributed to Gray's herbarium, the Smithsonian Institution, John A. Lowell, a patron of the Wright's explorations, with a few distributions to others. If one assumes that Wright collected any Polygonaceae, what happened to them?

Literature Cited:
- Sitgreaves, L., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sitgreaves, 1853, publication details;  

Dr. John Torrey wrote the Botany chapter of the Sitgreaves Report on the expedition Sitgreaves led down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers in 1851.
Original Text Comments
E. alatum. (Torr., l. c.;) perenne ; caule erecto subflexuoso folioso, ramis alternis erectis paniculatis ; foliis spathulatis hirsutis ; pedunculis terminalibus ternis ; involucris solitariis campanulatis 5-fidis ; perigoniis glabris, laciniis aequalibus ; acheniis trialatis.

On the Zuñi river; September. Root stout and blackish, descending to a great depth ; stem 1--3 feet high, arising from a short thick caudex, which is clothed with the remains of leaves. Radical leaves 2--4 inches long, and 3--5 lines wide, almost villous, with long hairs, mostly obtuse ; stem leaves much smaller, and gradually diminishing in size upward, all of them erect. Branches solitary and distant, subdivided in a trichotomous manner, each division bearing a single involucre, which is about 2½ lines long, and pubescent. Pedicels glabrous, a little exserted, jointed close to the flower ; perigonium not enlarging after flowering ; the segments lanceolate ; filaments glabrous ; ovary oblong, triquetrous, longer than the styles ; achenium nearly four lines long, with three very conspicuous membranaceous wings ; seed ovate, triangular ; embryo straight.

Torrey's “l. c.” refers to the second previous entry, i.e., that for Eriogonum orthocladon for which the citation is “(Torr. mss., in D. C. Prodr. ined.:).” I interpret this as “I, Torrey, described this in a manuscript I gave to DeCandolle for his use in his Prodromo.” As it happens, though, Torrey's account in the Sitgreaves Report was published in 1853, four years before DeCandolle's Prodromo volume 14 containing Torrey's manuscript description.
This remarkable species was first detected by Colonel Frémont in upland prairies, at the sources of the Plata, in 1843, and again in 1845 in “Bahia Salada,” in the Rocky mountains. Lieutenant Abert found it on the Raton mountains in 1846.  

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  DeCandolle, 1857, publication details;  

DeCandolle (1857, vol. 14., p. 6) …
Original Text Comments
2. E. alatum (Torr.! in Frémont Rep.), herbaceum, elatum, subsericeo-villosum, foliis subradicalibus petiolatis oblongis lanceolatisve elongatis, caulinis paucis, pedrunculis axillaribus terminalibusque apice 2-3-chotomis umbellatisve, involucris pedicellatis campanulatis 5-dentatis, perigoniis parvis glabris, achaenio 3-4-plo longiore a basi trialato. ♃ In montibus Scopulosis in regione superiore fl. Platte meridionalis et Bahia Salada (Frémont !), in Novo-Mexico (Abert! Fendler ! n. 763 , Wright !). Habitus fere E. hieracifolii, sed præter corymbum terminalem adsunt etiam peduncili breves laterales. Perigonia multo minora, sub anthesi vix lineam longa, nec multum sub fructu aucta. Achænium 3-4 lin. longum, a basi as apicem late trialatum. (v. s.)  
β elatum. caule sub-3-pedali, foliis radicalibus 6-8 poll. longis. In montibus Scopulosis inter fl. Platte et Sweetwater (Geyer! n. 145). — Journ. 1853, p. 263.  

DeCandolle notes that he has seen Fendler's No. 763 and agrees it is E. alatum. Fendler's collections went to Gray, who in his Plantae Fendlerinae make no mention of it, or any other Polygonaceae. There are two vouchers of Fendler's 763, one at Harvard University (GH) and one at Brown University (BRU). The locality of both vouchers states “2 mi east of the Moro River,” which river does not now exist in New Mexico. However, there is a Mora River that is crossed by the Santa Fe Trail and given the August date of the GH voucher, it is likely that Fendler collected it on his way home. What I don't understand is why Torrey did not publish the name from Fendler's collection, but instead published the name from the Woodhouse collection on the Sitgreaves Expedition of 1851.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum arcuatum;   Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1401.1, 8 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 1695, 29 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1401.1, Eriogonum arcuatum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1695, Eriogonum arcuatum  

Eriogonum arcuatum Greene. “Baker's Buckwheat”

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.

Locations: Pagosa Springs.  

Greene (1901, v. 4., part 25, p. 319) described E. arcuatum from a collection on hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Colorado by C. F. Baker.
Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum. Near E. flavum, about as large, more extensively caespitose, forming broad matted tufts : leaves oval, obtuse, an inch long or less, abruptly tapering to a rather slender petiole about as long, white-tomentose beneath, pale-green and thinly tomentellous above : scapiform peduncles 6 inches high, bearing a single large sessile involucre and a pair of long-peduncled ones arising from its base, these opposite each other and curving upwards to the length of 1½ to 2 inches : perianths yellow, very sparsely silky-villous : stamens long-exserted.
On hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Colorado, 17 July, 1899. C. F. Baker.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.  

Six weeks later, Greene (1901a) published Eriogonum bakeri.
Original Text
Eriogonum Bakeri. Allied to E. flavum, rahter taller, the branches of the caudex very slender and only loosely leafy, the leaves thin, the elliptic-lanceolate blades 1/2 to 1 inch long, on slender petioles much longer, white-tomentose beneath, sparsely villous above: scapiform peduncles 5 to 8 inches high, erect slender; inflorescence of a sessile involucre and 1 to 3 dichotomous peduncles from its base, the whole number of involucres thus 7 to 9, all turbinate: perianths yellow, small very long-stipitate, silky villous, the inner segments much longer than the outer, all obovate, obtuse.
Black Cañon, 1 Aug., n. 696. Said to be caespitose in rather small tufts. The inflorescence is like that of E. Jamesii, though far less ample; and the real affinity is with E. flavum.

We now treat E. bakeri as a synonym of E. arcuatum.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004a.  

Reveal (2004a, p. 157) reviewed all the available names in the subfamily Eriogonoideae in preparation for his contribution to FNANM. Reproduced below are his analyses of E. arcuatum and E. flavum.
Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum Greene, Pittonia 4: 319. 1901. – T.: Hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Archuleta Co., Colorado, 17 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 284. Holotype: NDG (sheet number 118); isotypes: B, BM, E, F, G, GH, K, MO, NDG, NMC, NY, P, POM, RM(2), UC, US. – E. jamesii Benth. Var. arcuatum (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936.  
Eriogonum bakeri Greene, Pl. Baker. 3: 15. 1901. – T.: Black Canyon, Montrose Co., Colorado, 1 Aug 1901, C. F. Baker 696. Holotype: NDG; isotypes: E, G, GH, K, LY, MIN, MO, NY, POM, RM(2), UC, US, VT, W. – E. jamesii Benth. Subsp. bakeri (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936. Elsewhere, Reveal noted that Greene published E. bakeri six weeks after E. arcuatum.
 
Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana: [2,] no. 34. 1813. – T.: Variously stated as “in the vicinity of the rocky mountains” or “from the Arikare village,” most likely found in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – A Nuttall sheet at PH with a label alluding to the Rocky Mountains was collected in 1834 and is not original material.  
Reveal lists eight synonyms of E. flavum, two of which are particularly interesting.  
 
Eriogonum laterifolium Raf. New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 53. 1838. – LT.: Upper Missouri River, probably in South Dakota, Jun 1811, J. Bradbury s.n. Lectotype: BM, designated here; isolectotype: LINN.

The original collection in Rafinesque's possession was probably destroyed, not found at P or PH.

This is one of the few published names I have seen that specifically refer to a Bradbury collection.
 
Eriogonum sericeum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2:277. 1813. – T.: “On the prairies of the Missouri [River',” probably in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – E. flavum Nutt. Var. sericeum S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 116. 1936. I assume this was Pursh's view of the same collection that Nuttall published as E. flavum.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- SEINet, 2019+.  

The treatment of subfamily Eriogonoideae in Flora of North America was written by Jim Reveal. Eriogonum arcuatum, E. flavum, and E. jamesii are all in subgroup Oligogonum, and couplet 20 separates E. arcuatum and E. flavum. (I might add that the original online key contains an HTML coding error that will throw you off, and has been corrected below.)
Original Text
22 (21) Inflorescences compound-umbellate or, if umbellate or capitate, not of distribution of E. flavum; Colorado Plateau, s Rocky Mountains and w edge of Great Plains from s Wyoming to n Arizona and n New Mexico   129. Eriogonum arcuatum
+ Inflorescences subcapitate or umbellate; n Great Plains and n Rocky Mountains, Wyoming and Nebraska north to Canada and Alaska, west to e Oregon and Washington   133. Eriogonum flavum

The way I read this key, E. arcuatum and E. flavum should not be sympatric. Yet the map of collections determined one of the two taxa in Colorado are definitely geographically intermixed (SEINet, 2020). Similarly, the distribution maps in Ackerfield (2015) show the distributions of the two taxa are quite similar.

Full Size Image
Map of collections determined one of the two taxa of Eriogonum in Colorado

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not distinquish between E. arcatum and E. flavum.
Original Text
7b. Flowers E. flavum (Nuttall) [yellow]. Plains to alpine. As we see it, this species consists of various distinctive local forms that probably evolved in isolation. Alpine plants tend to be of shorter stature, with congested umbels (E. arcuatum var. xanthum (Small) Reveal, E flavum subsp. chloranthum (Greene) Stokes). On the eastern plains the inflorescence varies from simple to compound umbels. In the foothills, taller forms have been called E. arcuatum Greene. One might be justified in considering the local races of no nomenclatural significance, and even treating E. jamesii as E. flavum subsp. jamesii.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) distinguishes between E. arcuatum and E. flavum on the basis of pedunculate involucres.
Original Text

4a. Involucres elevated on evident peduncles ... E. flavum var. flavum
4b. Involucres sessile or nearly so ... E. arcuatum

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum effusum;  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;   Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  Eucycla, discussion.;  

Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.  

Nuttall (1848) described Eriogonum effusum in his description of plants collected by William Gambel. It is, however, a Nuttall collection made on the “… Platte plains …” and therefore on his 1834 journey across the Rocky Mountains. An isotype is at the Gray Herbarium (GH) and can be seen through SEINet.
Original Text Comments
E. *effusum. Suffruticose ; leaves linear, oblong, obtuse, beneath whitely tomentose, above pubescent, greenish ; stem tomentose, two or three times trichotomous, divaricate ; bractes ternate, lanceolate-acute ; (flowers not seen.)  
Stem divided into many simple branches below ; flowering stem bearing bractes only, divided compoundly and numerourly, each division subtended by conspicuous trifid bractes.  
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains. (Nuttall.) I assume that “Nuttall” indicates this is a Nuttall collection rather than a Gambel collections.

In this same volume, Nuttall also published Eucycla as a generic name for the wild buckwheat we now call Eriogonum ovalifolium. This name has now become a subgroup name for wild buckwheats that are perennial, without jointed stems, and flowers without a stipe-like base.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum umbellatum;   Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.
Original Text Comments
391. R. umbellatum, caule nudo, simplici ; pedunculis elongatis (sub-senis) umbellatis, apice involucrum singulum gerentibus ; calycibus glabris ; laciniis obovatis, basi angustatis, obtusis ; foliis obovato-spathulatis, subtus lanuginosis, supra glabriusculis.  
Desc. Perennial, herbaceous, cespitose. Caudex divided at the base into several branches ; most of the branches short, bearing fasciculi of leaves at the extremity, one of them elongated and resembling a scape ; covered with a copious loose tomentum. Leaves obovate-spathulate, about an inch long, and less than an inch broad, white tomentose beneath, smoothish above. Flowering stem a span high, bearing a simple umbel at the extremity. Peduncles or rays an inch and a half long, wooly, thick, furnished with several oblong-lanceolate leaves at the base. Involucrum about 20-flowered, campanulate, with lanceolate obtuse teeth. Florets distinctly pedicellate. Calyx very smooth ; segments obovate-oblong, obtuse, narrowed at the base. Stamens 9. Seed acutely triangular.  
Hab. With the preceding. The preceding appears to be 390. E. tenellum which is also described as being “… with the preceding …” E. tenellum is known from southeastern Colorado. The next preceding is
389. E. annuum, n. sp. Nutt. Mss. Near the Rocky Mountains. Found also on the Arkansa by Mr. Nuttall. Root annual !
E. annuum is known from eastern Colorado, but not Jefferson County.
Obs. Flowers larger than in E. tomentosum. It is remarkable that Humboldt and Bonpland did not observer any species of Eriogonum in Mexico, as they abound, accoding to Dr. James, about the sources of the Canadian.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004.  

Reveal (2004) proposed variety ramulosum.
Original Text
Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. ramulosum Reveal, var. nov. TYPE: UNITED STATES. Colorado, Jefferson Co.: Along U. S. Hwy 6 adjacent to I-70, 0.4 mi E of Exit 256 to Buffalo Bill's Grave, N39°42'12", W105°14'32", T4S, R70W, sec. 18, 7100 ft elev., 25 Jul 1992, J. L. Reveal 7244. HOLOTYPE: NY. Isotypes: BY, CAS, COLO, GH, MARY, MO, RENO, RM, RSA, UC, US, UTC.
A Eriogono umbellato var. umbellato inflorescentibus divisis differt.
Plants low, often rather compact, mats 2-4 dm across; leaves in loose rosettes, the leaf-blades mostly elliptic to oval, 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm side, densely white to gray tomentose abaxially, floccose and green adaxially; flowering stems erect, mostly 1-3 dm long, floccose; inflorescences compound umbellate and divided 2-3 times; involucral tubes 2-3 mm long, the lobes 1.5-3 mm long; flowers bright yellow, 4-7 mm.
Other specimens seen
UNITED STATES. Colorado, El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs, Jul 1892, Eastwood s.n. (F, MO, RM); Jefferson Co.: Mt. Vernon Country Club, Golden, 7 Aug 1941, Ehlers 8159 (COLO, MICH, TEX, WTU), Larimer Co.: Cherokee Park, 15 Jul 1934, R. J. Davis 394-W (IDS); Estes Park, 16 Jul 1978, Hampton s.n. (NY); 2.1 mi W of Drake, 9 Aug 1967, Neal & Neal 2 (ASU); Estes Park, Aug 1931, E. C. Smith s.n. (MONT); Big Thompson Canyon, 7500 ft elev., 3 Jul 1934, S. Stokes 201a (RM). Mineral Co.: Piedra, 12 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 291 (RM).
Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum (from the Latin ramulosus, meaning “with small branches”) is encountered mainly but infrequently along the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains mainly west of Fort Collins south to Colorado Spring then westward to Piedra. Buffalo Bill's sulphur flower is related to var. umbellatum, differing consistently in having a compound umbellate inflorescence.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum achoreum;  

Polygonum achoreum S. F. Blake “Leathery Knotweed”

 
  There is one collection from South Table Mountain, Yeatts #808, 8/20/1983, that is labeled Polygonum erectum ssp. achoreum (COLO00613273,KHD21868).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept only P. erectum for Colorado, noting the differences are slight.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Treated at the species rank by Ackerfield (2015), P. erectum not accepted for Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Atriplex canescens;  

Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. “Four-wing Saltbush”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 370) published the name as Calligonum canescens from a Lewis & Clark collection at the Big Bend of the Missouri.
Original Text Comments
  441. CALLIGONUM. Gen. pl. 834.
canescens. 1. C. dioicum, pulverulento-tomentosum ; foliis lanceolatis, floribus axillaribus glomeratis in apice ramulorum, subspicatus, frictibus alatis, alis venosis cristato-dentatis.
  In the plains of the Missouri, near the Big-bend. ♄. July, Aug. v. s. in Herb. Lewis flowers exceeding small. Goats delight to feed on this shrub.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, p. 197) moved it to Atriplex
Original Text Comments
283. ATRIPLEX. L. (Orache.)  
Flowers polygamous. — Calix 5-parted. Corolla none. Style bifid. Feminine flower; calix 2-parted, compressed. Seed vertical.  
Flowers glomerate, paniculate; bisexual; masculine and feminine flowers intermixed, or on separate plants; leaves alternate, rarely subopposite. Mostly annual, rarely shrubby.  
Species. 1. A. *canescens. (Calligonum canescens, Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 370.) Dioicous; pulverulently furfuraceous and canescent; stem shrubby, diffuse; leaves linear-oblong, entire, obtuse, attenuated towards the base, younger leaves acute. — Obs. Stem much branched, and diffuse, about 3 or 4 feet high, with round gray branches. Leaves alternate, 15 to 20 lines long, about 3 wide, sometimes cuneate-oblong, obtuse and now and then emarginate, very entire, covered with the white branny scales common to this and the preceding genus. Flowers dioicous, with 4, 5, and 5 stamens, conglomerated towards the ends of the branches; male clusters (at least the lower ones) pedunculate. Calix of the female flowers 2-parted, becoming indurated, acute, with 4 unequal cristated or dentated angles. Style 1, deeply bifid, exserted.  
Nearly allied to A. portulacoides. Hab. On the denudated saline hills of the Missouri; commencing about 15 miles below the confluence of White river, and continuing to the mountains. Flowering in May.  

2. hortensis.
3. patula. …
4. laciniata.
5. *argentea. …
6. * arenaria. …
 
Chiefly an European genus, the above excepted, with 1 species at the Cape of Good Hope, 1 in Barbary, 1 in Siberia, 2 in Tartary, from whence A. hortensis is said to have originated, and 1 in Bengal.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus arenicola;  

Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnst. “Sandhill Pigweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Johnston, Ivan M., 1948.  

Original Text
Amaranthus arenicola sp. nov.

Herba erecta dioica annua: ... [... Latin diagnosis omitted ...]


KANSAS: sandhills, Hamilton County, 1895, Hitchcock 428A (type, Gray Herb.) ; sandy soil, southwestern Kansas, Aug. 3, 1895, Hitchcock 609.
COLORADO: South Fork of the Platte, 1856, H. Engelmann; indefinite, 1861, Parry 323; Ft. Lupton, Weld. Co., 1914, Johnston 275; Gilcrest, Weld Co., 1916, Johnston 275A.
OKLAHOMA: bottom of Cimarron River, Cimarron Co., 1936, Demaree 13306.
TEXAS: Limpia Canyon, 8.7 miles northeast of Ft. Davis, 1942. Cory 40520.
INDEFINITE: Powell Colorado Exploring Exped., 1868, no. 509 ; Upper Missouri River, Hayden; sandhills, 1862, E. Hall.
A species most closely related to A. myrianthus Standley of northeastern Mexico and southern Texas. The latter is a loosely and much branched plant with usually sprawling branches and has the bracts subtending the female flowers broad, cuspidate, and distinctly shorter than the perianth lobes. The plant here described grows in sandy places on the high plains. It has passed as A. Torreyi Gray and is treated under that name in Standley's revision of the genus, No. Am. Fl. 21: 107 (1917). The name "A. Torreyi Gray," however, properly belongs to a very different plant growing along the Mexican boundary. Cf. Johnston, Jour. Arnold Arb. 25: 155 (1944).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus blitoides;  

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson “Mat Amaranth”

 

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.
- Watson, Sereno, 1877.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Watson, 1871, 40th Parallel;  

Sereno Watson (1879, v. 12, new ser. v. 4, p. 274) proposed Amarantus blitoides.
Original Text
Amarantus (Pyxidium) blitoides. Prostrate or decumbent, the slender stems becoming a foot or two long, glabrous or nearly so : leaves broadly spatulate to narrowly oblanceolate, attenuate to a slender petiole, an inch long or usually less : flowers in small contracted axillary spikelets : bracts nearly equal, ovate-oblong, shortly acuminate, 1 to 1½ lines long, little exceeding the oblong obtuse and mucronulate or acute sepals : utricle not rugose, slightly longer than the sepals : seed nearly a line broad. — Frequent in the valleys and plains of the interior, from Mexico to N. Nevada and Iowa, and becoming introduced in some of the Northern States eastward. It somewhat resembles the A. Blitum, Linn., of the Old World, and has been mistaken for it ; but that species is usually erect, with shorter and more scarious bracts, and a smaller seed more notched at the hilum. The allied A. albus, Linn., also common and indigenous throughout the interior, is distinguished by its usually erect diffusely branched habit … [… Description of A. albus omitted …]
Of the collections currently determined A. blitoides with data available online, the oldest are:
  • F. J. Lindheimer #513, 1846, Texas, GH1928850, A. graecezans L
  • J. M. Bigelow, s.n., 1853, NY3363450, Texas, Canadian River, Fort Smith to the Rio Grande, Amaranthus albus -- Whipple 35th parallel.
  • F. V. Hayden, s.n., 1858, NY3363419, Nebraska
  • I. Burk, s.n., 1864, PH20866791, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Grenwich Point.
  • S. Watson, 1004, July 1868, NY2281426, Utah (Nevada), Diamond Valley.
  • Pomell, s.n., 1868, SJNM2064, Nebraska, Douglas County, Omaha.
  • George Vasey, 1868, SJNM, Nebraska, Douglas County, Omaha.

I think Watson's Coll. No. 1004 is interesting. When Watson collected and first reported it (Watson, 1871, p. 297), he applies Amaranthus alba L., while noting it is a prostrate form.

Original Text
Amarantus albus, L. Reported from the Upper Missouri, Northern Texas, and Menzies Island in the Columbia River. Truckee River bottom, and roadsides in the low valleys of Nevada and Utah. Midvein of the leaf terminating as usual in a short awn ; erect, the lower branches ascending ; ½-2 high. (1,003.) With it was also found a wholly prostrate form, the stems 1-2° long; leaves obovate or nearly orbicular. (1,004.)

In 1877, Watson will propose A. blitoides for a prostrate form of Amaranthus that is otherwise similar to A. albus. While Watson labeled his collection A. albus, it has since been annotated A. blitoides. Watson's Coll. No. 1003, to which he initially applied A. albus has since been annotated A. californicus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus powellii;  

Amaranthus powellii S. Watson “Powell's Pigweed”

The earliest collection of this pigweed would appear to be Fendler #735, which was in 1894 designated the type of A. bracteosus Uline & W. L. Bray, who thought that Fendler's collection was different from the plants grown from Powell's seed. However, Watson's (1875) A. powellii has priority.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1875.  

Watson (1875, v. 10, p. 347) published Amarantus powellii from plants that were garden-grown from seeds brought from Arizona by Col. Powell.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
Amarantus Powellii. Slender, 4-5 feet high, glabrous, the stem becoming bright red, branches erect ; leaves small, oblong-lanceolate, 2 inches long, cuneate at base, the slender petiole shorter ; flowers in close narrow compound spikes, the lateral ones erect ; seed nearly black, shining, less than half a line broad, lenticular, very minutely and slightly tuberculate. — Likewise cultivated from seeds brought from Arizona by Col. Powell, and apparently a very distinct species. A. albus and retroflexus were also raised from the same collection of Arizona seeds, used as food by the Indians. The only other species known from our western territory and apparently indigenous are A. chlorostachys and Blitum. The other seeds were A. leucocarpus that is now treated as a synonym of A. hypochondriacus L.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Froelichia gracilis;  

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. “Slender Snakecotton”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1837-1841.  

Hooker (1840, v. 3., Tab. CCLVI) notes a distinct Oplotheca collected by Drummond in Texas. He also mentions a genus name of Froelichia of Moench.
Original Text
… and a very distinct one also exists in Mr Drummond's 2d Coll. from Texas, n. 244, which may be thus characterized :—
Oplotheca gracilis ; pubescenti-sericea, caulibus gracillimis basi decumbentibus geniculatis dein erectis, foliis anguste lineari-lanceolatis, spiculis parvis paucifloris remotis, perianthio tomentoso, fructifero cristis brevibus crassis profunde dentatis.
Hab. Texas, Drummond.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Agustin Pyramus, 1849.  

DeCandolle (1849, v. 13, pt. 2, p. 419) accepted Froelichia Moench and placed Oplotheca Nutt. in synonomy.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments.
XLIII. FROELICHIA Moench meth. 1794, p. 50, Endl gen. p. 302, n 1959, non Froehlichia Vahl (1), nec Wulf (2). — Oplotheca Nutt. gen. am. 1818. v. 2, p. 78, …  
Sectio I. Hoplotheca  
1. F. gracilis, caule tereti striato villoso ... [... Latin diagnosis omitted ...] (I) In Texas (Drummond! n. 244), Oplotheca gracilis Hook.! in herb. (v. s. in h. Hook. et Mus. vindob.) Seen in the dry state in Hooker's herbarium and the herbarium of the Natural History Museum of Vienna.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Abronia fragrans;  

Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook. “Snowball Sand Verbena”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William J., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hooker, 1849-1857, publication details;  

Hooker (1853, p. 161) described this taxon from a description by Nuttall.
Original Text
2. Abronia fragrans, Nutt.

Hab. On loamy, sandy, firm banks, within the high drift-sand hills of the Lower Platte. Two feet long. Umbels large. Flowers porcelain-coloured, opening only at night, very fragrant ; growing with “Rumex venosus” and Psoralea arenaria, Ph. June n. 157.

Nuttall collected the plant on the sand hills of the Lower Platte, though he does not identify the expedition or the year. It is assumed (by me and others) that the collection was made on his trip to Oregon Territory in 1834. Otherwise, the earliest know collection would be on Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 1842. This voucher (NY3370444) was in Torrey's Herbarium, so it would seem that knew the plant and the name but deferred to Nuttall to publish it.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phemeranthus parviflorus;

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImagePhemeranthus parviflorus on top of North Table Mountain.  

Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.) Kiger. “Sunbright”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) proposed Talinum parviflorum from a manuscript by Nuttall.
Original Text
2. TALINUM. Adans. (in part.); Sims, bot. mag. t. 1357.
Sepals 2, ovate, concave deciduous. Petals 5, sessile, hypogynous. Stamens 10-20, inserted with the petals, and often coherent with them at the base. Style trifid. Capsule subglobose, 3-valved, many-seeded.
§ Stigmas or lobes of the style short, connivent, Perennial herbs, with a short thick and firm stem, and terete subulate fleshy stems : flowers in a terminal dichotomous cyme, expanding for a single day. — Phemeranthus, Raf.
1. T. teretifolium (Pursh): ...
2. T. parviflorum (Nutt. ! mss.): “small; leaves slender; stamens 5?-10.”

On rocks, Arkansas; with te preceding species, Nuttall! — A distinct species, according to Nuttall, with muvh smaller flowers than T. teretifolium.

Literature Cited:
- Kiger, Robert W., 2001.  

Kiger (2001) described new combinations to be used in his treatment of Portulacaceae in Flora of North America.
Original Text Comments
... recent molecular data ... congruent with morphological evidence ... indicates that Phemeranthus is phylogenetically distinct from the mainly Old World Talinum ... ... morphological differences between Phemeranthus and Talinum ...
Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nuttall) Kiger. comb. nov. Basionym: Talinum parviflorum Nuttall, in J. Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 197. 1838. TYPE: U.S.A. Arkansas: n.d., T. Nuttall s.n. (possible isotypes or syntypes, K [in type folder, on sheet with Drummond 34], K [in general herbarium]) There follows some discussion of whether the specimen at K is a type or, if not, further search should be conducted before designating a lectotype.

   

Aquilegia

 

Literature Cited:
- Ray, John, 1686.
Full Size ImageRay's (1686) description of Aquilegia.  

Latin Automated Translation to English My Interpreted English
Aquilegia recens vocabulum est, quasi Aquilina ob florum mucrones aduncos ut sunt Aquiline ungues. Anglis Columbine dicitur, quia florum calcaria recurva columbarum cervicem cum capite & rostro tum figura tum colore referunt. An veteribus Graecis vel Latinis cognita, aut quo nomine dicta nondum constat. Aguilegia recent designation is, as Aquilina of flowers blades that are AQUILINE hooked claws. English Columbine called for bits of flowers and beaks and curved shape and color the dove's neck and head. Is it known to the ancient Greeks, or to the Latins, the name of which it was said, or not yet been agreed. … flower petals that are like an eagle's hooked claws …
Notae illius genericae sunt folia Umbelliferarum modo divisa, flores penduli cum pluribus corniculis recurvis, femina nigra lucida. Note that the generic Umbelliferarum newspapers are now divided, with many little flowers hanging bend, female black cloud.
Aquilegiam stellatam, quae caret illis corniculis recurvis in flore, pro specie degenere habeo. Aquileia the Star, which has no unto them, little curves that bend in the flower, here standing for species degenerates I have.

Notes:

  1. “aquiline” like an eagle
    • (of a person's nose) hooked or curved like an eagle's beak.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana;  

Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray. “Rock Clematis”

 

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;
• US I-90:   near Warm Springs;   near St Regis;

Locations: Clark Fork. Clark Fork.  

Nuttall (1834, p. 7) describes Atragene columbiana from collections by Nathaniel Wyeth on the Flat-Head river on the return trip between the Falls of the Columbia and the first navigable waters of the Missouri.
Original Text
2. Atragene *Columbiana. Pedunculis unifloris, foliis oppositis ternatum sectis, foliolis ovatis acutis, obsolete crenulatis, sepalis ovatis acuminatis, staminibus vix suplo longioribus.
Hab. Flat-Head river. In flower by the first of March, forming an intricate mat of branches so as to appear almost like a bush. Readily distinguishable from A. verticillaris by the flowers, which are scarcely half as large and of a dull palish blue. The leaflets are also cuneate rather than cordate at base, and the lateral ones apparently always entire.
Clark's Fork receives the Flathead and Bitterroot Rivers, but Wyeth, and consequently Nuttall, called Clarks Fork and all its branches the “Flathead” River (Graustein, 1967, p. 261).

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838) placed Nuttall's Atragene columbiana into Clematis.
Original Text Comments
§ 2. Involucre none : sepals 4 : petals several, minute. — Atragene, DC. Here, Torrey & A. Gray credit DeCandolle as the author of section Atragene
19. C. Columbiana : peduncles 1-flowered ; leaves ternate : leaflets ovate, acute, obscurely crenulate ; sepals ovate, acuminate, nearly twice the length of the stamens. — Atragene Columbiana, Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 7.  
Rocky Mountains, Mr. Wyeth. March. — Flowers smaller than in C. verticillaris, pale blue. Nuttall.  

Literature Cited:
- Pringle, James S., 1993+.  

James S. Pringle (1993+) writing in Flora of North America places C. columbiana in subgroup Atragene giving Torr. & A. Gray (1838) authorship of the name.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) treat Atragene at the rank of genus.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) in Flora of Colorado accepts Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, placing Atragene columbiana Nutt. in synonomy.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis ligusticifolia;
• Kinney Run Trail:   near Eagle Ridge Drive;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1970, Clematis ligustifolia  

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. “Western White Clematis”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Published in Torrey & Gray (1838-1843, v. 1, p. 9) from a Nuttall manuscript.
Original Text Comments
8. C. ligusticifolia (Nutt. ! mss.): “plant somewhat pubescent ; flowers in paniculate corymbs, dioecious ; leaves pinnate ternate ; leaflets oblong, acute, mostly somewhat lanceolate-cuneate, incisely toothed and trifid ; petals and stamens equal in length ; carpels with long plumose tails. — C. Virginiana, Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1. (in part). It appears that this entire description is a quote from Nuttall's manuscript.
β. brevifolia : leaves smoother, shorter and broader.  
“Plains of the Rocky Mountains, in open and in bushy places, near streams. β in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the Oregon. — Very similar to C. Virginiana, but the leaves are mostly 5-foliolate, and almost lucidly coriaceous ; They are also much smaller, and in the var. α much narrower and longer. The tails of the carpels are also longer and more densely plumose in C. Virginiana. Flowers white and fragrant.” Nutt.  

There are two vouchers of Nuttall collections of Clematis ligusticifolia at NY. One of them (NY233134) gives the location of “R. Mts. Lewis' River” in Nuttall's hand and was designated the holotype by Arnold Tiehm, December 1985. The Lewis River of the time is today's Snake River. The other (NY233159) is from the Torrey Herbarium and gives the location as the Columbia River. This has been designated as the holotype of C. ligusticifolia var. brevifolia Torr. & A. Gray found in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the Oregon.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium carolinianum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1440, 15 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 2359, 12 Jun 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2359, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1440, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens  

Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks. “Plains Larkspur”

 

Literature Cited:
- Walter, Thomas, 1788.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Walter, 1788, Flora Caroliniana, publication details;  

Walter (1788, p. 155)
Original Text Comments
T R I G Y N I A  
220. DELPHINIUM. Cal. nullus. Petala 6. Nectarium 2-phyllum, cornutum. Silique 3.  
carolinianum 1. nectario diphyllo, quam flos longiori, labellis integris, floribus fpicatis purpureis macula lutea, petalis duobus bifidis barbatis.  

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described the Plains Larkspur from his collection on the plains of the Missouri.
Original Text
371. DELPHINIUM. L. (Larkspur.)
Calix none. Petals 5. Lepanthium (nectary) bifid, cornutely produced behind. Siliques 3 or 1.
Herbaceous, lower leaves digitate or palmate, upper ones often undivided; flowers spiked or paniculate, blue, violaceous or yellowish.
Species. 1. D. tricorne 2. azureum 3. exaltatum. 4. consolida. Naturalized.
5. *virescens. Perennial, pubescent; lepanthium 4-leaves, shorter than the 5 calicine petals, interior laminae densely bearded; leaves 3-parted, segments linear, subtrifid, lower ones divaricate.
Hab. On the Plains of the Missouri.
Obs. Stem simple about 8 to 12 inches, pubescent; leaves upon long petioles, partly digitate or 5-parted, 10 to 15 lines wide; spike few-flowered, flowers greenish white, petalois calix, 5-leaved, leaves oblong, spur longer than the flower, nearly straight. Petals of lenanthium 4; the 2 internal ones irregularly concave, small, the 2 lateral larger, flat, and unguiculate, bearded, claw sending out a short spur at the base; capsules 3. Flowering in June.
A genus almost equally divided betwixt Siberia and the south of Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 32) accepted Nuttall's D. virescens.
Original Text Comments
8. D. virescens (Nutt.): pubescent ; petioles scarecely dilated at the base ; leaves 3-5-parted, the middle division mostly undivided, lateral ones 2-3-cleft ; lobes lanceolate ; raceme loose, few-flowered ; sepals oblong or lanceolate ; spur longer than the sepals, ascending ; lower petals deeply 2-cleft ; claw gibbous at the base. — Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 14; DC. prodr. 1. p. 53.  
Plains of Missouri and Arkansas, Nuttall ! North Carolina, Schweinitz ! Georgia, Le Conte ! June. — Stem 8-12 inches high. Raceme simple. Pedicels longer than the flowers. Bracts subulate. Flowers large, yellowish or greenish white, minutely pubescent. Sepals marked with a brownish spot near the apex, much longer than the petals. Spur straight or somewhat incurved. Lower petals rather densely bearded. Ovaries 3. It is possible that the collections of D. virescens should carry the name D. carolinianum.

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 32) treat D. carolinanum Walt. as a synonym of D. azureum Michx.

  Rydberg (1899) supports acceptance of D. virescens, although on somewhat flimsy evidence. Not sure why he did not mention the taxon as found in Colorado or Wyoming.

Literature Cited:
- Brooks, Ralph E., 1982.
- Warnock, M. J., 1981.  

Original Text Comments
Delphinium carolinianum Walt. subsp. virescens R. E. Brooks, comb. nov. Basionym: D. virescens Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 14. 1818.  
Warnock (1981) treated virescens as a synonym of D. carolinanum subsp. pernardii (Huth) Warnock. Field examinations of numerous individuals combined with mor[hological evaluations, including SEM studies of the seeds, indicate that virescens is sufficiently distinct from pernardii to warrant taxonomic recognition of virescens. Warnock's (op. cit.) concept of subspecies in this group is new, however, and one with which I agree. Subsp. virescens has mostly equally distributed cauline leaves with a few basal leaves and the upper stem and rachis are covered with basally yellow, pustualte (sic) trichomes. It occurs in the eastern Great Plains and adjacent eastern areas from North Dakota south to northeast Texas and Missouri. Subsp. pernardii usually has a distinct basal rosette of leaves with a few cauline leaves, the upper spem is canescent and sparsely pustulate hairy, and the rachis is canescent. The subspecies occurs in the western Great Plains from western Nebraska south to Texas.  

Literature Cited:
- Warnock, M. J., 1995.  

 

Literature Cited:
- Jabbour, Florian, and Susanne S. Renner, 2012.  

Jabbour and Renner (2011) studied the global phylogeny of tribe Delphineae that comprises Aconitum and Delphinium. The only studied taxon found in Golden s.l. was Delphinium nuttallianum, so there is nothing to say about D. carolinianum subsp. virescens. The study showed that some re-arrangement of names in Delphineae is required though none that will affect names in Colorado. Molecular clock dating suggests that Delphinium arrived in North American from Asia in the Pliocene.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Myosurus minimus;  

Myosurus minimus L. “Tiny Mousetail”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Myosurus minimus was first published by Linnaeus (1753), and some other previous works. It's still an accepted name.
Original Text
POLYGYNIA.
MYOSURUS
minimus. 1. MYOSURUS.
Myofurus foliis integerrimis. Hort. Cliff. 177. Fl. Fuet. 261. Roy. Lugdb. 492.
Holofteo affinis Cauda mirus. Bauh. Pin. 190.
Cauda muris. Dod. Pempt 112.
Habitat in Europae collibus apricis aridis. ☉

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Argemone polyanthemos;  

Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey “Crested Prickly Poppy”

 

Literature Cited:
- Horneman, Jens Wilkin, 1815.  

Hornemann (1815, p. 489) is the first publication of A. albiflora

Original Text
621. ARGEMONE.
1. A. mexicana Lin.: capsulis sexvalvibus sessilibus, foliis spinosis.
Hab. in Mexico, Charibaeis. ☉ {the Sun}. D.
2. A. albiflora mihi: capsulis 5-6-valvibus pedunculatis, foliis subspinosis.
Hab. — — ☉. D. intr. 1812.

Hornemann does not explain his use of the sun symbol (☉). However, most publications of this age use it to mean annual, or monocarpic. Also, it is unclear the meaning of Hornemann's two dashes, whether they mean “ditto” or “unknown.”

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1817.  

Rafinesque (1817, p. 83, no. 266) is the first publication of Argemone alba. It is now treated as a synonym of A. mexicana. So the name was not available to James (1823), see below.

Original Text
Order II.—Papaveracea.
266. Argemone alba Raf. Caule foliisque spinosis, foliis runcinatis, capsulis oblongis pentagonis spinosis semi-5-valvis Raf.—Argemone Rob. p. 464. A beautiful plant introduced in the gardens of Louisiana from Mexico, with snow-white petals, yellow stamina and violet stigma, stem three feet high. The variety of A. mexicana with white flowers mentioned by Pursh, is perhaps this species.

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles:
• Interstate 80:   at Exit 211;

Locations: Gothenburg.  

James (1823, p. 460-1), describes a new prickly poppy encountered just west of the Sand Hills of Nebraska.

Original Text
On Monday [June] 19th, we moved on, and ascending the Platte about 30 miles, arrived in the evenong at a place where the hills on the north side close in, quite to the bed of the river. On both sides they became more broken and elevated, and on the north, they approached so near to the bed of the Platte, that we were under the necessity of travelling across them. We were glad, however, of any change of scene. The monotony of a vast unbroken plain, like that in which we had now travelled, nearly one hundred and fifty miles, is little less tiresome to the eye, and fatiguing to the spirit, than the dreary solitude of the ocean.
With this change of the surface, some change is observed in the vegetable products of the soil. Here we first saw a new species of prickly poppy,* with a spreading white flower, as large as that of the common poppy of the gardens. The aspect of this plant is very similar to that of the common poppy, except that the leaves are covered with innumerable large and strong prickles. When wounded it exudes a thick yellowish sap, intensely bitter to the taste. ...

* Argemone alba, a large plant very distinct from A. mexicana.

Goodman and Lawson (1995, p. 14) place the Long party camp on June 20th (erroneously dated June 19th) slightly west of Gothenburg, Dawson County, Nebraska, just beyond the area where the Nebraska Sand Hills make their easternmost approach to the Platte River.

Literature Cited:
- Sweet, Robert, 1830, 2nd ed..  

Argemone intermedia was published in Sweet's Hortus Britannicus (Sweet, 1838, 2nd ed., p. 585)
Original Text
PAPAVERACEÆ. p. 18.
ARGEM`ONE. p. 19.
5 intermèdia. (wh.)
Argem`one.
intermediate.
Mexico. 1828. 7. 10. H.♃

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1878.  

Watson (1878, part 1, p. 41) summarizes the bibliography of Argemone and places our plant as A. mexicana var. albiflora.
Original Text
A. Mexicana. Linn. Spec. 508. See syn. in DC. Syst. 2. 85. Pursh, 366. Nutt. Genera, 2, 9. James, Catalogue, 183. Elliott, 2. 13. Hook. Jour. Bot. 1. 189. Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. 61; Pac. R. Rep. 159. Gray, Genera, 1. 112, t. 47; Pl. Fendl. 5; Manual, 59. Engelm. Wisliz. Rep. 28. Tottey, Emory's Rep. 406; Marcy's Rep. 280; Pac. R. Rep. 4. 64; Mex. Bound. 31. Scheele. Roemer's Texas, 436. Chapman, 21. Porter, Fl. Col. 6.
Var. Albiflora. DC. Syst. 2. 86; Prodr. 1. 120. Torrey, Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2. 166; Frem. Rep. 87. Torr. & Gray, Pac. R. Rep. 2. 125. Gray, same, 12. 40.
A. albiflora. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 489. Bot. Mag. t. 2342.
A. alba. Raf. Fl. Lud. 83. James, Long's Exp. 2. 149.
A. grandiflora. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 226. Lindl. Bot. Reg. T. 1264.
A. Georgiana. Croom. Am. Jour. Sci. 1. 25. 75.
A. vulgaris, var. albiflora. Spach, Hist. Veg. 7. 26.

Literature Cited:
- Fedde, Friedrich Karl Georg, 1909.  

Fedde (1909, heft (fascicle) 40, p. 283) described polyanthemos as a new variety of A. intermedia Sweet.
Original Text
Var. polyanthemos Fedde nov.var. — Herba valde, at noncompacte, sed diffuse ramosa, non corymbosa. FOlia obovata vel obovato-oblonga irregulariter et subpinnatim dentata, ad apicem late cuneata, superiora ad basim semiamplexicaulia. Flores minores valde numerosi cymis non corymbosis dispositi. Petala 2-2,5 cm longa.
Oklahoma: Kiowa Reservation (James Mooney 1895!).
Nota. Sine dubio sepalorum et imprimis fructum conditione A. intermediae valde affinis, sed differt inflorescentiis multifloria et foliis minus incisis, quibus notis valde ad var. corymbosam appropinquat.

Fedde also placed A. alba James in Long's Exp. II. (1823) 149 sec. Prain. in synonomy with A. intermedia Sweet.

Literature Cited:
- Ownbey, Gerald B., 1958.  

Ownbey (1958, p. 131) explains why A. intermedia is a confused name and a new name is introduced for our species.

Original Text
It is regrettable that a new name must be introduced for the well-known plant of the western plains which for many decades has been called A.intermedia Sweet by American botanists. The exact identity of A. intermedia has yet to be determined, but it seems certain that it is not con-specific with A. polyanthemos. The former was described from plants grown from seeds from Mexico; the latter is not found outside the United States. The presence in Mexico of argemones which in the past have been lumped with A. polyanthemos under the binomial A. intermedia, even when the original application of A. intermedia was unclear has led to much confusion. The important fact to be emphasized here is that the name A. intermedia is a nomen confusum which cannot be applied to any species of Argemone with assurance. Even though its true identity may ultimately be determined the name cannot be applied, on distributional grounds, to the taxon native to the western Great Plains and foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

Ownbey (1958, p.131) also considers and rejects A. alba James, placing it in synonomy with A. polyanthemos (Fedde) Ownbey.

Original Text
A. alba James is validly although very casually published. It applies without doubt to the same taxon as A. polyanthemos. A. alba James is, fortunately, a later homonym of A. alba Raf. which in turn is a synonym of A. albiflora Hornem. We are thereby freed from any eventuality which might require the revival of A. alba James, a step which would unavoidably lead to confusion.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Corydalis aurea;  

Corydalis aurea Willd. “Scrambled Eggs”

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.  

Corydalis aurea was published by Willdenow (1809), in an enumeration of plants growing in the Berlin garden.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
* 8. CORYDALIS aurea.  
C. caule ramoso erecto, siliquis linearibus pedunculo triplo longioribus, foliis glaucis, caulinis biternatis.  
Fumaria aurea. Muhlenberg. nom. inval., does not appear that Muhlenburg published this name.
Habitat in Canada. ♂ D. The Mars sign ♂ indicates the plant is a biennial. D indicates “planta semper sub dio vegetans” — the plant always grows in the open air (?)
Folia glaucescentia bipinnata, pinnis inferioribus alternis, pinnulis alternis sessilibusque simplicibus et partitis, brevibus angustis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque acutis. Flores aurei spicato-racemosi approximati.  

   

Boechera Á.Löve & D.Löve. “Rockcress”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Boechera fendleri;  

Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber. “Fendler's Rockcress”

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.
- Gray, Asa, 1878-1895.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  syntopical;  

Sereno Watson in his work on volume 1 of Gray (1878) Syntopical Flora of North America described our Boechera fendleri as Arabis holboellii var. fendleri.
Original Text
164 CRUCIFERAE Arabis.
A. Holboellii, Hornem. Biennial ...
...
Var. Fendleri, Watson, n. var. Stems often several and ascending from a biennial root, a foot high, hirsute below with simple of branched hairs, glabrous above : lower leaves roughly stellate-pubescent and petioles ciliate ; the upper glabrous : pods somewhat curved.
— From Colorado, Parry, no. 94, Hall & Harbour, no. 36 ; N. Nevada to New Mexico, Fendler, no. 27, Palmer, Rusby ; and California, Tulare Co., Coville & Funston, no. 1388. (Chihuahua, Wright, no. 1313.)

Fendler no. 27 is not listed in Gray (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1895-1897.  

The variety fendleri was repeated in Robinson's edition of Gray (1895-1897, p. 186) Syntopical Flora of North America.
Original Text
A. Holboellii, Hornem. Biennial, …
Var. Fendleri, Watson, n. var. Stems often several and ascending from a biennial root, a foot high, hirsute below with simple or branched hairs, glabrous above; lower leaves roughly stellate-pubescent and petioles ciliate; the upper glabrous; pods somewhat curved. — From Colorado, Parry, no. 94, Hall & Harbour no. 36; N. Nevada to New Mexico, Fendler no. 27, Palmer, Rusby ; and California, Tulare Co., Coville & Funston, no. 1388. (Chihuahua, Wright, no. 1313.)

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1897.  

Two years later, Greene (1897) published Arabis fendleri differnentiating it mostly on the different pubescent compared to A. holbollii
Original Text
Arabis Fendleri. More slender than the above and less tall, mostly or wholly destitute of stellate hairs, only the lowest entire oblanceolate leaves very distinctly hirsute-ciliate, and with scattered trifurcated hairs on the lower face, all the upper parts of the plant, including all but the lower cauline leaves, glabrous and glaucus ; the sessile cauline leaves barely auricled, not sagittate : pods mostly less than 2 inches long, scarcely curved, acutish, on spreading or scarcely deflexed pedicels of 1/2 inch or more : seeds in 2 rows, small marginless.
A somewhat variable plant of subalpine situations in the Rocky Mountains from New Mexico to Wyoming ; but in none of its phases does it exhibit the pubescence of A. Holbollii, but always its own, which is chiefly conspicuous as a ciliation of the leaf-margin. The description here drawn mainly from Colorado specimens of my own collecting, which exactly match Fendler's n. 27 from New Mexico, which is the type of Mr. Watson's A. Holbollii Fendleri, in Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 164.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1982.  

Weber (1982) published Boechera fendleri after taking Rollins to task.
Original Text
Love & Love (1976) proposed the genus Bochera to accommodate species of Arabis having the chromosome base number x=7, the type species of Arabis (alpina) having x=8. Rollins (1977) certainly had the right to criticize the Love's for not pointing out morphological evidence to support their separation on cytogenetic grounds. But at the same time, the difference in basic chromosome number, especially when it continues to be borne out on examination of other species, does represent a divergent phylogenetic line, and the genetic barrier that it presents to interbreeding of the units is sufficient justification for thinking in terms of discrete genera. However, Rollins is not scientifically objective when he says that “their describing a new genus to accommodate perfectly ordinary species of Arabis has no merit and should not be followed.” Posterity, rather than appeal to authority, should be allowed to decide the wisdom of this.
Rollins himself says earlier that “those species of North America most closely to Arabis of Eurasia have the same basic chromosome number pattern, i.e., x=8, whereas those species with a somewhat different circle of close affinity [my italics] are based on x=7.” Even a cursory examination of Arabis in the herbarium results in fairly easy separations: the loose slender root systems, large and numerous cauline leaves, most commonly toothed in Arabis, versus the short clustered caudices, small or absent and almost always entire cauline leaves of Boechera. The often very dense indument of forked or stellate trichomes of Boechera is not a characteristic feature of Arabis.
Even with Boechera removed, Arabis in America remains a genus in need of additional fragmentation. One group in particular deserving attention is the purple-flowered species endemic in the ancient Siskiyou area of southwestern Oregon and northwestern California (cf. Rollins 1977). At present, however, I am confining transfers to those taxa in the Colorado flora.
BOECHERA FENDLERI (S. Wats.) W. A. Weber, comb. Nov. Arabis holboellii var. fendleri S. Wats. In Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. 1:164. 1895.
Love, Askell & Doris Love. 1976. Nomenclatural notes on Arctic plants. Bot. Not. 128:497-523.
Rollins, Reed C. 1973. Purple-flowered Arabis of the Pacific Coast of North America. Contrib. Gray Herb. 204:149-154.
Rollins, Reed C. & Lily Rudenberg. Chromosome numbers of Cruciferae III. Contrib. Gray Herb. 207:101-116. 1977,

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erysimum asperum;
• Glossary:  divaricate;  

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. “Prairie Wallflower”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Original Text
527. ERYSIMUM. Gen. pl. 1090.
lanceolatum. 3. E. foliis lanceolatis inferioribus dentatis, unguibus calyce longioribus,' laminis orbiculato-obovatis, stigmate sessili. Ait. Kew. Ed. 2. t. 4. p. 116.
Chieranthus erysimodes. Willd. Sp. Pl. 3. p. 514.
Icon. Jacq. Fl. Austr. 74.
On the banks of the Missouri. ♂. June. v. s.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  asperate;

Locations: White River.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2., p. 69) …
Original Text
462. CHEIRANTHUS. L. (Wall-flower. Stock.)
Calix closed; 2 of the leaves gibbous at the base. Petals dilated. Disk of the germ biglandulous. Silique compressed or terete. Stigma bilobed. Seeds flat, sometimes marginated.
Herbaceous or suffruticose; leaves more or less pubescent, entire or pinnatifid; flowers yellow or purple, large, and often odorous. A genus very nearly allied to Hesperis and to the entire leaved species of Erysimum, excluding E. Alliaria.
Species. 1. C. Pallasii. Ph.—North West Coast. 2. *asper. Stem simple, and acutely angular; leaves canescently polise, sublinear, entire, margin acculeately and retrorsely asperate, radical fasciculated attenuated-sublanceolate, acute, retrorsely toothed; silique very long quadrangular and divaricate; claws of the petals longer, than the calix. Cheiranthus erysimoides. Ph. Hab. On the plains of the Missouri, commencing near the colfluence of the White river. Fl. June. Obs. Biennial. Stem 12 to 18 inches high, mostly simple, but now and then branching towards the summit. Leaves every where covered with white short, retrorse, strigose and appressed hairs; margin aculeolate, stem leaves crowded, 2 or 3 lines wide and 2 inches long. Flowers very similar to those of C. Cheiri, and almost equally odorous. Calix oblong, 2 of the leaves distinctly gibbous at the base. Petals dilated, claws long, limb broud obovate, bright yellow. Stigma bilobed. Silique 2 or 3 inches long, spreading, 4-sided, 2 of the angles asperate.
A genus of about 40 species, indigenous to Europe and the temperate and colder parts of Asia and Africa in both hemispheres.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1818.  

DeCandolle (1821, v. 2, p. 505) ...
Original Text
29. Erysimum asperum.
E. foliis lineari-oblongis, inferioribus dentato-runcinatis, cauleque pubescentibus scabris, siliquis patentibus, stylo brevissimo crasso.

Erysimum lanceolatum. Pursh. fl. bor. am. 2. p. 436.
Cheiranthus asper. Nutt. gen. am. 2. p. 69. *
Hab. in campis Missouriensibus (Nutt.). (2). fl. jun. (v. s. sp. in h. Banks et Lamb.)
...

 

Literature Cited:
- Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A., and Steve L. O'Kane, 2002.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  cytology;  

Physaria

The taxonomic world knew for a long time that keeping Physaria and Lesquerella separate was very tenuous. More recently molecular data clearly showed that Physaria is nested within Lesquerella. Also, the data showed that Physaria evolved more than once from Lesquerella. Regardless of how many times Physaria evolved from Lesquerella, Physaria is polyphyletic and Lesquerella definitely paraphyletic. The two genera could no longer be maintained separately on either molecular, morphological, cytological, biogeographic, or ecological grounds. Therefore the two genera should be combined. Physaria is the older of the two names and thus has priority, but there are far more species in Lesquerella. It might make more sense to conserve Lesquerella and transfer the Physaria thereto. An proposal to conserve the name Lesquerella against Physaria was made to the Committee for Spermatophyta (2000). However, the proposal was denied. Therefore, names in Physaria were proposed for most of the former Lesquerella (Al-Shehbaz & O'Kane, 2004).

One of the taxa transferred to Physaria was P. montana a bladderpod found in Jefferson County, including Golden.

Seven taxa of Physaria have been reported for Jefferson County. Four of the taxa are unlikely to occur here, as the collections are misidentified or otherwise quesitonable data. The three confirmed Jefferson County taxa are:

  • P. bellii
  • P. montana
  • P. vitulifera
The four spurious reports of Physaria in Jefferson County are:
  • P. acutifolia — there may be two collections of P. acutifolia from the Evergreen - Kittridge - Parmalee Gulch area. They are old records and a bit sketchy. Otherwise this is an western slope taxon.
  • P. didymocarpa -- misidentified, two vouchers at YU, duplicate at CS9266 determined P. vitulifera.
  • P. floribunda — western slope taxon. Data point from NY showing P. floribunda in Golden is misidentified.
  • P. rollinsii — generally known only from the Gunnison River basin, except for Rollins No. 5151, July 6, 1951, 2 miles west of Deckers, GH 01691383, which has been annotated P. rollinsii, date and name of annotator unknown.

The following key is abstracted from Ackerfield (2015).

(1b.) Fruit (and ovary) pubescent with stellate hairs … 4
(4b.) Plants not present in the alpine, found below 11,000 ft in elevation … 6
(6b.) Inflorescence usually obviously exceeding the leaves, or if included then the plants otherwise unlike the above; plants sometimes mound-forming, but the mounds usually not small and button-like … 8
(8b) Mature fruiting pedicels S-curved (sigmoid), ascending, or sometimes horizontal … 12
(12a) Plants of the eastern slope … 13

(13a) Fruit entire at the apex, not or only slightly inflated; ovules 4-20 per ovary … 14
(14a) Basal leaves suborbicular, obovate, or elliptic, mostly over 4 mm wide (rarely narrowly elliptic and 2-3 mm wide), usually with a well-defined petiole; stem leaves usually secund; ovules (8) 12-24 per ovary … P. montana

(13b) Fruit notched at the apex (didymous), usually inflated; ovules 4 per ovary … 16
(16b) Plants of the foothills, absent from the northeastern plains; fruit not conspicuously broader at the apex or appearing flared from the base … 17

(17a) At least some basal leaf margins deeply and broadly incised, rarely almost entire … P. vitulifera

(17b) Basal leaf margins shallowly dentate or entire … 18
(18a) Basal leaves gradually tapering to an ill-defined petiole; fruit 2-8 mm wide … P. bellii

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physaria vitulifera;  

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. “Roundtip Twinpod”

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1901.  

Rydberg (1895) described a new Physaria that he called P. vitulifera from a collection he made at Idaho Springs. An image of this specimen at NY is available through SEINet. Rydberg (1895) also cited a collection by Parry made in 1861 in the headwaters of Clear Creek. An image of this voucher at GH is also available through SEINet.
Original Text Interpretation
Physaria vitulifera sp. Nov.  
A densely tufted finely stellate-pubescent perennial with deep tap-root. Basal leaves numerous, fiddle-shaped, the larger 4-5 cm. long ; terminal lobe nearly orbicular to broadly obovate, subentire, obtuse ; upper sinuses rounded : lateral lobes 1-2 pairs, much smaller : stems ascending, or decumbent, 1-2 dm. high : stem-leaves 1-2 cm. long, obovate or oblanceolate, entire : pedicels short, usually curved in fruit : sepals about 4 mm. long, oblong, acute : petals clawed, 8-9 mm. long : fruit obtuse at the base, deeply divided above ; cells much inflated, round-obovate, divergent, about 5 mm. in diameter : style about 5 mm. long.  
This species, as well as the two following, differs from P. didymocarpa in the smaller fruit, which is divided only above, not at the base. In this respect they resemble P. Newberryi ; but the fruit is much smaller and not flattened on the sides. P. vitulifera differs from the following in the form of the leaves and the curved pedicels. It grows in dry places at an altitude of about 2500 m. The "following" are Physaria floribunda and Physaria acutifolia.
Colorado : Idaho Springs, 1895, P. A. Rydberg (type); Middle Park, 1861, C. C. Parry, 101.  

Rydberg's (1901) description of P. floribunda cites “Hills about Golden, 1892, Crandall, 53.” This collection can be found by searching SEINet for collections of Physaria by Crandall in 1892. Vouchers at CS and GH have been determined P. vitulifera. A voucher at YU has two specimens, determined as P. didymocarpa, one labelled as “Hills about Golden” and the other as “Hills about Dolores.” The Golden specimen looks more like Physaria montana than either P. vitulifera, P. floribunda, or P. didymocarpa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rorippa sinuata;  

Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Spreading Yellowcress”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 73) proposed Nasturtium sinuatum from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall describing plants he had seen in Oregon Territory and in the Arkansas.
Original Text Comments
5. N. sinuatum (Nutt.! mss.): “ decumbent ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments lanceolate, subserrtat or toothed on the lower margin ; pedicels spreading or recurved, longer than the oblong acute silique ; style nearly one-third the length of the silique.  
“Banks of the Oregon and its tributaries ; also in Arkansas. — Glabrous. Leaves all rqually pinnatifid ; the terminal segments more or less confluent. Flowers rather large, bright yellow. Sepals ovate. Petals oblong-ovate. Silique about one-tird of an inch long, slightly curved.” Nutt. Cotyledons o== “… the Oregon …” is a synonym for the Columbia River.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Jamesia americana;  

Jamesia americana Torr. & A. Gray “Fivepetal Cliffbush”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1840, v. 1(4), p. 594) published Jamesia americana with a tribute to the work of Dr. Edwin James.
J. Americana.
Dr. James ! — Shrub erect? with terete branches. Leaves, including the petioles, 1-2 inches long, ovate, simply serrate with broad mucronate teeth. Cymes shorter than the leaves : bracts subulate. Calyx persistent, cleft rather below the middle ; the segments mostly acute, two of them somewhat narrower ; one of the broader ones sometimes minutely 3-toothed at the apex. Petals twice or more the length of the calyx. Stamens deciduous. Styles more than twice the length of the ovary, much exserted beyond the calyx. Ovary free, except the base, the parieties rather thick and firm ; the dissepiments very short ; the placentae lunate, at first distinct, many-ovuled. — We much regret that we have not more adequate materials for describing this plant. Our specimens were collected by Dr. Edwin James (in Long's Expedition), but the particular locality is not recorded. It is probably rare or very local, as no other botanist seems to have met with it. It appears to be an entirely distinct genus, to which we have applied the present name in commemoration of the scientific services of its worthy discoverer, the botanist and historian of ‘Major Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in the year 1820,’ and who, during that journey, made an excellent collection of plants under the most unfavorable circumstances.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heuchera parvifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1655, Heuchera parvifolia  

Heuchera parvifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray. “Littleleaf Alumroot”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 581) published H. parvifolia in the section Heucherella.
§ 4. Filaments and styles subulate, very short : calyx obconic at the base, rotate, equal : petals small, fugacious : flowers small : panicles narrow, loose. — Heucherella.
13. H. parvifolia (Nutt.! mss.): scabrous-puberulent ; scape naked ; leaves forming a small radical cluster, roundish-cordate, crenately 5-7-lobed, at length glabrous, ciliate ; the lobes short and rounded ; panicle racemose, rather loose ; bracts small, laciniate-ciliate ; flowers very small ; limb of the calys flat, dilated ; petals minute, caducous ; stamens shorter than the lobes of the calyx ; styles very short, conical. Typically when quoting a Nuttall manuscript, Torrey & A. Gray will place double quotes around the description. They did not do so in this case. I assume that was a printer's oversight in this case, and is not significant.
Rocky Mountains, Dr. James! Blue Mountains of Oregon, Nuttall! — Caudex somewhat ligneous, thick. Leaves an inch or more in diameter ; the lobes with one or two crenatures, not mucronate. Scape 8-12 inches : panicle branching below. Calyx-tube obconic, adherent nearly to the summit of the ovary. Filaments very short and thick, subulate : anthers large for the size of the flower. Seeds hispid. — Mr. Nuttall supposes this species to be nearly allied to H. Richardsonii. It seems to us, however, to form, with the succeeding species, a very well-marked section. The succeeding was “14. H. hirtiflora …”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Micranthes rhomboidea;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2262, 6 May 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea  

Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small. “Diamondleaf Saxifrage”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ribes aureum;  

Ribes aureum Pursh “Golden Currant”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, p. 164) published Ribes aureum from collections by Lewis & Clark, and from garden-grown specimens he had seen.
Original Text
aureum. 8. R. inerme, glaberrimum ; foliis trilobis : lobis divaricatis inciso-pauci-dentatis petiolo basi ciliato brevioribus, racemis laxis dense-mujiifloris, calycibus tubulatis pedicellis longioribus : tubo gracili : laciniis oblongis obtusis, petalis linearibus laciniis calycis duplo brevioribus, bracteis linearibus longitudine pedicellorum, baccis glabris.
  On the banks of the rivers Missouri and Columbia M. Lewis. ♄ April, v. s. in Herb. Lewis. ; v. v. in Hort. Flowers in close racemes, beautiful golden-yellow ; berries red or brown, of an exquisitely fine taste, and considerably larger size than any of garden currants. The shrub before flowering has the appearance of a species of Crataegus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ribes cereum;  

Ribes cereum Douglas “Wax Currant”

 

Literature Cited:
- Douglas, David, 1830.  

Original Text
I brought seeds of this species to England in October 1827. The plants flowered last April, in the Garden of the Society, but rather weakly, being only one year old.*
3. R. cereum : inerme, foliis subrotundis obtuse trilobis crenatis viscidis, racemis 3-5-floris pendulis pubescentibus longitudine foliorum, calycibus tubulatis laciniis ovatis reflexis : petala subreniformia duplo excedentibus, bracteis cuneiformibus apice dentatis, baccis rubris glabris.
This bush is of more humble stature and slender habit than the one last mentioned, growing erect, about five or six feet high, with white smooth bark on the old branches. The young shoots which are curved and flexible, are covered with a brown viscid scentless glutinous substance, which when exposed to the sun, acquires a rough, hardened, waxy, warty appearance. The leaves are nearly round, bluntly three-lobed, crenate, scarcely an inch long, of a leathery texture and almost veinless, clothed on the upper surface with white and (in dry weather) hardened waxy minute granulations, quite smooth below ; footstalks somewhat longer than the leaves. The clusters are dense, of the same length as the leaves, three or five-flowered, slightly pubescent, hanging in great profusion below the branches, with scarcely any partial footstalks ; bracteas wedge-shaped, glandular and toothed at the apex. The calyx is tubular, imperfectly four-sided, white, pink at the base, three-fourths of an inch long, with rounded, short, reflected segments double the length of the minute somewhat kidney shaped petals. Filaments, same length as the petals ; style slightly cloven. Berry spherical, small, red and glossy, thin-skinned, rarely containing more than three large seeds and a great quantity of insipid, viscid, red juice.
This species in point of beauty cannot be compared to the fragrant flowered R. aureum, and its varieties, nor can it vie with the gaudy inflorescence of R. sanguineum. It blossoms at the same season and with equal profusion, is equally hardy and as readily cultivated.
On dry exposed decayed granite rocks or schist, throughout the chain of the river Columbia from the Great Falls 45° 46' 17" N. Lat. to the source of that stream in the Rocky Mountains, 52° 07' 09" this is a common shrub, flowering in March and April, and ripening its fruit in June.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saskatoon Serviceberry;  

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. “Saskatoon Serviceberry”

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

Collected by Lewis & Clark on April 15, 1806 at The Dalles of the Columbia River. However, it was not published by Pursh.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageNuttall (1818) description of Aronia alnifolia.  

Order IV. — Pentagynia

340. Aronia. Persoon. Mespilus. L.

Calix 5-toothed. Petals 5. Berry inferior 5 to 10-celled; cells 1 or 2-seeded. Seeds cartilaginous.

Shrubs without spines, having alternate undivided leaves, and flowers which are corymbose or racemose, generally white; fruit a small black purple or scarlet pomois berry, containing seeds similar to those of apples.

Species. 1. … 6. * Alnifolia. Smooth: leaves roundish, upperpart toothed, pinnately nerved, under side somewhat glaucous; raceme simple, elongated; fruit black and sweet. Habitat. In ravines and on the elevated margins of small streams from Fort Mandan to the Northern Andes. Observation. A shrub 4 or 5 feet high; leaves roundish and retuse, somewhat attenuated at the base, toothed towards the summit; fruit dark purple, somewhat pruinose, very agreeable and saccharine; ripening about July and August.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1834) use of the name Amelanchier alnifolia  

In 1834, Nuttall referred to Amelanchier alnifolia in his review of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth:

37. Amelanchier alnifolia. Source of the Missouri.

Unfortunately this possible publication of a new name for the taxon is invalid because there is no reference (either direct or indirect) to the intended basionym Aronia alnifolia Nutt. (1818).

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.
Full Size ImageRoemer (1847) description of A. alnifolia  

Roemer validly published Amelanchier alnifolia in 1847, referring to Nuttall's 1834 use of the name.
3) prope apicem tantum serrata, subrotunda v. late elliptica, utrinque obtusissima v. retusa ; racemi densiflori ; petala lineari-oblonga, calyce 3–4plo longiora; stamina brevissima.

18. A. alnifolia Nutt. In Joun. Acad. Philad. VII. 22

A. ovalis β semiintegrifolia Hook. L. c. 201. – G.Don l. c.

A. canadensis δ alnifolia Torr. & A.Gr. l. c.

Aronia alnifolia Nutt. gen. I. 306

Pyrus alnifolia Ser. l. c. 637. 39.G.Don l. c. 649. 56.

Ad flum. Columbia pr. Fort Vancouver et ad “the grand Rapids,” in editoribus ad flumen Multnomah. 5 5.

  There is one collection of A. utahensis made June 1, 1913 on Lookout Mountain. The name of the collector is unknown. This is one of 13 collections made that day on Lookout Mountain or at its base. The Lookout Mountain Road was under construction on that day, and opened to public use August 21, 1913, but not completed until December 1913 (Colorado Transcript, multiple dates).
  J. H. Ehlers collected A. utahensis on a rocky slope of a hogback near Golden (COLO662346). There are three possible hog backs which may be this location. There is Dakota Ridge (North Hogback) at the very north of Golden. There is a small hogback informally named Eagle Ridge near the intersection of US Highway 6 and Heritage Road. Finally, at the very south end of Golden is Tin Cup Ridge, the northward extension of Dinosaur Ridge into Golden. There are three other vouchers of Ehlers collections made the same day, though none of them give any more details on the actual location.

Literature Cited:
- Jones, George Neville, 1946.  

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Some authors, such as Ackerfield (2015), treat A. utahensis as a variety of A. alnifolia, explaining that the two taxa overlap in morphology and distribution, and that it can be difficult, if not impossible, to assign one name or the other to some specimens. Then we would have:

  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. var. alnifolia “Saskatoon Serviceberry” and
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. Ex M. Roem. Var. utahensis (Koehne) M. E. Jones “Utah Serviceberry”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cercocarpus montanus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2270.1, 9 May 2020;
Full Size ImageMountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus) on South Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2184, Cercocarpus montanus in fruit.  

Cercocarpus montanus Raf. “Alder-Leaf Mountain Mahogany”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2270.1, Cercocarpus montanus in bloom.
 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Holodiscus dumosus;  

Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray) A.Heller. “Rock Spirea”

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

There are two collections of Holodiscus discolor in the Lewis & Clark herbarium both collected May 29, 1806 on the Clearwater (Kooskooske) River, Camp Chopunnish, Kamiah, Idaho County, Idaho (Moulton, 1999).

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 341-342) ...
Original Text

413. SPIRÆA. Gen. pl.862.

* Fruticosæ

...  
discolor 8. S. foliis ovatis lobatis dentatis subplicatis subtus niveotomentosis, paniculatis terminalibus pedunculatis ramosissimis.

On the banks of the Kooskoosky. ♄. June, July. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. A shrub about five feet high.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 416) ...
Original Text
5. SPIRÆA. Linn. ; Gærth. fr. t. 69 ; DC. prodr. 2 p. 541.
...
§ 2. Flowers perfect : disk free at the margin, mostly crenate or with glandular teeth or lobes : carpels distinct, not inflated : ovules mostly several, pendulous : seeds mostly with a loose membranous testa, attenuate at each end : shrubs with entire or serrate exstipulate leaves. — Euspiraea.
...
* * * * Flowers in large and loose compound panicles : calyx deeply 5-cleft, spreading : disk sholly coherent, entire ; ovules 2, collateral !
8. S. ariæfolia (Smith): leaves broadly ovate, petioled, obtuse, pinnatifidly incised or somewhat lobed, dentate with mucronate teeth, almost glabrous above, canescently hairy or tomentose beneath ; panicle large and loose, much branched, and, with the calyx, tomentose-pubescent ; segments of the calyx acute, apreading ; carpels 5. broad, compressed, margined, very hirsute. — Smith ! in Rees, cycl. ; Seringe in DC. l.c. ; Lindl.! bot. reg. t. 1365 ; Hook.! fl. Bor-Am. 1 p. 173 ; & bot. Beechey, suppl. p. 338.
β discolor : leaves much smaller, cuneiform at the base, the serratures scarcely mucronate, silvery-tomentose beneath. — S. discolor, Pursh. ! fl. 1. p.342 ; Seringe, l. c. ; Torr. ! in ann. lyc. New York, 2. p. 195. S. dumosa, Nutt. ! mss.
N. W. Coast ! Oregon ! and California ! (Menzies ! Douglas ! Dr. Scouler ! Nuttall!) β. In the Rocky Mountains, Dr. James ! Nuttall ! and on the Kooskoosky River, Lewis ! June-July. — The ordinary forms is frequently somewhat arborescent, according to Nuttall, with a stout trunk, rising to the height of 12-14 feet. His S. dumosa is said to tbe a low shrub, confined to mountain regions. Douglas's Californian specimens are quite intermediate between the two, and probably came from the back country : the young leaves agree well with the description of Pursh.

Literature Cited:
- Geyer, Charles A., 1846.
- Hooker, Sir William J., 1847.  

Hooker (1847, v. 6., p. 217) published Nuttall's H. dumosa in his Catalogue of Geyer's collections of plants in the upper Missouri, Oregon Territory, and the intervening portion of the Rocky Mountains. IPNI judges this name as illegitimate.
Original Text
4. S. dumosa, Nutt. — S. discolor, Ph. (fide Torr. et Gr.) — S. ariæfolia, β. discolor, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 416.
Hab. Stony and sandy places of Platte River; a shrub, from 2-10 feet high : and at the mouth of Walla-Walla River, Upper Oregon. June. (n. 228.) — These are specimens of a dwarf shrub, with leaves smaller than those of a gooseberry, and the foliage and panicles very different from those of S. ariæfolia, with which Torrey and Gray unite it. Nuttall's, Geyer's and Gordon's specimens (the latter from the Upper Platte) are uniform.
Geyer (1846) published an account of his travels in Hooker's London Journal of Botany.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

A. Gray (1849, p. 40) in Planteæ Fendlerianæ ...
Original Text
ROSACEAE
...
188. S. dumosa, Nutt ! Mss. ; Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 6. p. 217. Steep mountain-sides, upper part of Santa Fé Creek ; July. Shrub about 4 feet high. — This is the S. discolor of Torrey in Ann. Lyc. New York (James's Collection), and a good species ; but the original S. discolor, Pursh, I believe to be only S. ariæfolia ; as certainly is a plant of Menzies so named by Pursh in Herb. Lambert.

Remarks in the International Plant Names Index

A. Gray used: S. Dumosa, Nutt! Mss.; Hook. Land. Jour. Bot. 6. p. 217. … This is the S. discolor of Torrey in Ann. Lye. New York (James's Collection), and a good species; but the original S. discolor, Pursh, I believe to be only S. ariaefolia; as certainly is a plant of Menzies so named by Pursh in Herb. Lambert. S. dumosa Nutt. ex Hook. (1847) is an illegitimate superfluous name for S. discolor Pursh (1813). Since A. Gray used S. dumosa Nutt. ex Hook., but excluded its illegitimacy causing synonymy (i.e., S. discolor Pursh), he created a later homonym (see Vienna Code Art. 48.1).

Literature Cited:
- Heller, A. A., 1898.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  empty table;  

Heller (1898, p. 4) published Holodiscus dumosa with Spiraea dumosa as the basionym.
Original Text
Holodiscus dumosa (Nutt.)
   Spiraea dumosa Nutt.: T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 416. 1840. as synonym.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed., p. 309) accepts Holodiscus microphyllus Rydb. and H. dumosus (Nutt.) Heller.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012, p. 338) accept only Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maximovicz and include H. dumosus and H. microphyllus therein.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts only Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Hook.) A. Heller.

Literature Cited:
- Lis, Richard, 2015.  

Lis (2015) accepts the following names in Holodiscus ...
  • Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maximowicz
    • Holodiscus discolor var. discolor
    • Holodiscus discolor var. dumosus (S. Watson) Maximowicz ex J. M. Coulter
  • Holodiscus microphyllus Rydberg
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. glabrescens (Greenman) F. A. Ley
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. microphyllus
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. sericeus F. A. Ley

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physocarpus monogynus;  

Physocarpus monogynus (Torr.) J.M. Coult. “Mountain Ninebark”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, p. 194) describes ...
Original Text
119. S. monogyna, foliis lato-ovatis, subtrilobis, inciso-serratis, glabris ; floribus corymboso-umbellatis, monogynis ; pedicellis glabris ; calycis lobis erecto-patentibus, ovariis villosis.
Desc. Fruticose. Branches alternate, covered with a loose bark as in S. opulifolia. Leaves roundish-ovate, broad and subcordate at the base, somewhat 3-lobed, incisely toothed, slightly pubescent beneath, smooth above ; petioles without stipules. Umbels corymbose, few-flowered, on short peduncles ; pedicels filiform, about half an inch long. Flowers perfect. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed ; lobes ovate-obtuse, somewhat spreading, pubescent. Petals —. Stamens 20 ; filaments inserted on a torus, which is free at the margin. Germen solitary, stipulate, ovate, compressed, villous, 3-seeded, acuminate with the persistent filiform style ; stigma small, capitate.
Hab. On the Rocky Mountains.
Obs. This species, so far as I have examined it, is constantly monogynous. In many respects if resembles the genus Neillia of Don prod. fl. Nep.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., 1891.  

John M. Coulter (1891, p. 104) published P. monogyna from the Guadalupe Mountains of west Texas.
Original Text
4. PHYSOCARPUS Maxim.
Diffuse shrubs, with palmately lobed leaves, corymbose flowers, and 1 to 5 divergent inflated membranaceous dehiscent 2 to several-seeded carpels.
1. P. monogyna. A small shrub : leaves ovate or often cordate, 3-lobed and toothed, sometimes densely white-tomentose beneath : flowers on short pedicels in simple umbel-like corymbs : ovaries densely tomentose and but 1 or 2. (Spiraea monogyna Torr. Neillia Torreyi Watson. Physocarpus Torreyi Maxim.) — In the Guadalupe Mountains.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla fissa;  

Potentilla fissa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray. “Bigflower Cinquefoil”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, 446) published Potentilla fissa from Nuttall and Wyeth collections on the plains of the Rocky Mountains towards Oregon.
Original Text
34. P. fissa (Nutt.! mss.): “viscidly pubescent ; stem erect, branching, leafy ; leaves pinnately 9-11-foliolate, on shory petioles ; leaflets unequal, roundish or oval, deeply incised or incisely toothed, the teeth entire ; stipules entire or toothed ; flowers rather crowded ; segments of the calys ovate, acute, shorter than the roundish (sulphur-yellow) petals.”
β. major : larger in all its parts ; flowers more crowded. — P. arguta, Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 21, not of Pursh. P. glutinosa, Nutt.! July.
Plains of the Rocky Mountains towards the Oregon, Nuttall! July. β Headwaters of the Oregon, Capt. Wyeth! — “Stem about a span high. Leaflets small, the lower ones roundish ; those of the upper cauline leaves ovate. External sepals much smaller, often toothed. Flowers rather large.” Nutt. — The plant which we have joined as a variety of this species seems to be a larger plant, and bears more resemblance to P. arguta.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla rivalis;  

Potentilla rivalis Nutt. “Brook Cinquefoil”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis
Full Size ImageTernate leaf of Coll. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 437) published P. rivalis from a Nuttall manuscript.
Original Text
2. P. rivalis (Nutt.! mss.) : “clothed with soft somewhat viscous pubescence ; stem erect, much branched ; radical leaves pinnately 5-foliate ; the leaflets crowded, and the 3 upper ones confluent ; those of the cauline leaves 3, often confluent, oblong, cuneiform at the base, coarsely serrate ; stipules ovate, nearly entire ; flowers numerous, small, on rather short pedicels ; calyx-segments acute ; petals inconspicuous; achenia smooth and even.
“In alluvial soil along the Lewis River.&rdquo July. — A very distinct species, allied to P. Norvegica. Cauline leaves small. Flowers inconspicuous.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Prunus americana;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2443, 4 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2443, Prunus americana
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2443, Prunus americana  

Prunus americana Marshall. “American Plum”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2443, Prunus americana
 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus crassicarpus;  

Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. “Groundplum Milkvetch”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Nuttall (1813, No. 6) published his Astragalus crassicarpus ...
Original Text
6. * Astragalus crassicarpus. ‡ Fruit about the size and form of A. physodes, but thick and succulent. Collected above the River Platte.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Glycyrrhiza lepidota;  

Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh “American Licorice”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Nuttall (1813) writing in Fraser's Catalogue
Original Text
45 *Liquiritia lepidota. ‡ Met from the source to the confluence of the Missourie ; and is probably the liquorice mentioned by Sir Alexander M'Kenzie, as found on the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean.

IPNI (2021) annotates this name as nom. inval.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (1814, v. 2., p. 480) validly published Glycyrrhiza lepidota indicating Fraser's Catalogue as a source of the name and that he had seen it dried, alive, and in flower.
Original Text Comments
  579. GLYCYRRHIZA. Gen. pl. 1197.  
lepidota. 1. G. foliolis oblongis acutis sericeo-villosis, leguminibus racemosis oblongis hispidis. &mdash. Fraser. catal.

On the banks of the Missouri. ♄ July, Aug. v. s. v. v. s. fl.

I have seen it dry; I have seen it alive or in flower.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  vexillum;  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 106) also published Glycyrrhiza lepidota. He does not indicate it is a new name. Nevertheless, it is treated as an isonym. Nuttall does give credit to Bradbury for first detecting the species around St. Louis.
Original Text
506. GLYCYRRHIZA. L.
Calix mostly bilabiate, gibbous at the base. Vexillum including the wings and carina. Legume subovate or oblong, compressed, and mostly hispid, 2 to 6-seeded.
Herbaceous; leaves pinnate, stipules cauline; flowers capitate, spiked or racemose.
Species. 1. G. lepidota. T. N. in Fras. Catal. Ph. 2, p. 480. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acute, everywhere squamulose, under surface covered with glandulose atoms; spikes axillary, acute, flowers crowded; legume oblong, many-seeded, echinate, setæ uncinate.
Hab. Abundant around St. Louis, where it was first detected by Mr. John Bradbury, F. L. S.; it is also common on the alluvial banks of the Missouri to the Mountains, and is in all probablity the Liquorice mentioned by Sir A. Mackenzie as indigenous to the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean.
Obs. Roots flagelliform, creeping, and very long, possessing in no inconsiderable degree the taste of liquorice. Stem erect, 3 to 5 feet high; spikes pedunculate; flowers whitish, dense, sessile; calix almost equally 5-parted, segments subulate. Vexillum ovate-oblong, nearly straight. Legume oblong, compressed, hispid, 5 or 6-seeded, much resembling the fruit of Xanthium spinulosum, not spontaneously opening. Nearly allied to G. foetida, and like that species emitting a somewhat disagreeable resinous odor. This plant appears to destroy the artificial distinction by which Glycyrrhiza and Liquiritia have been separated; as it can be equally referred to either one or the other.
The South of Europe, Tartary and the Levant furnish the other 6 species of this genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lupinus argenteus;  

Lupinus argenteus Pursh “Loosely Flowered Silver Lupine”

 
  Harrington (1954) and Ackerfield (2015) neither use keel decoration as a key character nor do they describe the decoration of the keel. California floras, e.g., Munz (1965) and Baldwin (2012), use a ciliate keel, as a key character to identify L. argenteus. Welch, et al. (1993) note that the keel can be glabrous or variously ciliate.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Thermopsis rhombifolia;  

Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely. “Spreadfruit Goldenbanner”

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.  

Fraser's (1813) Catalogue, most likely written by Nuttall, is the first reference to T. rhombifolia.
Original Text Comments
26. *Cytisus rhombifolius. ‡ Fl. not seen. I am a little surprised this is not marked by an “M” from the Missouri because in Nuttall (1818), two paragraphs down, Nuttall will tell us that he collected this plant at Fort Mandan.
 

Symbols used by Fraser (Nuttall).
* – New Species.
‡ – Perennial.
M. – from the Missourie. ;

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814) published Cytisus rhombifolia in the supplement to Vol. 2 of his Flora Americae Septentrionalis. Many of the entries in the supplement were Bradbury collections or from Nuttall descriptions in Fraser's Catalogue.
Original Text
Cytisus rhombifolius — C. pubescens ; racemis terminalibus erectis, leguminibus falcatis subarticulatis, foliolis oblongo-rhomboideis obtusis, stipulus rotundato-ovatis obliquis.

C. rhombifolius. Fraser. Catal. 1813.
In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury. v. s. in Herb. Bradbury. The stipulae are large and foliaceous ; the specimen I have seen was in fruit, and Mr. Bradbury has seen only one plant in flower.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  carina;  vexillum;  

Nuttall (1818) published it as Thermia rhombifolia eschewing the Thermopsis of R. Brown.
Original Text
401.THERMIA. Thermopsis. R. Brown. Hort. Kew. 3. p. 3.
Calix subcampanulate, half 4-cleft, the supper segment truncate and emarginate. Corolla papilionaceous, petals nearly equal in length; vexillum reflected at the sides; carina obtuse. Legume compressed and falcate, attenuated at the base, many-seeded.
Herbaceous; leaves ternate petiolate, stipules large and foliaceous; spikes terminal, interrupted, subverticillate, erect; flowers yellow. Very distinct in habit from Cytisus but requires further comparison with that genus?
Species. 1. *rhombifolia. Leaflets rhombi-ovate … … raceme interrupted. Cytisus rhombifolius T. N. in Fras Catal. 1813. Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 741. Suppl. Obs. Roots perennial … … — On denudated argillaceous hills near Fort Mandan. This plant is very closely allied to Sophora lupinoides of Pallas, Thermopsis lanceolata of Brown, and they appear inseparable in genus, that species when in perfection produces a long verticillated spike of flowers; some of Pallas's specimens, however, in the herbarium of A. B. Lambert, Esq., have a single verticill of flowers only as in the starved specimen figured in the Botanical Magazine, in this species the leaves are on both sides closely covered with a silky villous; the primary leaves it appears occur sometimes simple but always accompanied by the stipules after the manner of Baptisia.

Literature Cited:
- Richardson, John, 1823.  

Richardson (1823) wrote the botanical appendix for Franklin's (1823) report of the voyage to the polar sea.
Original Text Comments

No. VII.

BOTANICAL APPENDIX,

BY

JOHN RICHARDSON

 
 
The collections of Pallas and Pursh, now belonging to Mr. Lambert, rendered the power of referring to his valuable Herbarium an object of the utmost importance to me ; and the desire of promoting the science, whoch so eminently distinguishes his character, induced him cheerfully to accord it. I include this note because it confirms that Lambert had collections made by Pallas. Pallas and Lambert must have been frequent correspondents. This is possibly relevant to explanation of how a Pallas' manuscript describing Chrysocoma nauseosa might have been seen by Pursh.
 
137. Thermopsis rhombifolia: Nuttall. Am. 1. p. 282. (C.)  

(C.) Denotes the sandy plains in the neighborhood of Carlton, strongly resembling the plains of the Missouri, upon which the American botanists have lately made extensive collections.

 
 

Literature Cited:
- Nelson A., 1898.  

Nelson (1898) ...
Original Text Comments
The species of this region, as they now appear to be, are T. montana, T. rhombifolia, and the two proposed species. The fruits of these are very characteristic, a fact shown in the accompanying plate. The four fruiting racemes are all from the Wyoming material, are mature and typical each of its species They were photographed on one plate, hence the size is relatively correct (about one-third natural size).  
Thermopsis rhombifolia n. sp. — … …  
It is found near streams, preferring the moist, rich soil among the open underbrush. Type specimens in Herb. Univ. of Wyo., no. 3424 by Elias Nelson, Pole creek, July 22, 1897 ; and no. 3903 by the writer, Johnson's ranch, Big Laramie river, August 8, 1897.  

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) treated the Colorado taxa at the rank of species, saying, “… The mature or nearly mature fruit is necessary to be sure of the species. Even then some intergradations occur in Colorado plants.”

Literature Cited:
- Isely, Duane, 1978.  

Isely (1978) proposed var. divaricarpa despite recognizing that infraspecific divisions and those with T. macrocarpa are not that well-defined.
Original Text Comments
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nels.) Isely, Comb. Nov.  .
Thermopsis divaricarpa A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 25:275. 1898. Type: United States. Wyoming, Albany Co.: Johnson Ranch, 8 Aug 1897, A. Nelson 3902 (Holotype: RM!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!).  
I view Thermopsis of the western states as one vast complex, but have divided it into two “convenience” species, T. macrophylla of the Pacific states, and T. rhombifolia, which extends east to the high plains. These combinations provide the needed names. Isely also proposed var. montana based on a Nuttall type, and var. ovata based on T. ovata Robinson ex Piper.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittman (2012) treat Thermopsis rhombifolia, T. montana, and T. divaricarpa at the rank of species.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) ...
Original Text Comments
This is a polymorphic species with considerable variation and is often divided into three species (T, divaricarpa, T. montana, and T. rhombifolia). However, when one examines all three species together, considerable overlap in morphology is evident. … Intermediates between all three taxa can be seen where their ranges overlap.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Vicia ludoviciana;  

Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. “Louisiana Vetch”

There is one collection of Vicia ludoviciana in Golden s.l. that was made under the south side of Castle Rock.

In Jefferson County, there is just one other collection, from Chatfield Farms. Otherwise, in Colorado there are collections along the northern Front Range, along the Arkansas River between Canon City and Pueblo, and then in scattered locations in other parts of Colorado.

The flowers of Vicia ludoviciana are quite small, (4.5)6-8(9) mm., and mostly white, compared to those of V. americana that are (12)15-22(25) mm. and mostly colored.

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.  

Nuttall left Philadelphia on 2 October 1818, arriving at Fort Smith 24 April 1819. In mid-May he set off with a small Army detachment and several Cherokees for the Red River, traveling up the Poteau River and down the Kiamichi River. Nuttall collected on the Red River for three full days before time for the detachment to return to Fort Smith. He lost his companions and stayed in the area until mid-June. During this time he made many collections of new species, including Vicia americana (Graustein, 1967, p. 144).

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 271) ...
Original Text
8. V. Ludoviciana (Nutt. mss.): glabrous (except the young shoots) ; leaflets 10-12, elliptical or obovate, obtuse or emarginate ; stipules subulate, simple or semisagittate ; peduncle 2-6-flowered, at length longer than the leaves ; flowers (minute) closely approximated ; teeth of the calyx broad, acuminate, shorter than the tube ; legume broadly sabre-shaped, glabrous, 5-6-seeded ; seeds compressed, dark brown.
Grassy places on the Red River, and in Texas, Dr. Leavenworth ! “In Louisiana, Mr. Tainturuer,Nuttall. — ♃ Stem 2-3 feet long, rather stout, strongly angled, climbing. Leaflets 6-8 lines long, 2 lines wide, commonly emarginate. Stipules very small. Flowers blue, smaller than in V. Cracca, rarely solitary, often 2-6 on a peduncle. Legume ¾ of an inch long and 3 lines wide. — Mr. Nuttall in his manuscript describes the peduncles as 1-2-flowered, which is the case in some of our specimens ; but the peduncles are more commonly at least 4-flowered.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia esula;  

Euphorbia esula L. “Leafy Spurge”

This plant has low severity poison characteristics. The sap contains diterpine esters in milky latex which is toxic on ingestion and highly irritant externally, causing photosensitive skin reactions and severe inflammation, especially on contact with eyes or open cuts. The toxicity can remain high even in dried plant material. Prolonged and regular contact with the sap is inadvisable because of its carcinogenic nature.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Rhus trilobata;
Full Size ImageRhus trilobata at the southern end of the Survey Field.  

Rhus trilobata Nutt. Squawbush.

Rhus L. is a Linnean name published in his Species plantarum in 1753, although the name had been previously used in six other works that Linnaeus cites. The genus is native to temperate and tropical Asia, Europe, Africa, the Pacific region, and North and South America. There are ten other names that are synonyms for Rhus including Lobadium Raf. that is now treated as a group within Rhus and contains our R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  ♄;
Full Size ImageAiton (1789) description of Rhus aromatica  

Since Rhus trilobata is sometimes reduced to the rank of variety or subspecies under Rhus aromatica Ait. we need to understand the source of that name and its distribution. R. aromatica was described from a plant growing in the Kew Gardens, in 1789. The plant was provided to the garden in 1772 by John Bartram. The source of the plant was “Carolina,” which we now separate into North and South Carolina. Aiton's description is:
Mixed Latin and English My Interpretation of the Mixed Latin and English
11. R. foliis ternatis : foliolis sessilibus ovato-rhombeis inciso-serratis pilosiusculis.
Aromatic Sumach.
Nat. of Carolina. Mr. John Bartram.
Introd. 1772.
Fl. May.     H. ♄.
aromati-
cum.
11. R[hus] leaves in three parts : leaflets sessile, ovate-rhomboid, serrate, puberulent(?).
Aromatic Sumac.
Native to Carolina. [Collected by] Mr. John Bartram.
Introduced (to Kew Garden) in 1772.
Flowers in May.       Hardy. Shrubby.
aromatica
As was common at the time, Aiton used the astrological sign for Saturn to indicate shrubby plants.
Full Size Image
Abbreviations used by Aiton (1789)

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageNuttall's description of Rhus trilobata in Torrey & Gray (1838).  

Rhus trilobata was published by Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) from a manuscript written by Nuttall. From the location “Rocky Mountains” and the date of publication — 1838 — it is likely Nuttall made his collection on the Nathaniel Wyeth expedition of 1834-1836 (Graustein, 1967, pp. 277-304).

It seems as though the author should be “Nutt. ex Torrey & A. Gray,” but no one seems to spell it out that way.

Rhus. ANACARDIACEAE 219
§ 3. Flowers dioecious or polygamous : disk glandular, deeply 5-lobed (lobes opposite the petals) : drupe globose, villous : nut smooth, compressed: flowers in short aments, preceding the leaves. Leaves 3-foliolate. — Lobadium, Raf.
8. R. aromatica (Ait.) …
9. R. trilobata (Nutt ! Mss.) : “leaves glabrous, small ; lateral leaflets obovate, obtuse, 3-lobed at the apex or nearly entire ; terminal leaflet cuneiform, 3-lobed at the summit, the middle lobe sometimes 3-toothed.
“In the central chain of the Rocky Mountains. — A low leafy shrub ; the leaves much smaller than in R. aromatica : terminal leaflet broad, ½–1  inch in length ; lateral ones smaller. Drupes scarlet, acid ; the nut flat, scarcely striate.” Nutt.

Graustein (1967), Nuttall's biographer, does not mention Rhus trilobata or Nuttall's collection of it.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus trilobata, Barkley, 1937;

Locations: Raft River Mountains. Salt Lake Valley.  

The Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel was a geological survey made by order of the Secretary of War under the direction of Brig. and Bvt. Major General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, by Clarence King, U. S. geologist. More commonly known as the Fortieth Parallel Survey, the survey conducted field work from 1867 to 1872, exploring the area along the fortieth parallel north from northeastern California, through Nevada, to eastern Wyoming.

Volume 5, Botany, was written by Sereno Watson (1871) with the assistance of Drs. Gray and Torrey and others. Asa Gray reduced R. trilobata to the rank of variety, which was published in this volume by Watson.

Rhus aromatica, Ait., Var. trilobata, Gray. (R. trilobata, Nutt.) Leaves small, rarely exceeding 1' in length, usually glabrous ; leaflets lobed, the divisions entire or sparingly crenate. — Growing in dense leafy clumps, 3-6° high, and having a heavy disagreeable odor, It is the prevalent western form, extending from Western Texas to Southern California, and throughout the Rocky Mountains to the Upper Missouri. Found on the foot-hills around Salt Lake Valley and at the north base of the Raft River Mountains, Utah. (219.)

The Raft River Mountains are just northwest of the Great Salt Lake. The number (219) is the collection number that Watson applied when he distributed the specimens.

Full Size Image
Gray's description of Rhus aromatica var. trilobata in Watson (1871).

Literature Cited:
- Barkley, Fred Alexander, 1937.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica var. trilobata, Watson, 1871;  

Barkley (1937) treats both Rhus aromatica and R. trilobata at the species rank. R. aromatica var. trilobata Gray (in Watson, 1871) is placed in synonomy with R. trilobata. No comment is made regarding the treatment of either species, except that R. trilobata is an
... extremely variable assemblage of plants probably best treated taxonomically as a single polymorphic species running into several more of less consistent geographic variations…
Barkley also recognizes eight varieties of R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt. Ex T. & G. and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkley.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, W.A., B.C. Johnston, and R. Whittmann., 1981.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata, Weber, 1989;  

Weber, et al. (1981) published Rhus aromatica Ait. subsp. pilosissima (Engelm.) W. A. Weber, without the similar new combination for R. trilobata. This will be corrected in Weber (1989).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1989.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica, Weber, et al., 1981;  

Rhus aromatica Ait. Subsp. trilobata (Nutt.) W.A. Weber was published in Weber (1989) with the following explanation:
This is a combination inadvertantly omitted from an earlier treatment of Rhus (Weber, et al. 1981).
Neither publication gives any hint of why Weber reduces R. trilobata to a variety of Rhus aromatica

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins, 1993.  

Welsh et al. (1993) accept R. aromatica var. trilobata, and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Conq.

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Allison J., David A. Young, and Jun Wen, 2001.  

Miller, et al. (2001) paper about the phylogeny and biogeography of Rhus based on ITS sequence data is hidden behind a paywall.
Abstract. Rhus L. (sensu lato) has been considered the largest and most widespread genus in the Anacardiaceae. Controversy has surrounded the delimitation of the genus. Historically, seven segregate genera have been recognized: Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Melanococca, Metopium, Searsia, and Toxicodendron. These genera, together with Rhus s.str., are commonly referred to as the Rhus complex. Rhus s.str. Includes two subgenera, Lobadium (ca. 25 spp.) and Rhus (ca. 10 spp.). Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to examine the monophyly of Rhus s.str. And to provide insight into the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of the genus. The ITS data set indicates that Rhus s.str. Is monophyletic. Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Searsia, and Toxicodendron are distinct from Rhus s.str., although the relationships among these genera of the Rhus complex are not well resolved. Rhus subgenus Rhus is paraphyletic; the monophyletic subgenus Lobadium is nested within it. The ITS data set indicates that, for Rhus, the Madro-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Lobadium) had a single origin within the Arcto-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Rhus).

Literature Cited:
- Yi Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.  

Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere

Literature Cited:
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2007.  

Yi, et al. (2007) published a similar paper on phylogeny of Rhus based on sequences of nuclear and chloroplast genetics found that

(1)Species of Rhus form a monophyletic group … (9) R. aromatica and R. trilobata are sister taxa.

With two notable exceptions … species of subgen. Lobadium were resolved into two clades: … and (2) R. aromatica–R. trilobata and R. integrifolia–R. ovata.

The present distributions of R. microphylla, R. aromatica–R. trilobata, R. lanceolata, and R. copallina indicate that the opportunity for hybridization between some or all of these species exist (and likely existed) in the southwestern U. S. and northern Mexico.

This is one of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, A. R., and T. Terrazas, 2009.  

Andres-Hernandez (2009) published their analysis of leaf architecture of Rhus. This was part of their PhD thesis, and will be integral to a later paper (2014) on phylogeny of Rhus using structural and molecular data.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept R. aromatica Aiton ssp. trilobata (Nuttall) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1989, and one subspecies, ssp. pilosissima (Engelmann) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1981.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, Agustina Rosa, Teresa Terrazas, Gerardo Salazar, and Helga Ochoterena, 2014.  

For R. aromatica, the leaf texture is described as membraneous and the aureole is described as imperfect. For R. trilobata, the leaf texture is described as chartaceous and the aureole is described as incomplete.

This is another of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt., placing R. aromatica Aiton in synonomy, and accepts three varieties: var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkl., var. pilosissima Engelm., and var. trilobata.

   

Toxicodendron Mill.

 

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Philip, 1754.  

Original Text
TOXICODENDRON, Poifon-tree, vulgo.
The Characters are ;

The Flower confifts of five Leaves, which are placed orbicularly, and expand in form of a Rofe ; out of whofe Flower-cup rifes the Pointal, which afterward becomes a roundifh, dry, and, for the moft part, furrowed Fruit, in which is contained one comprefs'd Seed.

The Species are ;

1. Toxicodendron triphyllum glabrum. Tourn. Three - leav'd fmooth Poifon-tree.

2. Toxicodendron triphyllum, folio finuato pubefcente. Tourn. Three- leav'd Poifon-tree, with a finuated hairy Leaf.

3. Toxicodendron rectum, foliis minoribus glabris. Hort. Elth. Upright Poifon-tree, with fmaller fmooth Leaves.

4. Toxicodendron rectum pentaphyllum glabrum, foliis latioribus. Smooth five-leav'd upright Poifon-tree, with broader Leaves.

5. Toxicodendron amplexicaule, foliis minoribus glabris. Hort. Elth. Climbing Poifon-tree, with fmaller fmooth Leaves.

6 Toxicodendron foliis alatis, fructu rhomboide. Hort. Elth. Poifon-tree with wing'd Leaves, and a Fruit fhap'd like a Rhombus.

The two firft Species were brought from Virginia, many Years fince, where they grow in great Plenty, as it is probable they do in moft other Northern Parts of America. The firft Sort feldom advances in Height ; but the Branches trail upon the Ground, and fend forth Roots, by which they propagate in great Plenty.
The fecond Sort will grow upright, and make a Shrub about four or five Feet high, but rarely exceeds that in this Country. This may be propagated by Layers, and is equally as hardy as the former.
The third Sort here mention'd grows erect to the Height of five or fix Feet : the Leaves of this Kind are much fmaller, than thofe of the common Poifon-oak ; but the Branches of this are flexible, fo that it will never make a Shrub of any great Height or Strength.
The fourth Sort was found in Maryland, from whence the Seeds were fent to England. This grows more upright than the former, and by the Appearance of the young Plants, feems to be a Shrub of much larger Growth.
The fifth Sort is a Native of Virginia, from whence I received the Seeds : this puts out Roots from the Branches, which faften themfelves to the Stems of Trees, or the Joints of Walls, by which the Branches are fupported.
The fixth Sort is a low Shrub, feldom rifing more than five Feet high. All the Sorts of Toxicodendron differ in Sex, the Male never producing any Fruit, having fmall herbaceous Flowers, without any Embryoes.
Thefe Plants are preferv'd by the Curious in Botany, for the fake of Variety ; but as there is little Beauty in them, they are not much cultivated in England. The Wood of thefe Trees, when burnt, emits a noxious Fume, which will fuffocate Animals when they are fhut up in a Room where it is burnt : an Inftance of this is mention'd in the Philofophical Tranfactions by Dr. William Sherard, which was communicated to him in a Letter from New-England by Mr. Moore, in which he mentions fome People who had cut fome of this Wood for Fuel, which they were burning, and in a fhort time they loft the Ufe of their Limbs, and became ftupid ; fo that if a Neighbour had not accidentally open'd the Door, and feen them in that Condition, it is generally believ'd they would foon have perifh'd. This fhould caution People from making ufe of this Wood.
All thefe Sorts are hardy Plants, which will thrive in the open Air in this Country ; but they love a moift Soil, and fhuld be planted under Trees in Wilderneffes, where they will thrive very well, and endure the Cold better than where they have a more open Expofure. They may be propagated by Seeds, or from Suckers, which fome of the Sorts fend forth in plenty, or by laying down the Branches of thofe Sorts which do not put forth Suckers ; which in one Seafon will be fufficiently rooted to tranfplant ; when they mould be planted where they are defign'd to remain. The beft Time to remove thefe Shrubs is in March, becaufe then there will be no Danger of their fuffering by Froft.
When a Perfon is poifoned by handling this Wood, in a few Hours he feels an itching Pain, which provokes a Scratching, which is followed by an Inflammation and Swelling. Sometimes a Perfon has had his Legs poifon'd, which have run with Water. Some of the Inhabitants of America affirm, they can diftinguifh this Wood by the Touch in the Dark, from its extreme Coldnefs, which is like Ice : but what is mention'd of this poifonous Quality, is applicable to the fixth Sort here mention'd ; which, by the Defcription, agrees with this Species.
This Sort of Poifon-tree is not only a Native of America, but grows plentifully on the Mountains in Japan, where it is called Fafi No Ki ; and from this Tree they extract one Sort of their Varnifh or Lacca, which they ufe for japanning their Utenfils : but this is not their beft Kind of Varnifh, that being made of the Juice of another Tree, which is alfo very poifonous, and nearly allied to this ; and from which fome Writers think it differs only by Culture.
The Juice of this Tree is milky, when it lffues oat of the wounded Part ; but foon after it is expofed to the Air, it turns black, and has a very ftrong fetid Scent, and is corrodeing : for I have obferved, on cutting off a fmall Branch from one of thefe Shrubs, that the Blade of the Knife has been changed black in a Moment's time, fo far as the Juice had fpread over it ; which I could not get off without grinding the Knife.
As this Tree is very common in Virginia, Carolina, and New-England, it would be well worth the Inhabitants Trial, to make this Varnifh.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1905.  

Greene (1905, p. 114) segregated Toxicodendron from Rhus, again.
Segregates of the Genus Rhus
No taxonomic problem is easier, no fact more thoroughly established, than the identity of the original species, i.e., the type species of the genus Rhus ; because during more than a dozen centuries before even Tournefort, the species was but one, and that familiar to all writers about plants as the variously useful shrub of the whole Mediterranean region commonly called Rhus, but also long before Linnaeus written of under the binary name of Rhus coriaria, which name he also adopted. The genus was all this while supposed to be monotypical ; Rhus coriaria, the only Rhus. This fact is so easily apparent in bibliography, that there is no room for any controversy as to what is the type of the genus; and neither Tournefort nor Linnaeus, with the genus in view, could well have done otherwise than they did in placing it first in the list of species ; placing it as the type.
In the seventeenth century the genus received two indubitable accessions from North America in the shrubs now known as Rhus hirta and R glabra. Nobody questioned or doubted that these were of that genus. But along with these importations from our shores came the Poison Ivy ; a type which no authority did at first, or for a long time after, think of as possibly to be associated with Rhus congenerically.
Tournefort, before the end of the seventeenth century, proposed for the two forms known to him the rank of a genus, which he very fitly named Toxicodendron. Linnaeus suppressed the genus; but Philip Miller promptly restored it; and several more since Miller's time have insisted on its validity as a proper genus, so that now it bids fair for permanent recognition in the taxonomy of coming years.
A recension of the species of Toxicodendron is no easy task; so far from easy, I find it one of the most difficult I have hitherto undertaken. The best treatment of the genus extant, as to the early and typical species, is that of Dillenius in 1732. Linnaeus twenty years later, as his custom was, reduced the genus to Rhus and confused the species. Philip Miller sixteen years after this restored the genus, and also the Dillenian species of it, adding excellent descriptions of two or three new ones. In these two classic revisions of Tournefort's Toxicodendron, and not at all in Linnaeus, lie the means of identifying all the species early recognized.
The following represents my present understanding of the names and principal syonymy of the known species.

Greene goes on to nominate T. vulgare Mill. as the type of Toxicodendron.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Toxicodendron rydbergii;  

Toxicodendron rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene “Western Poison Ivy”

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900.  

Rydberg (1900, pp. 268-269) first recognized Western Poison Ivy as a distinct species in his Catalogue of the Flora of Montana and Yellowstone National Park.
* Rhus Rydbergii Small.
A single-stemmed shrub, less than a meter high, with grayish, somewhat striate bark ; leaves pinnately 3-foliolate with petioles 6-12 dm. long; leaflets 3-10 cm. long, broadly ovate, often somewhat rhomboid, rather thick, bright green, strongly veined beneath, glabrous except the veins on the lower surface, with wavy or sinuately toothed margins ; flowers in small conical axillary panicles, which are much shorter than the petioles, their branches short ; flowers yellow; petals about 3 mm. long, ovate, whitish yellow with greenish streaks; fruit when ripe white and shining,' a little depressed-globular, 5-6 mm. in diameter.
It has been invariably mistaken for R. Toxicodendron, which has pubescent sinuatelv lobed leaflets, and is confined to the southeastern United States. From R. radicans (R. Toxicodendron var. radicans), it differs in never being a climber, but always an erect shrub, in the thicker, somewhat glaucous leaves, the smaller and denser panicles, and the larger flowers and fruit. Both grow together in Nebraska, and they always remain distinct. The present species occurs on hillsides and in open woods, from Kansas to Arizona and British Columbia.
Montana: Great Falls, 1885, R. S. Williams, 291; northern Montana, F. W. Anderson.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1905.  

Greene (1905, p. 117) provided a name for Rhus Rydbergii in Toxicodendron.
Original Text
T. Rydbergii. Rhus Rydbergii, Small, in Rydb. Fl. Mont. 268, in part. Well distinguished by Mr. Small, for the plant of Montana, occurring in Wyoming, mountain districts of Colorado, southward even to New Mexico, apparently, but hardly including that of Washington and Oregon.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Acer glabrum;  

Acer glabrum Torr. Rocky Mountain Maple.

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, p. 172) ...
Original Text
48. Acer glabrum, foliis subrotundis, 5-7-lobis, basi truncatis, lobis acute dentatis, utrinque glabris ; corymbis pedunculatis ; fructibus glabris, alis divergentibus, lato-ovatus.
Hab. On the Rocky Mountains.
Obs. Leaves in long petioles, green on both sides, very smooth on every part, slightly cordate at the base, 5-7-lobed ; the sinuses acute. Umbels on peduncles about a half an inch long. Fruit with very broad diverging wings.

There was but one specimen of this plant in the collection, which was in fruit. The flowers remain to be examined.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sphaeralcea coccinea;  

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb. “Scarlet Globemallow”

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.

Locations: Marias River.  

Moulton (1999) presents two vouchers of Sphaeralcea coccinea from the Lewis & Clark herbarium. Both were of the same collection dated July 20, 1806, on the Marias River, Toole County, Montana. The material was separated and some stayed at the Americal Philosophical Society, while some was taken by Pursh to England and ended up in the Lambert Herbarium, which Pursh (1814) cited.

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Fraser's (1813) Catalogue, with at least some entries written by Nuttall, is the first publication of S. coccinea.
Original Text Comments
51 *Malva coccinea. ‡ Flowers scarlet, produced in dense spikes. Met with from the river Platte to the Rocky Mountains. The double dagger (‡) indicates that the plant is a perennial.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (Vol. 2, 1816) describes Cristaria coccinea from Fraser's (1813) Catalogue and the Lewis herbarium.
Original Text
553. CRISTARIA. Cavan. ic. 5. p 10.
1. C. undique cano-tomentosa et pilis stellatis obsita ; foliis 3-5-fidis, laciniis incisis acutis, racemis terminalibus, caule diffuso. coccinea.

Malva coccinea. Fraser. Catal.
On the dry prairies and extensive plains of the Missouri. ♃. Aug. Sept. v. v. ; v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers scarlet.
 
[Long Latin description not reproduced.]  
The singularly stellated fasciculi of hair, placed in the close tomentum, and its bright scarlet flowers, make this plant particularly interesting.  

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Original Text
478. MALVA. L. (Mallow.)
Calix double; the exterior mostly 3-leaved. Petals 5. Capsules many, 1-seeded, disposed orbicularly.
Shrubby or herbaceous; leaves alternate and stipulate, undivided, or palmately lobed; flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, more or less aggregated or racemose. (Pubescence stellate.)
Species. 1. M. abutiloides. 2. caroliniana. A Sida? 3. rotundifolia Introduced. 4. triloba. In Carolina. 5. * coccinea. T. N. in Fras. Catal. 1813. A very beautiful species with scarlet flowers disposed in dense recemes (sic); outer calix wanting, leaves mostly trifid, canescently tomentose. Hab, From the confluence of the river Platte and the Missouri, often extending over the plains in such quantities as to communicate a brilliant redness to thousands of acres. This plant has no sort of affinity to Cristaria, and by the fruit is a genuine Malva.
A genus of more than 60 species, many of them indigenous to tropical America, to the Cape of Good Hope, and some to Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Original Text
81, 82. Malvastrum coccineum : humilis, incanum ; cailibus e basi sublignosa ramosis diffusis ; foliis trisectis tripartitisva, segmentis lateralibus saepius bipartis intermedio trifido, lobis oblongis linearibusve integris seu paucidentatis ; floribus inferioribus solitariis rariusve geminis in axillis foliorum, sperioiribus in racemum strictum digestis ; bracteis subulatis deciduis ; bracteolis involucelli 1-2 setaceis fugacibus ; coccis 9-12 clausis dorso subtiberculatis cano-tomentosis. — Gray, Gen. Ill. t. 219. Cristaria coccinea, Pursh ! Fl. 2. p. 453. Malva coccinea, Nutt. ! Gen. 2. p. 81 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1643. Sida coccinea. DC. Prodr. 1. p. 465 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109; Torr. & Gray ! Fl. 1. p. 235. — Var. β dissectum : nanum ; foliis 3-5-partitis, segmentis 3-5-fidis lobisque anguste linearibus. Sida dissecta, Nutt. ! in Torr. & Gray, l. c.; Hook. & Arn. ! Bot. Beech. Suppl. p. 327. — Plains, &c., Santa Fe, and East to Rock Creek and Poñi Creek of the Canadian ; June to September. In flower and fine fruit. Some varying forms as to foliage are distributed under these numbers ; under one of them there are a few specimens of the var. dissecta, or of forms that evidently collect the Sida dissecta of Nuttall with the S. coccinea. I have for several years cultivated this species, from seed brought from the Upper Missouri by Mr. Sprague, and had ascertained that its radicle is inferior, as in Malva. — An account of the genus, of which this is one of the typical species, is given in the subjoined revision of the genera allied to Malva.  

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1913.  

Rydberg (1913) argued that Gray's (1849) Malvastrum should be merged into Sphaeralcea.,
Original Text
Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.

Malva coccinea Nutt. Fras. Cat. 1813.
Cristaria coccinea Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 454. 1814.
Sida coccinea DC. Prod. 1: 465. 1824.
Malvastrum coccineum A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. 4: 21. 1849

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Mentzelia multiflora;  

Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray. “Adonis Blazing Star”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  

Nuttall (1848, p. 180) plants collected by William Gambel.
Original Text
BARTONIA.
B. *multiflora. Biennial ? Stem smooth, white and shining, corymbosely branched ; leaves narrow-lanceolate, sinuate, pinnatifid, attenuated below and sessile ; flowers subtended by one or two linear bractes; petals 10, oblong-oval, obtuse; capsule urceolate, with three to four valves ; segments of the calyx long and subulate ; seeds in a double series, winged.
Hab. Sandy hills along the borders of the Rio del Norte. Santa Fe, (Mexico.) Flowering in August.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Gray (1849) placed the plant in Mentzelia in his Plantae Fendleriana.
Original Text
242. M. multiflora. Nutt. Pl. Gamb. in Jour, Acad, Philad. n. ser. 1. p. 180? under Bartonia. Santa Fe ; June, July. Flower seldom open in the day-time. Also along the Arkansas near Bent's Fort ; Sept. (I have not seen the latter specimens.) — The specimens are a foot of more in height, with most of the leaves rather deeply pinnatifid, and flowers about one fourth larger than those of an original specimen of Nuttall's Bartonia pumila in Dr. Torrey's herbarium. with which, except in the greater size, they accord tolerably well. The stems become bright white with age, as in other species. The petals apparently straw-color, perhaps white, are one half or one third of an inch in length, obovate or spatulate and rather obtuse, except with age, exceeding the subulate calyx-segments, and longer than the ovary. The outer filaments are conspicuously dilated. In have the same species, apparently, from Coulter's Californian collection, but with rather larger flowers, and mire interruptedly pinnatifid leaves. In Dr. Torrey's herbarium I notice specimens, for the most part imperfect, referable either to this plant or to M. pumila itself, gathered on the Upper Platte or Arkansas by Dr. James in Long's expedition, and in the valley of the Rio del Norte, New Mexico, by Lieut. Emory. I can hardly doubt that it is the Bartonia multiflora of Nuttall, although the petals are not quite so large as he describes them. There is a related species in Texas, which I have also flowered in cultivation.* This last species is M. wrightii A. Gray s. nov., which Gray goes on to describe.

Literature Cited:
- Hufford, Larry, John J. Schenk, and Joshua M. Brokaw, 2017.  

Hufford, et al. (2017) retain all of Mentzelia s.l. in a single genus, and place M. multiflora in section Bartonia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coryphantha missouriensis;  

Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose “Missouri Foxtail Cactus”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 1, p. 295) listed Cactus mamillaris as an existing name.
Original Text
Melocactus. roundish.
Species. 1. C. mamillaris. Tubercles ovate terete, bearded; flowers scarcely exserted; berries scarlet about equal with the tubercles. — On the high hills of the Missouri probably to the mountains. A species which was hitherto supposed solely indigenous to the tropical parts of America. It appears to be smaller than the West India plant.

This cactus was not listed in Fraser's catalogue. Why did Nuttall not indicate it was a new name with an asterisk?

It turns out that Cactus mamillaris is a Linnaean (1753) name, but Nuttall does not indicate so. C. mamillaris L. is a synonym of Mammillaria mammillaris (L.) H. Karst. So either Nuttall failed to recognize a new species or applied an illegitimate name to the new species.

Literature Cited:
- Sweet, Robert, 1826.  

Sweet (1826, p. 171) in a catalogue of plants raised in gardens of England placed our species in Mamillaria and gave it the specific epithet of missouriensis.
Original Text
MAMMILLARIA. H.S. Mammillaria. Icosandria Monogynia.
14 missouriensis. Missouri. Missouri.

G. ♄
Cactus mamillaris N. nec aliorum.

“G. ♄” indicates that the plants are grown in a greenhouse and they are shrubby.

The phrase “nec aliorum” literally translates to “no other.” Does that mean there are no other names to be placed in synonomy? Or does it mean that … what?

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coryphantha vivipara;  

Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose. “Beehive Cactus”

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Original Text Comments
22 *Cactus viviparus. This species has much the appearance of C. mamillaris, but produces a red flower, like C. Flagelliformis, and a greenish edible fruit, about the size of a grape. Collected near the Mandan towns on the Missourie: lat. near 49°.  

Literature Cited:
- Britton, N. L., and J. N. Rose, 1919-1923.
- Wikipedia contributors, 2020a.  

Britton & Rose (1919-1923, 4 vols.) The Cactaceae is a monograph on plants of the cactus family written by the American botanists Nathaniel Lord Britton and Joseph Nelson Rose and published in multiple volumes between 1919 and 1923. It was landmark study that extensively reorganized cactus taxonomy and is still considered a cornerstone of the field. It was illustrated with drawings and color plates principally by the British botanical artist Mary Emily Eaton as well as with black-and-white photographs.

A black-and-white reprint of the second (1937) edition of The Cactaceae was published by Dover Publications in 1963. In 2006, Daniel Schweich undertook a project to digitize the entire book, and all four volumes can now be downloaded in full color (WikiPedia contributors, 2020a).

Original Text Comments
31. Coryphantha vivipara (Nuttall) Britton and Rose in Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. Ed. 2. 2: 571. 1913.  

Cactus viviparus Nuttall, Fraser's Cat. No. 22. 1813.
Mammillaria vivipara Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 72. 1819
Mammillaria radiosa Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat, Hist. 6: 196 1850
Echinocactus radiosus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 107. 1853.
Echinocactus viviparus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 107. 1853
Mammillaria vivipara vera Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 269. 1856.
Mammillaria vivipara radiosa Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3; 269. 1856.
Mammillaria vivipara radiosa Engelmann, Cact. Mex, Bound. 15. 1859, as subspecies.
 
[Description not reproduced.]  
Type locality: “Near the Mandan towns on the Missouri, lat. Near 49°.”
Distribution: Manitoba to Alberta, Kansas, south to northern Texas and Colorado.
 
The group to which Coryphantha vivipara belongs has always been very puzzling. Dr. Engelmann, our greatest suthority on this group, was sometimes of one opinion and sometimes of another. Schumann rejected the specific name vivipara of Haworth for this plant since he thought that it was not the same as the vivipara of Engelmann, but in this he must be wrong, for Mammillaria vivipara Haworth was based upon Cactus viviparus Pursh, a name previously used by Nuttall, and both Pursh's and Nuttall's descriptions were based on the specimens collected by Nuttall in “Upper Louisiana” in 1812. This is undoubtedly the plant which Engelmann had in mind and which he called the variety vera. We have not seen the type, but Pursh stated that he had seen flowers in Lambert's Garden.  
Engelmann's remakrs regarding the variability of the species are interesting. In the Proceedings of the American Academy (3: 269) he says:
“The extreme forms are certainly very unlike one another, but the transitions are so gradual that I can not draw strict limits between them.”
 
Coryphantha vivipara and the three following species are closely related. They are C. neo-mexicana, C. arizonica, and C. deserti.
This plant is a day bloomer, and according to Engelmann the flowers become fully expanded about one o'clock in the afternoon.  
Hooker in Curtis's Botanical Magazine (pl. 7718) figures and describes a plant purchased from D. M. Andrews of Boulder, Colorado, in which all the spines are brown, the flower is rose-red, and the stigma-lobes are linear and white.  
[A list of illustrations by others is not reproduced.  

   

Echinocereus Engelm. “Hedgehog Cactus”

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1848.  

Engelmann(1848, p. 91) published echinocereus ....
Original Text
In the prairies about Wolf creek, in an elevation of between 6,000 and 7,000 feet, the smallest of a tribe of cactaceae was discovered, numerous species of which were found in the course of the journey south and southeast several others have also been discovered in Texas. I mean those dwarfish Cerei, some of which have been described with the South American genus Echinopsis, or have been referred alternately to Cereus or Echinocactus, and which I propose to distinguish from all these under the name of Echinocereus,7 indicating their intermediate position between Cereus and Echinocactus: they approach more closely to Cereus, in which genus they, as well as the genus Echinopsis, should perhaps be included as subgenera.

7 Echinocereus, n. gen. Perigonii tubus ultra germen productus ... [... Latin diagnosis omitted ...]

Globose, or mostly ovate; simple, or mostly branching from the base or cespitose; tubercles, forming few or mostly a great many ribs; bunches of short or long spines, distant or approximate, often very crowded; vertex never woolly; flowers lateral, produced from last year's growth, opening only in sunshine, but for two or three days in succession; closed at night, or in dark weather.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ehinocereus viridiflorus;  

Echinocereus viridiflorus Engelm. “Nylon Hedgehog Cactus”

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1848.

Locations: Wolf Creek.  

Engelmann then proposed E. viridiflorus ...

Original Text
The species mentioned above is distinguished from all others known to me by its yellowish green flowers, the others having crimson or purple flowers. I have named it, therefore, Echinocereus viridiflorus.8

8 Echinocereus viridiflorus, n. sp. ovato-globusus, humilis, … [… Latin diagnosis omitted …]

Prairies on Wolf creek, flowers in June; Santa Fe, flowers in May, (Fendler.) Body 1 to 1½ inch high, oval; spines 1 or 1½ to 3 lines long; central spine when present 6 to 7 lines long; flower 1 inch long and wide, outside green brown, inside yellowish green; petals only 2 lines wide, being about 5 lines long.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Opuntia macrorhiza;  

Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. “Western Pricklypear”

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1850.

Locations: Guadalupe River.  

Engelmann (1850, v. 6, p. 206) ...
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
O. macrorhiza (n. sp.) : prostrata ; articulis obovato-orbiculatis planiusculis ; pulvillis setis fuscis et saepe aculeis singulis binisve instructis ; aculeis teretibus validis porrectis s. paulo deflexis basi apiceque fuscis ceterum albidis cum adventitio inferiore graciliore reflexo saepe deficiente ; floribus sulphureis basi intus rubellis ; ovario sepalis subulatis deciduis 13 in axillis setulas fuscas brevissimas gerentibus stipato; sepalis interioribus 15-18 subulatis et (internis) ovatis acuminato-cuspidatis ; petalis 8 sepala superantibus late obovato-spathu.latis obtusis cuspidatis eroso-denticulatis ; stigmatibus 5 obtusis, adpressis, stamina numerosa aequantibus ; bacca subpulposa clavata glabrata ; seminibus marginatis. — Naked, sterile, rocky places on the Upper Guadaloupe. Flowers (in St. Louis) in June. Root a large and fleshy tuber, sometimes 2 or 3 inches in diameter; joints 3-4 inches long, about 2½-3½ wide, hardly attenuate at the base. Leaves subulate, about 5 lines long. Areolae ¾ — 1 inch distant, more crowded toward the base and on the edges: spines (often wanting) 1 inch long, the smaller 4-6 lines long. Flower 3 inches in diameter: ovary 1¼ inch long: petals 1 inch wide, 1½ inch long, pale yellow, red at the base. Fruit 1½ inches long; the strongly margined seeds comparatively few, 2½ lines in diameter. — I have found the same plant in similar situations in Western Arkansas ; and it is possible that it may be one of Nuttall's new species (O. mesacantha, O. caespitosa, or O. humifusa) of which I cannot find a description. — Nearly related to O. vulgaris.  

Literature Cited:
- Kilburn, Paul D., and Sally L. White, 1992.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.  

Observations of cacti identified as Opuntia compressa (Zeise, 1976 and Kilburn and White, 1992) have been assumed to be O. macrorhiza per Weber & Wittman (2012).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Opuntia polyacantha;  

Opuntia polyacantha Haw. “Plains Pricklypear”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 1, p. 296) published Cactus ferox, which he placed in the group Opuntiæ of Cactus L., apparently unaware that Willdenow (1814) published the same name for a cactus occurring in Cuba.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
4. * ferox. Articulately proliferous; articulations larger, nearly circular and very spiny; spines double, larger spines radiate persistent; flowers numerous; fruit dry and spiny. Hab. In arid situations on the plains of the Missouri, common. Obs. A much larger plant than C. opuntia to which it is nearly allied; exterior spines radiate, with one of them central, solitary and erect; flowers aggregated, marginal, dilute sulphur yellow, rosaceous towards the base; petals subemarginate. Style thick, stigmas 8 to 10 greenish. Colytedones 2, distinct. Flowering in July. Upon this species I found the Coccus coccinelliferus. ferox” means fierce, a reference to the spiny plants.

Coccus coccinelliferus is a synonym for Dactylopius coccus, a scale insect from which cochineal dye is derived. This insect, a primarily sessile parasite, lives on cacti from the genus Opuntia, feeding on moisture and nutrients in the cactus sap. The insect produces carminic acid, which deters predation by other insects. The carminic acid can be extracted from the insect's body and eggs to make the red dye.

Literature Cited:
- Haworth, Adrian Hardy, 1819.  

Haworth (1819, p. 82) ...
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
poly-
cantha.
     8.
O. (Many-spined) articulis compressis obretuso- rotundatis, spinis horridis variabilibus albis, 2-3 senectis subuncialibus divaricato-deflexis.

Cactus ferox, Nuttall gen. n. americ. 296, nec Willd.

Habitat prope flumen Missouri, in America Boreali, in aridis locis.

Cult. in hort. Chels. A.D. 1814. H. ♄

Affinis O. spinosissimae, at longe distincta, et aere aperto viget.

“… to Mr Anderson the excellent Curator of the Physic Garden at Chelsea, which have not heretofore been cultivated in England; and which Mr. Anderson, with his usual zeal in favour of science, has afforded me every opporunity of examining and describing.”

 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and Addison Brown, 1913.  

Pediocactus Britton & Rose

Original Text
2. PEDIOCACTUS Britton & Rose.
Stems globose, leafless, tubercled, the tubercles arranged in spiral rows bearing clusters of spines arising from areolae. Flowers borne on the tubercles, at or near areolae from which spines are developed. Calyx-tube prolonged beyond the ovary, its tube funnelform, bearing a few scales. Petals numerous, similar to the inner sepals, but larger, pinkish. Stamens numer- ous, borne on the tube of the calyx. Ovary green, globose; style columnar. Berry irregularly bursting, with a terminal scar, nearly or quite scaleless. Seeds tubercled, with a large sub- basal hilum. [Greek, Plains-cactus.]

Three species, natives of central and western North America, the following typical.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pediocactus simpsonii;  

Pediocactus simpsonii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose “Mountain Ball Cactus”

 

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, 1863.

Locations: Mount Vernon.  

Engelmann (1863, p. 197) published an account of a new cactus in “Additions to the Cactus-Flora of the Territory of the United States” in Transactions of the Academy of St. Louis.
Original Text
2. Echinocactus Simpsoni, spec, nov. : e basi turbinata … [… Latin diagnosis omitted …]
Butte Valley, in the Utah Desert, and Kobe Valley, farther west; var. β in Colorado Territory, e. g. in coarse gravel or in crevices of rocks, abundant near Mount Vernon, at the base of the mountains, Parry, Hall & Harbour ; fl. in May, fr. in July and August. With the New Mexican E. papyracanthus,* the Mexican E. horripilus, Lem., and perhaps the South American E. Odierii, Lem., and E. Cummingii, Salm, this species forms a small section of Echinocacti with the appearance of Mamillariae, named by Prince Salm, (Hort. Dyck., 1849, p. 31,) Theloidei. Through the Coryphanthae they are nearly allied to Mamillaria, while our species at least, (the fructification of the others not being known,) by its dry fruit, its black tuberculated seeds, and especially the large and curved embryo and the presence of an albumen, proves itself a true Echinocactus, very closely connected with the regularly ribbed E. intertextus, Eng. Cact., Mex. Bound, t. 34. The similarity in all essential organs of these two species is such that no system ought to separate them, proving again of how little essential importance among Cactacese the external form must be regarded; another striking example, among many, is the rat-tail Cereus tuberosus, and its globular or oval allies, C. caespitosus, etc.
[… Additional description omitted …]

Literature Cited:
- Simpson, Captain J. H., 1876.

Locations: Butte Valley. Kobeh Valley.  

The cactus George Engelmann (1863) described was collected by his brother Henry Engelmann on an 1859 expedition across the Great Basin led by Captain Simpson. However, the expedition report was not published until 1876 (Simpson, 1876).

At the time, “Territory of Utah” included all of the present-day State of Utah, most of the present-day state of Nevada, much of present-day western Colorado, and the extreme southwest corner of present-day Wyoming.

The Butte Valley of Simpson's report is the present-day Butte Valley of White Pine and Elko Counties, Nevada. The Ko-Bah Valley is present-day Kobeh Valley, Eureka County, Nevada, along US Highway 50 northwest of Eureka.

The Var. β. minor, was collected near Mount Vernon, by Parry, Hall & Harbour (1862) making it a Jefferson County plant.

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and Addison Brown, 1913.  

Original Text
I. Pediocactus Simpsoni (Engelm.) Britton & Rose. Simpson's Cactus. Hedge-hog-thistle.
Echinocactus Simpsoni Engelm. Trans. St. Louis Acad. 2 : 197. 1863.
Stems single, globose or with a narrowed base, 3'-6' high, 3'-4' in diameter. Tubercles ovoid, somewhat 4-sided at base, 6"-8" long, arranged in spirals; central spines yellowish below, nearly black above, 5"-7" long, the exterior ones slightly shorter, whitish; flowers greenish pink, 8"-10" long and about as broad, borne to one side at the ends of the tubercles; petals oblong, crenulate and cuspidate at the apex ; berry dry, 3"-3½" in diameter, bearing near its summit 2-3 scales which sometimes have short spines in their axils.
Kansas (according to B. B. Smyth) ; Colorado to Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico and Nevada. April-May.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oenothera cespitosa;  

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. “Tufted Evening Primrose”

 

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

First published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue.
Original Text
53 *Oenothera cespitosa. ‡ This species is more perfectly stemless than OE. acaulis of Cavanilles, from which it is distinct. Flowers very large and white, with dilated obcordate petals.

Note that Nuttall, as the author of Fraser's (1813) Catalogue spelled the specific epithet “cespitosa” and not “caespitosa.” Indeed some authors use caespitosa, such as Weber & Wittmann (2012), whereas others, such as Ackerfield (2015) use cespitosa. It is probably better Latin to use caespitosa. On the other hand, we could just treat the author's epithet cespitosa as valid, and caespitosa as an orthographic variant.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aralia nudicaulis;  

Aralia nudicaulis L. “Wild Sarsaparilla”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Original Text
nudicaulis. 4. ARALIA caule nudo. Hort. cliff. 113. Gron. virg. 34. Roy. lugdb. 94.
Aralia caule nuda, redice repente. Cold. noveb. 66.
Chriftophoriana virginia, zarzae radicibus furculofis & fungofis. Pluk. alm. 98. t. 238. f. 5.
Habitat in Virginia, simillina (forte eadem) in Iava. ♄

 

Literature Cited:
- Sun, Feng-Jie, and Stephen R. Downie, 2010.  

Apiaceae Apioidae

Some current phylogenetic analysis (Sun & Downie, 2010) shows that among the western American Apioideae including Aletes, Cymopteris, Lomatium, and Musineon are highly polyphyletic and therefore likely to be significantly reorganized in the coming years.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aletes acaulis;  

Aletes acaulis (Torr.) J.M. Coult. & Rose “Stemless Indian Parsley”

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Joseph N. Rose, 1888.  

Original Text
48. ALETES. — An acaulescent glabrous perennial, with pinnate leaves, broad sharply toothed or cut rather distant leaflets, mostly no involucre, and involucels of lanceolate bractlets about equalling the yellow flowers.
1. A. acaulis. Cespitose, with peduncles 4 to 10 inches high, often much longer than the leaves: leaflets ovate, irregularly toothed and cut, sometimes almost pinnatifid: umbel 8 to 15-rayed; rays 5 to 10 lines long; fruit almost sessile, 1½ lines long. (Fig. 147.) — Deweya (?) acaulis Torrey, Pacif. R. Rep. iv. 94. Oreosciadium acaule Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. vii. 343. Seseli Hallii Gray, 1. c. viii. 288. Musenium Greenei Gray, 1. c. 387. Carum (?) Hallii Watson, Bibl. Index. Polypet. 416. Zizia Hallii C. & R. Bot. Gazette, xii. 137, foot-note.
In the foot-hills of Colorado and New Mexico. Fl. May.
The history of this species has been somewhat remarkable. Not only has it been referred to six genera, but it has stood under three of them at the same time. Referred first doubtfuliy to Deweya by Torrey in 1856, it was transferred by Gray to Oreosciadium in 1868. It then turned up in the Hall & Harbour collection and was described as Seseli Hallii Gray in 1870. A year or two later it was sent to Dr. Gray by E. L. Greene, and appeared in 1872 as a new species of Musenium, M. Greenei Gray. At this time the same plant was appearing in our publications under three names, Oreosciadium acaule, Seseli Hallii, and Musenium Greenei, all of Gray. In his Bibliographical Index, Watson referred it doubtfully to Carum, as C. (?) Hallii, at the same time recognizing the identity of Seseli Hallii and Musenium Greenei, and quoting them as synonyms. In 1887, however, in Proc. Am. Acad. xxii. 475, Watson records the identity of Oreosciadium acaule with his Carum (?) Hallii, and so the names were at last reduced to one. The fruit characters are those of Zizia, and if they are to dominate over every other consideration this piant must be a Zizia, as we suggested in Bot. Gazette, xii. 137. But no character should be used too arbitrarily, and the complete disimilarity of habit between the recognized species of Zizia and this species seems something that cannot be neglected. If such a thing is to be neglected in this ease, consistency would demand a consolidation of genera such as we are not at present disposed to accept. If this plant, then, is not a Zizia, nor any of the numerous genera proposed for it, a genus must be made for it, for surely, if a plant does not satisfy any genus, it must be sui generis. That it does not satisfy the demands of any recognized genus is to be inferred from its strange history; but it may be proper to point out a few of the reasons why it cannot belong to any of the genera heretofore proposed for it. It is hardly necessary to show why it cannot be a Veloea (Deweya). From Oreosciadium it differs in its prominent calyx-teeth, pinnate leaves, and yellow flowers; from Seseli in its laterally flattened fruit, yellow flowers, and whole habit; from Musenium in its much more prominent ribs, strengthening cells, solitary oil-tubes, almost plane seed-face, and simpler leaves; from Carum in its depressed stylopodium, yellow flowers, and its general habit. Taking its habit and fruit both into consideration it is more nearly related to Musenium than any other genus. For the reasons given, we propose for it a new genus, the name of which indicates its changing history.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Harbouria trachypleura;  

Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose “Whiskbroom Parsley”

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Joseph N. Rose, 1888.  

Coulter & Rose (1888, p. 125) proposed Harbouria trachypleura.
Original Text
47. HARBOURIA. — Glabrous perennials, with 1 to 3 leaves which are ternately decompound and with narrowly linear or filiform segments, involucre and involucels of few subulate bracts, and long-peduncled umbels (mostly in pairs) of yellow flowers.
Hall & Harbour, to the latter of whom it is dedicated, as the name Hallia is preoccupied.
H. trachypleura. A foot or more high: leaf-segments mucronulate: umbels (mostly 2 long-peduncled ones) 15 to 25-rayed ; rays an inch long; pedicels 2 to 3 lines long: fruit 2 lines long. (Fig. 146.) — Thaspium trachypleurum Gray, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1863, 63. Cicuta (?) trachyplera Watson, Ribl. Index. Polypet. 417.
Hall & Harbour 215, Parry 159, etc., etc.) to New Mexico (Fendler 277). Fl. May to July.
Thaspium and Cicuta. Its position in Thaspium must have been among the so-called "apterous" forms, which we have referred to Zizia, from which genus it is plainly separated by its much more prominent corky ribs, narrow and prominently corky-thickened commissural face, and whole general habit. It is distinct from Cicnta not only in these same characters, but also in its more laterally flattened fruit, equal ribs, yellow flowers. and habitat.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ligusticum porteri;  

Ligusticum porteri J.M. Coult. & Rose “Porter's Licorice-Root”

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Joseph N. Rose, 1888.  

4. L. Porteri. Rather stout, 2 to 8 feet high, more leafy, with glabrous or puberulent inflorescence: leaves large, biternate then bipinnate; the numerous rather crowded segments lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, laciniately pinnatifid, toothed or entire: umbel of numerous rays, mostly with neither involuere nor involucels; rays (fruiting) 1 to 2 inches long; pedicels 3 to 4 lines long; flowers white or pinkish: fruit (immature) oblong-ovate, 2 lines long, with more prominent winged ribs than in other species: oil-tubes 4 to 6 in the intervals, 8 to 10 on the commissural side: seed somewhat dorsally flattened, with very sharply angled back, and face with a broad shallow concavity and central longitudinal ridge.

In the mountains and foothills of Colorado, Bear Creek (Vasey 223, in 1868), headwaters of Platte River (Coulter, in 1873, distribed (sic) as L. apiifolium, and described as such in Fl. Colorado); Arizona (Palmer 176, in 1877), Huachuca Mts. (Pringle, in 1884, distributed as L. filicinum); New Mexico, mountains near Las Vegas (G. R. Vasey, in 1881, distributed as L. apiifolium), near top of mesa, Raton (Tracy 52, in 1887). Fl. June and July.

This is also the Colorado form referred doubtfully to L. apiifolium by Brewer & Watson in Bot. Calif, i. 264. It is a curious fact that this species has always been referred to L. apiifolium or L. filicinum, two species with which it cannot be confounded, and has never been referred to L. scopulorum, to which it is most nearly allied. It differs from that species chiefly in its more leafy habit, more numerous crowded smaller and narrower leaf-segments, naked often glabrous umbels, more ovate fruit, which is more prominently winged than in any other species, more numerous oil-tubes, and seed with a very sharply angled back.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lomatium orientale;  

Lomatium orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose “Salt-and-Pepper”

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and J. N. Rose, 1900.
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

Coulter & Rose (1900, v. 7, n. 1, p. 220) in their Monograph of North American Umbelliferae published Lomatium orientale.
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
20. Lomatium orientale C. & R. sp. nov,  
Peucedanum nudicaule Nutt. in great part, and of all later authors.  
Acaulescent or shortly caulescent, with short And soft pubescence, peduncles 1 to 3 cm. high, and a thick elongated root (often swollen in places); leaves bipinnate, the small oblong segments entire or toothed; umbel unequally 5 to 8-rayed, with involucels of scarious-margined (often purplish) lanceolate distinct bractlets; rays 1 to 3.5 cm. long; pedicels glabrous, 5 to 7 mm. long; flowers white or pinkish, with glabrous ovaries; fruit almost round, emarginate at base, glabrous, 5 mm. long, 4 mm. broad, with wings not as broad as body, and indistinct or obsolete dorsal and intermediate ribs; oil tubes solitary in the intervals (rarely 2 in the lateral intervals), 4 on the commissural side; seed face plane.  
Type locality, plains around Denver, Colo.; collected by Bethel, May, 1895; type in U. S. Nat. Herb. Ellsworth Bethel (1863-1925) came to Colorado in 1888 and until 1914 was a teacher in th Denver High Schools. Receiving a Masters degree, in 1917 he started a new career as a plant pathologist. There are 16 collections attributed to Bethel from Golden s.l.
On the plains from North Dakota to Kansas, and west to Arizona and Washington.  
Specimens examined:  

Kansas: Western Kansas, Herb. State Agric. Coll.

Nebraska: Wilcox, in 1887; Long Pine, Brown County, Rutter, June 1, 1893.

South Dakota: Aurora County, Wilcox, May 20, 1892.

Montana: Blankinship, May 3-4, 1890; Warm Peak, Bear Lodge, V. Bailey, June 8, 1894.

Wyoming: Fort Russell, Ruby, in 1885; Cheyenne, Havard, in 1893; Laramie plains, Nelson, May, 1893 and 1894.

Colorado: Hall & Harbour 212, in 1862; Palmer Lake, Alice Eastwood, May 25, 1890; Cache la Poudre, Cowen, May 23, 1891; foothills, altitude 1,800 to 1,950 meters, Crandall, May, 1893 and 1894; near Windsor, Osterhout, May, 1894; plains about Denver, Bethel, May, 1895; Log Canyon and Rist Canyon, Holzinger 3, May 31, 1896.

New Mexico: Mangus Springs, Rusby 148, February 25, 1S80.

Arizona: MacDougal 5, June, 1891 ; Flagstaff, altitude 1,650 meters, MacDougal 5, May 31, 1898; Clifton, Davidson, in 1899.

Utah: Palmer 181, in 1877.

Idaho: Allen, in 1873; boundary of Idaho and Washington, Canby, in 1891.

 
In 1818 Nuttall transferred Pursh's Smyrnium nudicaule to Ferula, and cited with the type of Pursh (a Lewis & Clark plant from the Columbia River) a more eastern plant, “on the high plains of the Missouri, commencing about the confluence of the river Jauk [Jaune= Yellowstone or Jacque= Dakota],” a plant said by Nuttall to be associated on the eastern plains with L. foeniculaceum. Since then the name nudicaulis has been associated with the plant of the eastern plains. It was a puzzle to us to find that the type locality of Smyrnium nudicaule was entirely to the west of its present range, but Messrs. Robinson and Greenman have cleared up the matter by examining Pursh's type, and discovering that it is the same as the abundant Seseli leiocarpum of Hooker, from the same region. This leaves the eastern plant without a name. The Lewis & Clark collection that Coulter & Rose refer to is currently determined Lomatium nudicaule (Pursh) Coulter & Rose and is showin as f. 96 in Moulton (1999).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Musineon divaricatum;  

Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf. “Leafy Wildparsley”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (v. 2, supplement, p. 732) adds S. divaricatum to Seseli on page 197, which heretofore contained only S. triternatum (=Lomatium triternatum (Pursh) J.M.Coult. & Rose) from the Lewis & Clark herbarium.
Original Text
p. 197 Seseli divaricatum. — S. caule ramosissimo divaricato, foliis bipinnatifidis, laciniis lanceolatis incisis, involucris nullis, involucellis linearibus.

In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury, v. s. in Herb. Bradbury. Resembles S. tortuosum very much.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1819.  

Rafinesque (1819, p. 101) published Marathrum divaricatum based upon Seseli divaricatum Pursh.
Original Text Translation
22. Marathrum. (Ombellif.) Fleurs hermaphrodites a involucelles, sans involucres. Calice ovale 5-dente. 5 petales obcordes. 5 etamines longues. 2 longs styles caducs. Semences ovales, a dos convexe ou gibbeaux, legerement anguleux. — Caulescent. Feuilles pinnatifides , involucelles polyphylles , fleurs jaunes. — Le type de ce genre est le Sesili divaricatum de Pursh et Nuttall ; mais il fiddere evidemment du genre Seseli par son dente, ses petales obcordes, ses semences anguleuses et ses fleurs jaunes. 22. Marathrum. (Umbellif.) Hermaphroditic to involucral flowers, without involucres. Calyx oval 5-toothed. 5 obcorded petals. 5 long stamens. 2 long obsolete styles. Seeds oval, with convex or gibbeau back, slightly angular. — Caulescent. Pinnatifid leaves, polyphylous involucelles, yellow flowers. & mdash; The type of this genus is the Sesili divaricatum of Pursh and Nuttall; but it evidently belongs to the Seseli kind by his teeth, his obcorded petals, its angular seeds and yellow flowers.

This turned out to be an unavailable name because Matathrum was unavailable having been previously used by Robert Brown.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1820.  

Rafinesque (1820, p. 71) published a correction for his previously published Marathrum.
Original Text Translation
1. Dans le prodrome de 50 nouveaux genres de plantes d'Amerique, j'ai decrit deaux nouveaux genres sous les noms de marathrum et de pythagorea ; je me suis apercu depuis lors, que ces noms avaient deja ete employes, le premier par Robert Brown, le second par Louriero; et comme je suis convaincu de l'importance et de la necessite d'eviter des doubles emplois en Botanique, je m'empresse de rectifer cette erreur, et de proposer les noms suivans en place. 1. In the prodrome of 50 new genera of plants from America, I have described new genera under the names of marathrum and pythagorea; I have noticed since then that these names had already been used, the first by Robert Brown, the second by Louriero; and as I am convinced of the importance and the need to avoid duplication in Botany, I hasten to correct this error, and propose the following names in place.
Mon G. marathrum devra se nommer musineon. Ces deux noms sont des synonymes de fenouil. My genus marathrum should be called musineon. These two names are synonyms for fennel.
  Torrey & Gray (1838, v. 1, pt. 4, p. 642) published Musenium and species from a manuscript by Nuttall.
Original Text
47. MUSENIUM. Nutt. mss.
“Margin of the calyx 5-toothed ; the teeth persistent. Petals obovate ; the point inflexed. Styles slender, reflexed, rather long. Fruit ovate or ovate-oblong, laterally compressed. Carpels more or less minutely scabrous, with 5 filiform acute slightly prominent ribs. Intervals with 2-3 vittae. Commissure with 4 vittae. Carpophore 2-cleft. Seed with the sides moderately incurved. Perennial dwarf rather foetid resiniferous (North American) herbs, with fusiform roots, and a short caudex, or branching dichotomously from the base. Leaves 2-3-pinnatifid. Involucre none. Involucels unilateral, of a few rather rigid narrow leaflets. Flowers yellow or white.” Nutt.
§ 1. Stem dichotomous : flowers yellow.
1. M. divaricatum (Nutt. ! mss.) : decumbent ; stem short, dichotomously branching from the base ; leaves bipinnatifid ; divisions confluent with the winged rachis ; segments short, rather acutely toothed ; fruit somewhat glabrous. — Seseli divaricatum, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 732? ; Nutt. gen. 1. p. 194 ; DC. prodr. 4. p. 146.
β Hookeri : rachis narrow ; fruit scabrous, with elevated points. — M. Hookeri, Nutt.! mss. Seseli divaricatum, Hook.! fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 264 ; Sims, bot. mag t. 1742. (ex Hook.)
Naked and arid hills and plains of the Upper Missouri, Nuttall ! β. Plains of the Upper Platte, near the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall ! On the Saskatchawan, Drummond! Douglas. May. — Plant about a span long. Leaves all, except the radical ones, opposite, glabrous and shining : petiole and rachis distinctly winged : lamina with an ovate outline ; primary and secondary divisions 3-4 pairs ; the segments about one-third of an inch long, 3-4-toothed. Peduncles 4-5 inches long, scabrous, naked, rigid, stout. Umbels 10-20-rayed ; the rays (in fruit) about half an inch long. Fruit 2 lines long, oblong-ovate : pericarp thin : vittae filled with a strong terebinthine oil. — The plant exudes small drops of resin spontaneously.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Apocynum cannabinum;  

Apocynum cannabinum L. “Indian Hemp”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Apocynum ×floribundum;  

Apocynum ×floribundum Greene “Dogbane”

 
  Greene (1893, p. 151) published A. floribundum without mention of it being a hybrid.
Original Text
Apocynum floribundum. Glabrous, pallid and glaucous, 2 feet high, with numerous ascending and somewhat fastigiate branches rising to about the same level, each ending in a cyme: leaves about 2 inches long, from ovate to elliptical, mucronate, the margins sparsely serrulate-scabrous: cymes not dense, many-flowered, erect: corollas erect, lurid-purplish, nearly cylindrical, the lobes erect, or only a little spreading. Dry ground bordering pine woods, in the higher mountains west of the Mohave Desert, in Kern Co., Calif., 1889. Nearest A. cannabinum, but of very different habit; the fastigiate branches, each with its own many-flowered cyme, uniting to form a compound corymb often a foot broad. A. cannabinum, common in many parts of California, was found in wet ground by streamlets, in the same region, and true to its character, the dense terminal cyme of small greenish flowers, being greatly surpassed by those of the single pair of lateral branches.

Literature Cited:
- Johnson, Samuel A., Leo P. Bruederle, and Diana F. Tomback, 1998.  

Johnson, et al. (1998) confirmed that A. ×floribundum is a hybrid and that the occurrences they examined were clonal.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Asclepias speciosa;  

Asclepias speciosa Torr. “Showy Milkweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, p. 218-219) described James' collection as A. speciosa ...
Original Text
260. A. speciosa, tota planta tenuiter tomentosa ; foliis ovato-cordatis obtusis, oppositis, brevi-petiolatis ; umbellis axillaribus, terminalibusque solitariis ; coronae foliolis erectis, lanceolatis, antheridiis triplo longioribus, basi intus obtuse bidentatis.

Desc. Stem erect, branched ? LeavesUmbels axillary and terminal, pedicels white-lanuginous, thick. Flowers twice as large as in A. syriaca. Calyx woolly ; segments lanceolate, spreading. Corolla pale purple ? Segments reflexed, oblong, obtuse. Leaflets of the nectary lanceolate, erect, straight, acute. Horn short, incurved, compressed. Fruit not seen.

Hab. On the Canadian ?

Obs. Flowers larger than in any other North American species of this genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Asclepias incarnata;  

Asclepias incarnata L. “Swamp Milkweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Original Text
8. ASCLEPIAS foliis lanceolatis, caule fuperne divifo, umbellis terminalibus congeftis.
Afclepias caule erecto ramofo annuo, foliis lanceolatis, umbellis terminalibus erectis pluribus. Vir. clif. 20. hort. cliff. 78. Roy. lugdb. 411. Gron. virg. 27.
Apocynum minus rectum canadenfe. Corn. canad. 9. t. 93. Barr. rar. 8. t. 72. Raj. hift. 1089. Habitat in Canada, Virginia. ♃
Caulis ubi dividitur folia e regione tria producit.
incarnata.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Asclepias pumila;  

Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail “Plains Milkweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1876a.  

Gray (1876a, p. 70) in an extended footnote revising Asclepias published Asclepias pumila as a variety of A. verticillata.
Original Text
A. verticillata, L. A widely distributed species, including A. galioides, HBK., of Mexico. Var. pumila is a singularly dwarf or depauperate form, of the western dry plains, from Nebraska to New Mexico. Var. subverticillata (A. verticillata var. galioides, Torr. Bot. Mex. Bound. 164, chiefly), is a marked form, with single stems, simple or branched, the leaves mostly in pairs and threes, and their margins little revolute, the horns of the hoods rather less exserted. Decaisne's A. verticillata var. linifolia may include this ; but it is evidently a mixture of A. verticillata (to which the specimens from "Florida and Georgia" may belong) ; of A. virgata, Lag. (A. angustifolia, Roem. & Schult. &c.), which, from Kunth's character of opposite leaves and little exserted horn, may be A. linifolia, HBK.; and of A. Mexicana, Cav. (from which may come the character of leaves 4-6-nate), which must be identical with A. fascicularis of Decaisne. Here also A. linearis, Scheele in Linntea, xxi.

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, and Addison Brown, 1898.  

Britton & Brown (1898, v. 3, p. 12) published Asclepias pumila as an isonym. Text of the section on Asclepiadaceae was revised by Miss Anna Murray Vail.
Original Text
22. Asclepias pumila (A. Gray) Vail. Low Milkweed. (Fig. 2921.)

Asclepias verticillata var. pumila A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 12: 71. 1876.

Stems 4'-10' high, tufted from a woody root. Leaves very numerous, crowded, sometimes obscurely whorled, filiform-linear, 1'-2' long, smooth or minutely roughened, the margins revolute; umbels 2-several, short-peduncled, few-flowered; pedicels filiform, puberulent, 3"-4" long; corolla greenish white, its segments oblong, 1½"-2" long; column short; hoods white, erect, oblong, entire, equalling the anthers, shorter than the slender incurred horn; follicles erect on erect fruiting pedicels, narrowly spindle-shaped, l½'-2' long, finely puberulent.

Dry plains. South Dakota to Arkansas, Colorado and New Mexico.

Anna Murray Vail (January 7, 1863 – December 18, 1955) was an American botanist and first librarian of the New York Botanical Garden. She was a student of the Columbia University botanist and geologist Nathaniel Lord Britton, with whom she helped to found the New York Botanical Garden. In her Wikipedia entry are three links to her studies in the Asclepiadaceae, which may show her original publication of Asclepias pumila

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Asclepias viridiflora;  

Asclepias viridiflora Raf. “Green Comet Milkweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1808.  

Original Text
18. Asclepias viridiflora green flowered asclepias ; leaves lanceolated, obtuse, hirsute, umbells axillar, bending down, corniculas, without appendices. I have found it in several parts of Maryland and Pennsylvania, mostly in fields.
  Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 181) also published A. viridiflora, though his name is considered illegitimate because it was previously published by Rafinesque (1808). I think it more likely that Pursh chose Rafinesque's name but failed cite Rafinesque by oversight or intent. We'll never really know. Pursh does tell us that he had seen the plant alive (“v. v.”)
Original Text
9. A. caule simplici erecto hirsuto, foliis lanceolato-oblongis obtusiusculis subsessilibus utrinque tomentoso-hirsutis, umbellus lateralibus solitariis subsessilibus nutantibus subgloboso-densifloris, appendicibus nullis

In dry fields : Pensylvania to Virginia. ♃ June, July. v. v. Flowers green.

viridiflora.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Evolvulus nuttallianus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2319, 6 Jun 2020;
Full Size ImageFlower of Coll. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus  

Evolvulus nuttallianus Roem. & Schult. “Shaggy Dwarf Morning Glory”

Evolvulus nuttallianus is native to Colorado and is found from Montana and North Dakota south to Texas and Arizona. It is usually described as occuring on sandy and rocky prairies and plains, chaparral, pinyon-juniper and oak woodlands. It has also been found on limestone glades and bald knobs in the Ozark region of Missouri. It is a non-vining morning glory-like perennial that grows as a densely hairy subshrub to 20” tall with prostrate to decumbent stems that root at the nodes as they go. It has very small, bell-shaped, lavender to blue morning glories (to 1/2” across) from spring to mid-summer on stems with oblanceolate, hairy, silvery-green leaves (to 1” long). Flowers usually close up at night and on cloudy days. There is some confusion in the taxonomy of the genus Evolvulus. This species is sometimes listed as synonymous with E. pilosus.

The genus name comes from the Latin word “evolvo” meaning to untwist or unravel because this genus does not twine like many species in the Convolvulus family.

The specific epithet honors British botanist Thomas Nuttall (1786-1839) who traveled extensively in the U.S., as discussed below.

For gardeners, E. nuttallianus is winter hardy to USDA Zone 4. It is easily grown in organically rich, consistently moist, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. It also performs well in sandy soils with good drainage. But they may be difficult to find in commerce.

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  v. s.;  

Thomas Nuttall traveled up the Missouri in 1811, partially duplicating the trip of Lewis and Clark, spending the summer in and around Fort Mandan (Graustein, 1967). I have been unable to determine where Nuttall's collection of E. nuttallianus is located. Graustein notes that many of Nuttall's collections are in the British Museum, and few of their holdings are available online. Regardless, Pursh (1814) published the first description in his Flora of North America. Pursh arrived in London in November 1811. Nuttall and Pursh met in London in the spring of 1812. Nuttall must have had his collections with him.

Pursh (1814) described Nuttall's morning-glory as E. argenteus.

Latin My Interpretation
230. EVOLVULUS. Gen Pl. 524.   230. EVOLVULUS. Gen Pl. 524.  
1. E. erectus ; foliis oblongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloribus brevibus. argenteus. 1. Evolvulus that is erect, leaves oblong silky-felted both sides, peduncles short with a single flower. argenteus.
On the banks of the Missouri. Nuttall. v. s. Flowers yellow.   On the banks of the Missouri. Nuttall. In have seen it in the dried condition. Flowers yellow.  

Full Size Image
Pursh desription of Evolvulus argenteus
The name E. argenteus was unavailable because is was previously used by Robert Brown, 1810. Pursh notes that he saw the collection “v. s.” but it was not in the Lambert herbarium. Pursh charaterizes the flowers as yellow, but since he worked from dried material, the blue to purple color may have faded.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1818) description of Evolvulus nuttallianus.  

Nuttall (1818) published his own description of E. nuttallianus in his Genera of North American Plants. He writes both Pursh's name argenteus and his own name of pilosus.
251. EVOLVULUS. L.

Calix 5-parted. Corolla rotate-campanulate; lobes subemarginate. Styles 2, deeply bifid; segments capillary and divergent. Stigma simple. Capsule 2-celled, 4-valved, 2 to 4 seeded.

Stem creeping, procumbent, or erect. Leaves alternate entire; flowers pedunculate, small; peduncles solitary, bibracteate, capsule perfecting 1, 2, or 4 seeds.

Species. …

3. argenteus, Ph. (pilosus.) Perennial; stems simple, erect, and low, many from the same root: the whole plant densely hairy and shining: leaves cuneate-oblong, acute, crowded; peduncles l-flowered, subsessile; bibracteate, bractes sessile in the axill; segments of the calix linear. — Obs. Allied to E. Commersoni. Stems 4 to 6 inches high; leaves 6 to 8 lines long, 2 to 4 wide, extremely hairy as well as the stem; flowers solitary, appearing sessile, purple, edge of the plaits hairy, capsule 4-valved, often perfecting only a single seed. — Hab. On arid gravelly hills near the confluence of Rapid river and the Missouri; flowering in May. This genus, with the above exceptions, exists exclusively within the tropical regions of India, Australia, and America.

By current standards of publication, one would think that Nuttall was putting his pilosus in synonomy with Pursh's argenteus.

Literature Cited:
- Ro¨mer, Johann Jacob, Joseph August Schultes, Julius Hermann Schultes, Jurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, and J. G. Cotta, 1820.
Full Size ImageRoemer & Schultes description of Evolvulus nuttallianus  

In the meantime, Roemer and Schultes (1820) published the first valid name for Nuttall's collection.
LatinMy Interpretation
18. E. Nuttallianus; erectus, foliis onlongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. E. argenteus Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ. I. p. 187.
Flores flavi. Ad ripas Missouri. Nuttall.
Obs. Nomen mutandum orat, cum sit antiquior argenteus R. Brown.
18. Evolvulus nuttallianus; erect, leaves oblong silky-felted, single flowers on short pedicels. (E. argenteus Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ. I. p. 187.)
Flowers yellow. On the banks of the Missouri River. Nuttall.
The name was changed, because argenteus was used earlier by R. Brown.

This was just a name change because Pursh's proposed E. argenteus was previously used by R. Brown (1810).

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834b.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1834) description of E. pilosus  

Then, in 1834, Nuttall first publishes his name of E. pilosus in his descriptions of plants of Arkansas territory.
2. E. pilosus. Erectus, foliis lineari-oblongis utrinque sericeo-pilosis, pedunculis uniflorus brevibus. Nuttall's Gen. Am. Pl. 1, p. 174 (E. Nuttallianus, erectus, foliis oblongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. Schultes, Syst. Veg. vol. 6, p. 198; E. argenteus, Pursh, 1, 187). — Obs. Flowers purplish, coming out in the middle of the stem; peduncle shorter than the calix; calix segments partly linear and acuminate. — Hab. On the high hills of Red river near Kiamesha,

This name is, of course, superfluous and therefore illegitimate because Roemer and Schultes previously validly published nuttallianus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aliciella pinnatifida;  

Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex A.Gray) J.M.Porter. “Sticky Gilia”

 

Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.  

G. Don (1831-1838, v. 4., p. 245) …
Original Text Comments
7 G Se'ssei; stem dwarf, branched, clothed with glandular down ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments cuneated, with pointed teeth ; brecteas ovate-lanceolate, mucronatem longer than the calyx ; corolla with a filiform tube, double the length of the calyx ; flowers faccicled. (.) [circle with a dot inside. H. Native of Mexico. Gilia pinnatifida, Sesse et Mocino, in herb. Lamb. Stamens inclosed.
Sesse's Gilia. Pl. ¼ foot.
 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1863.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  Gilia;  

Gray (1863) Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Parry, Hall, and Harbour notes Gilia pinnatifida ined. I assume it was ined. in Gray's hands as he published it in a revision of Polemoniaceae (Gray, 1870).
Original Text Comments
456. Gilia pinnatifida, Nutt. ined.  

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1870.  

Original Text Comments
3. GILIA, Ruiz & Pav.  
§ 10. GILLIANDRA. …  
 
48. G. Pinnatifida, Nutt. In herb.; Gray Enum. Pl. Parry. … [Latin diagnosis not reproduced] … — N. New Mexico and Colorado to Snake River, &c., in or near the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall, Fendler, and various collectors. A part of Geyer's 42 and 25, referred to G. inconspicus, much exserted stamens three lines long. Seeds with a close coat, wholly unchanged when wetted.  

Literature Cited:
- Porter, J. Mark, 1998.  

Porter (1998) recircumscribed Aliciella and placed G. pinnatifida in that group.
Original Text Comments
1. Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex Gray) J. M. Porter, comb. nov.  
Gilia pinnatifida Nutt. ex Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 276. 1870, (basionym). Navarretia pinnatifida (A. Gray) Kuntze, Revisio, Gen. Pl. 2: 433. 1891 Gilia vixcosa Woot. & Standl, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16; 161, 1913. TYPE: — U.S.A. New Mexico: (without location, but presumably near Santa Fe) 1847, A. Fendler 655 [lectotype: (here designated) GH!].  
 
Although the Nuttall collection [as a candidate for lectotype] may seem a logical choice, it presents problems because it lacks flowers, a diagnostic feature of this species. In addition, the collection locality is vague (Lewis River), referring to three different rivers in the mid 1800s. By contrast, the Fendler collection is clearly consistent with Gray's description, posessing flowers, fruit, and a basal rosette. … also the collection locality of the Fendler collection is less ambiguous.

Literature Cited:
- Porter J. Mark, and Leigh A. Johnson, 2000.  

Original Text Comments
Formerly included in Gilia ... [See publications by Grant] ... Aliciella is more closely related to Loeselia and Ipomopsis than to Gilia ... [See publications by Johnson and Porter] ..., based on DNA sequence data. Morphologically, too, Aliciella differs from Gilia in chromosome number (most, but not all, species of Aliciella are N = 8) and seed morphology (seeds do not produce copious mucilage; large seeded species tend to have an irregular wing).  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Collomia linearis;  

Collomia linearis Nutt. “Tiny Trumpet”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;

Locations: Cheyenne River.  

Nuttall (1818) described a new genus Collomia and placed C. linearis therein.
Original Text
194. *COLLOMIA. †
Calix Cyathiform, rather large, border 5-cleft, acute. Corolla funnelform, 5-lobed, lobes oval-oblong, very short, tube straight, long, and slender. Capsule 3-cornered, 3-celled, 3-valved, 3-seeded, valves obcordate. Seed oblong, angular, enveloped by a tenacious mucilaginous integument, (visible when moistened.)
Annual, leaves alternate, simple, and entire; flowers small and inconspicuous, conglomerated in a terminal fascicle, resembling a capitulum, subtended by several bractes which are broader than the leaves.
A genus appertaining to the Natural Order Polemonideae and intermediate with Phlox and Polemonium
Species. 1. C. linearis. Minutely and pulverulently pubescent; leaves oblong-linear, or sublanceolate; involucrate leaves, ovate-lanceolate, acute; bractes and calix viscid.
Phlox linearis? Cavan. __ 6. p. 17. t. 527.
... [Long description not reproduced] ...
Hab. Near the banks of the Missouri, about the confluence of Shian river, and in the vicinity of the Arikaree village, in moist places. Flowering in June; flower violaceous. It appears to be the same plant figured by Cavanilles, and first discovered in Chili. In upper Louisiana, or above the confluence of the Platte and the Missouri, we no longer meet with any species of Phlox. To this genus probably also belongs Phlox biflora of Chili, which is also annual, but the habit appears to be different.

I think the “Shian river” is the Cheyenne River.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 713, Collomia linearis

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ipomopsis spicata;  

Ipomopsis spicata (Nutt.) V.E. Grant. “Spiked Ipomopsis”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;

Locations: Scotts Bluff.  

Nuttall (1848) described some of his own collections along the Platte River while describing Gambel's collections.
Original Text Comments
GILIA.  
§. Perennials or biennials, with the leaves often sparingly pinnatifid towards the extremity, or entire and linear, fleshy. Flowers in condensed clusters, capitate or in spikes, generally white. Corolla tubular, with a deeply 5-cleft, spreading border. Stamens shortly exserted or even with the summit of the tube. Stigmas very short. Ovaries 2 to 4 in a cell, rarely 1. — *Elaphocera.  
...  
G. *spicata. Perennial ; leaves linear, fleshy ; flowers in clusters, spiked ; stem and calyx lanuginous, segments of the calyx linear acute and ciscid ; tube of the corolla exserted ; stamens at the summit of the tube.

Hab. On the hills near Scott's Bluffs of the Platte. Flowers white, segments oblong. (Nuttall.)

 
G. *trifida. Biennial ; radical leaves linear ; cauline trifid towards the extremity, fleshy and smooth ; flowers clustered in spikes ; stem and calyx pubescent, segments of the calyx linear and very acute ; tube of the corolla exserted ; stamens at the summit of the tube.

Hab. With the above, which it greatly resembles, except in the leaves ; cells of the capsule each with three or four ovules. About a span high. (Nuttall.)

 
...

Literature Cited:
- Grant, Verne, 1956.  

Grant (1956) separated Ipomopsis from Gilia and placed I. spicata into section Microgilia (Benth.) V. Grant.

   

Phlox

 

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Original Text

5a. Stems solitary or a few together, never forming mats; leaves usually over 2.5 cm long; flowers distinctly pedicelled. P. longifolia Nuttall. Dry Grasslands and sagebrush, lower Arkansas Valley drainage; North Park.

5b. Stems numerous from a stout taproot, forming mats; leaves less than 2 cm. long; flowers without obvious pedicels. ... (6)

6b. Leaves not at all glandular. ... (7)

7b. Leaves not especially short or imbricate, nor prominently ciliate; not in alkaline soils. ... (8)

8b. Inflorescence glabrous or ± pubescent, but not [with long crinkly hairs]. P. multiflora A. Nelson. Common in forested areas from the foothills to the montane.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Original Text

1a. Flowers 3-12 in a cyme, on conspicuous, spelder pedicels; stems with well-developed internodes, the longer ones well over 10 mm long; leaves mostly over 20 .. long; plants erect to tufted but not mat- or cushion-forming, usually over 10 cm tall ... 2

2a. Hyaline membranes between the calyx lobes carinate, forming a distinct raised ridge, bulging towards the base; plants glabrous or often glandular-hairy, especially in the in florescence; flowers pink to white; not restricted to southwestern counties ... P. longifolia

1b. Flowers 1-3(5), sessile or short pedicellate (on pedicels 3-10 mm long) at the ends of stems; stems with shorter internodes often hidden by the leaves, the longer ones to 10 mm long; leaves mostly 2-30 mm long; plants caespitose, often mat- or cushion-forming, usually to 10 cm above the ground ...3

3b. Leaves glabrous, granular-scabrid, glandular, or arachnoid-pubescent with tangled hairs, but not stiffly ciliate or sometimes ciliate on the margins but also arachnoid-pubescent at the base or granular-scabrid throughout; calyx glabrous or villous- to arachnoid-tomentose; plants variously distributed, usually below 9500 ft in elevation (but up to 10,500 ft) ... 6

6b. Calyx 5-15 mm long; leaves linear to lance-subulate, 2-30 mm long, less crowded and spreading; plants forming loose to dense mats, sparsely arachnoid-pubescent in the leaf axils or on the calyx to glabrous or granular-scabrid, the plants green or sometimes grayish; corolla lobes 4-11 mm long ... 7

7b. Hyaline membranes between the calyx lobes flat, not carinate and forming a ridge; plants of the eastern or western slope ... 8

8b. Leaves 10-30 mm long and 1-2 mm wide; internodes usualllt visible; leaf axils arachnoid-woolly or not; calyx 6-15 mm long, arachnoid-pubescent or not; style 5-9 mm long; flowers sessile to shortly pedicellate on pedicels 3-10 mm long ... 9

9b. Plants above 6000 ft, variously distributed but absent from the northeastern plains; calyx 10-15 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy but the hairs not tangled; flowers white, pink, or bluish ... P. multiflora

 

Literature Cited:
- SEINet, 2019+.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phlox longifolia;  Phlox longifolia, Nuttall, 1834;  

Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox”

There were two PhloxPhloxes ? — that were reported for Golden s.l. They are Phlox longifolia Nutt. ldquo;Longleaf Phlox” and P. multiflora A. Nelson “Mountain Phlox.” As it happened, both were found only on the north slopes of North Table Mountain. And with two doubtful exceptions, these are the only Phlox collected in Jefferson County. See collection data in SEINet (2019+). The first exception is an undated collection of Phlox caespitosa by E. S. Greene on “… barren ground above trees … Golden” (PAC29495) If this collection was truly above the trees, as P. caespitosa often is, then it was collected at higher elevations, west of and outside Golden s.l. The collector was more likely E. L. Greene. The second exception is a collection by C. S. Crandall, #1589, May 19, 1894, Platte Canyon, Jefferson County, some distance south of Golden s.l. One voucher (RM16725) is determined P. patula A. Nelson. A second voucher (CS16725 -- the same ascension number at two herbaria also seems suspicious) is determined P. multiflora A. Nelson.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
- SEINet, 2019+.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;  Notes on Phlox longifolia;
• U. S. Highway 20:   at ID 33 W;
• Wyoming Highway 354:   at Old Ft Bonneville;

Locations: Henrys Fork. Old Fort Bonneville Site.  

Historically, Phlox longifolia was described by Thomas Nuttall (1834a) from plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth in July 1833 between the Henry Fork of the Snake River and and Bonneville's Fort at the junction of Horse Creek and the Green River. The plant is widely distributed in the American Cordillera.
Original Text Comments
73. Phlox *longifolia. Subcaespitosa-multocaulis, foliis subulatis longissimis angustissimis glabrus, cauliculi pauciflori brevissimi puberuli irregulariter trichotomi, pudunculis filifornibus elongatis, laciniis calycinis acuminatis, corollae laciniis oblongo-cuneatis integris.  
♃ The stems almost a span high, many from the same root, clothed below with the withered vestiges of former leaves. The leaves smooth, and narrow as threads, two and a half or so inches in length, those of the sterile branches extending nearly the length of the short and slender flower stems; peduncles very long and slender. Flowers apparently white. Allied to P. Hoodii, but very distinct.  
Hab. In the valleys of the Rocky Mountains generally, flowering for the most part of the summer.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phlox multiflora;  

Phlox multiflora A. Nelson. “Mountain Phlox”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nelson, Aven, 1898a.  

Nelson (1898a, p. 278) described Phlox multiflora as a segregate from P. longifolia when describing new plants from Wyoming.
Original Text Comments
Phlox multiflora  
Suffrutescent as to the caespitose, much branched, prostrate base, the numerous herbaceous stems nearly erect, 6-10 cm. high the annual branches simple, one-flowered ; leaves broadly linear, glabrous, apiculate, 1-2 dm. long, opposite of fascicled ; peduncles finely pubescept, 1-3 cm. long ; calyx angled by the prominent midrib of the lobes, membranous in the sinus only, lobes linear-spiculate, equalling the tube ; tube of the corolla exceeding the calyx, lobes obovate, entire, 1 cm. long ; style equalling the calyx.  
The affinities of this plant are with the P. longifolia group. It has been distributed under no. 182 from Laramie Hills, mostly as P. longifolia Nutt, but from which, I now think, it is wholly distinct. Its more caeapitose growth, shorter broader leaves, simple branches, less membranous calyx and numerous flowers easilt separate it. It is very abundant on the moister slopes and valleys of the Laramie Hills at 8000 to 9000 ft., flowering from late May till late June.  
Type specimen in Herb. University of Wyoming, no. 3175, June 16, 1897.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dracocephalum;  

Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. “American Dragonhead. ”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described D. parviflorum from material seen at Fort Mandan. I have not found any reference to his material, such as a type.
Original Text
5. * parviflorum. Flowers verticillate, subcapitate; leaves ovate-lanceolate, deeply serrate, and petiolate, bractes foliaceous, ovate, ciliate, and serrate, serratures conspicuously mucronate; upper segment of the calix much larger than the rest; flower scarcely longer than the calix. Hab. Around Fort Mandan, on the Missouri; on the borders of thickets. Obs. Biennial; nearly smooth, stem and petiole a little pubescent; flowers almost imbricated in a leafy capitulum, very small, and nearly white; calix awned, arid and membranaceous, semiquinquefid; bractes divaricately awned; upper lip of the corolla emarginate, arched; lower 3-lobed, central lobe subcrenate. Flowering time, July. Apparently allied to D. Moldavica, but the leaves are entirely destitute of punctures: scarcely a congener with D. virginianum, and closely allied to Melissa.

Principally a Siberian genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Monarda pectinata;  

Monarda pectinata Nutt. “Plains Beebalm”

 
   

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  

Nuttall (1848) described Monarda pectinata from a collection by William Gambel.
Original Text
MONARDA
M. *pectinata. Biennial ? slightly pubescent ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, denticulate, shortly petiolate ; capituli proliferous, rather small, subtended by herbaceous, some of them purplish, ovate-acute, strongly ciliated, as well as the elongated, setaceous teeth of the calyx; corolla widely ringent, the tube scarcely exserted beyond the calyx.

Hab. Near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

 

Scutellaria brittonii Porter

 
  Isotype: NY415671, T. C. Porter, s.n., Colorado, Clear Creek Canyon, 9000 ft, June 15, 1873. The 9000 ft elevation in Clear Creek Canyon is just below Silver Plume.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physalis longifolia;  

Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834b.  

Original Text
3. *longifolia. Glaberrima, caule angulata erecto, foliis soltariis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis sinuato-dentatis longe pedunculatis, floribus solitariis pendulis. — Obs. Herbaceous ; root perennial ; stem angular, about eighteen inches high, and branching above ; leaves smooth, four to five inches long, irregularly, sparingly and sinuously toothed ; flowers, as usual, yellowish, with five brown blotches towards the base; calix muxh larger than the berry. It bears much the aspect of Capiscum annuum, and, from the diagnosis, appears allied to P. chenopodifolia. — Hab. On the sandy banks of the Arkansas, near Belle Point. Flowering in June.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physalis virginiana;  

Physalis virginiana Mill. “Virginia Groundcherry”

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) comments on determinations of P. virginiana and P. longifolia.
Original Text
Most specimens originally identified as P. virginiana actually belong to P. longifolia. Physalis virginiana appears to be restricted to the base of the northern Front Range in Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solanum triflorum;  

Solanum triflorum Nutt. “Cutleaf Nightshade”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described the Solanum of North America and included a review of Solanum and related taxa, their origins and uses.
Original Text Comments
6. *triflorum. Stem unarmed, herbaceous and procumbent; leaves dentately-pinnatifid, smooth, segments acute, somewhat undulated, with the margin more or less revolute; peduncles opposite the leaves, 2 or 3-flowered. — Flowers small and white, revolute; fruit about the size of a cherry, green when ripe. Stem a little hirsute, spreading and procumbent, about a foot long; leaves somewhat runcinate. This species, though very distinct, appears to have some affinity with the S. runcinatum of Peru and Chili (sic). — Hab. As a weed in and about the gardens of the Mandans and Minitarees, and in no other situations. Near Fort Mandan. Flowering from June to August. This is followed by a several paragraph review of Solanum and related species, their origins and uses.

 

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1143, 15 Jun 2015;   Coll. No. 1379, 29 May 2016;   Coll. No. 1614, 15 May 2017;  Coll. No. 1865, 23 May 2018;  

Castilleja integra Gray

 
 
In 1849, he joined an army expedition (with Gray's help) through Texas, botanising from Galveston to San Antonio and then on to El Paso. But he had to walk most of the 673 miles, (which took over 104 days effort). He collected seeds of Penstemon baccharifolius (Hook.), between Texas and El Paso, which were later given to William Hooker. Also, Castilleja lanata (found near the Rio Grande) and Castilleja integra (found in the Organ Mountains, near El Paso) (Pennell, 1935). In the spring of 1851, he joined the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (also with Gray's help). (Wikipedia)

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Castilleja integra is not listed in Gray (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae. Although, a good part of the report is "… to be continued."

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.  

Gray (1952) does not mention any Wright collections in the Scrophulariaceae

Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

Emory, William H., 1859. Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. Volume II. Torrey, John, 1859. Part I. Botany of the Boundary Washington, 1859. p. 119

SCROPHULARIACEAE (by A. Gray)

Castilleja integra (sp. nov.): perennis; caule stricto tomentoso; foliis linearibus integerrimis subtus tomentulosis, floralibus oblongis obocatisque integerrimis coloratis (paniceis);; spica conferta; calyce aequaliter vel postice profundius bifido, lobis bifidis lanceolatis obtusiusculis labium inferius galea multoties brevius adaequantibus. — Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright, (undistributed,) Bigelow. Guadaloupe cañon, Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith. Also gathered in the Rocky Mountains further north by Dr. Kreuzfeldt, in Gunnison's expedition. Stem one or two feet high, mostly simple, rigid; leaves 1½ to 3 inches long, 2 to 3 lines wide, entire; most of the floral ones almost wholly petaloid, ample, shorted than the fully developed flowers. Calyx 8 or 12 lines long, red or reddish; “corolla reddish green;” glaea 6 to 8 lines long; the lower lip very short. Apparently a well marked new species of the section Callichroma. It is No. 584 of Fendler's New Mexican collection; and Dr. Bigelow gathered specimens in Whipple's expedition on the Llano Estacado.

  Pennell, Francis W. [Curator of Botany, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia] The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America The Academy of Natural Sciences Monogtaphs, Number 1 Philadelphia, 1935. p. 533

9. Castilleja integra Gray

Castilleja integra A. Gray, in Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. 119. 1859. “Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright ..., Bigelow. Guadaloupe canon, Conora; Capt. E. K. Smith."

Bracts red. Flowering from May to August.

Gravelly soil, plains and hills, Colorado to Texas, Chihuahua and Arizona. Known in our territory from a single record along the Rio grande.

Texas. Valverde: bluffs of Devils R., Havard (U).

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Orobanche fasciculata;  

Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. “Clustered Broomrape”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Described by Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 58-59) in a new section named Gymnocaulis as Oronanche fasciculata, with calyx and corolla almost equally 5-cleft.
Original Text Comments
448. OROBANCHE. L. (Broomrape.)  
Calix 4 or 5-cleft, segments often unequal. Corolla ringent. Capsule ovate, acute, 1-celled, 2-valved; seeds numerous. A gland beneath the base of the germ.  
[Description of the genus omitted.]
[Description of O. americana. omitted.]
* Gymnocaulis. Calix and corolla almost equally 5-cleft. Assumed to be a new section name.
3. * fasciculata. Stem short and simple; peduncles many, naked, nearly terminal, and about the length of the stem; lobes of the corolla very short, rounded, and naked on the margin.  
Hab. With the above. Flowering in June and July. Very nearly allied to the following. The above is O. ludoviciana, which was “… in sandy alluvial soils, around Fort Mandan …” The following is O. biflora. Handwritten note, “primarily Artemisia.”
Obs. [Description omitted.]

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Orthocarpus luteus;  

Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. “Yellow Owls Clover”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 57) described a new genus Orthocarpus and added O. luteus to it.
Original Text Comments
446. *ORTHOCARPUS. †  
Calix tubular, semiquadrifid. Corolla bilabiate, closed; upper lip smaller, compressed, with the margin inflected; lower concave, obsoletely 3-toothed, unexpanded. Anthers unconnected; lobes unequal, divaricate. Capsule straight, elliptic-ovate, 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded, opening on both sides; dissepiment transverse. Seeds small, alated lunate margin.  
Annual; stem simple; leaves alternate, entire; flowers axillary, alternate, sessile, and bracteate; bractes divaricately trifid.  
Species. 1. O. luteus.  
Descript. Root tortuous, perpendicular, and fibrous. Stem simple, hirsutely pilose, terete. Leaves increasing in size upwards, alternate, sessile, lanceolate-linear, acute, entire, opaque, and as will as the bractes and calix shortly and somewhat viscidly pubescent, margins scabrous; bractes cuneate, divaricately trifid, about an inch long and the same in width, 3-nerved. Calix much shorted than the bractes, partly compressed, striated, subcampanulate, segments linear-lanceolate, acute. Corolla yellow, smooth; tube slender, about the length of the calix; both of the lips concave, inflected, and closed, the lower somewhat plaited and terminated by 3 minute dentures, so inconspicuous as the give the corolla the appearance of being destitute of an under lip. Stamina 4, small; filaments capillary, ingrafted upon the upper lip a little below the orifice, approximating by pairs unde the same lip; anthers pale, unusually small, 2-celled, distinctly and separately 2-lobed, lobes pubescent, not parallel, one acute-angularly diverging from below the summit of the other, almost exactly similar to the small lamdba (sic) of the Greek alphabet (λ). Style filiform, stigma simple, minute. Capsule elliptic ovate, obtuse, staight (sic) and pubescent, included within the calix, 2-celled, 2-valved, many-seeded, margins of the valves partly inflected; dissepiment transverse, or origining from the middle of the valves and seminiferous. Seeds small, more than 10, having an alated interrupted margin. Cotyledones 2, very small, upon the growing plant, oval. Hab. In humid situations on the plains of the Missouri, near Fort Mandan; very local. Flowering in July and August. Height about 12 or 14 inches. Growing in quantities. Flowers of a bright and uniform yellow, almost of the size and form of the common species of Melampyrum at first sight. In point of affinity it cannot be compared with any other genus, notwithstanding its marked distinction.  

† The straightness of the fruit, readily distinguishing this genus from Melampyrum.
Melampyrum is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous flowering plants in the family Orobanchaceae known commonly as cow wheat. They are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, though not found in Colorado. They are hemiparasites on other plants, obtaining water and nutrients from host plants, though they are able to survive on their own without parasitising other plants.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Veronica anagallis-aquatica;  

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. “Water Speedwell”

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) treats V. anagallis-aquatica as a native, and places V. catenata in synonomy.

Literature Cited:
- POWO, 2021.  

Kew POWO maps V. anagallis-aquatica as introduced to Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Veronica catenata;  

Veronica catenata Pennell “Speedwell”

 

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Accepted by Weber & Wittmann (2012) in a paragraph that also mentions V. anagallis-aquatica noting that it is closely related.

V. catenata is not identified as alien.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Treated by Ackerfield as a synonym of V. anagallis-aquatica.

Literature Cited:
- POWO, 2021.  

Kew Plants of the World Online accepts both V. anagallis-aquatica and V. catenata.

According to Kew POWO, V. catenata does not occur in Colorado, and V. anagallis-aquatica is introduced to Colorado.

 

Literature Cited:
- Herrando-Moraira, Sonia, et al., 2019.  

Tribe Cardueae

“Thistles” in the broad sense are in the tribe Cardueae Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. 88: 155. 1819 . Tribe Cynareae Lam. & DC. would seem to have precedence over Cardueae by nearly a decade. The North American representatives of Tribue Cardueae accepted by FNANM are as follows. Taxa found in Colorado are shown in bold.
  1. Leaves spiny
    1. Carduus L. Plumeless Thistle.
    2. Carlina L. Carline Thistle.
    3. Carthamus L. Distaff Thistle.
    4. Cirsium Mill. Thistle. All the native thistles in Colorado ae in the genus Cirsium Mill. In addition there are two non-native thistles that are also noxious weeds: C. arvense and C. vulgare.
    5. Echinops L. Globe Thistle.
    6. Onopordum L. Cotton Thistle.
    7. Silybum Adans. Milkthistle. Not listed for Colorado in Weber & Wittmann (2012) or Ackerfield (2015). There are two collections of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. “Blessed Milk-thistle”, one from Larimer County and one from Saguache County.
  2. Leaves not spiny
    1. Acroptilon Cass. Hardheads.
    2. Amberboa (Pers.) Less. Sweet Sultan.
    3. Arctium L. Burdock.
    4. Centaurea L. Knapweed. Eight species of Centaurea are known from Colorado, all of which are non-native.
    5. Crupina (Pers.) DC. Crupina.
    6. Cynara L. Cynara. C. scolymus L. is the Globe Artichoke.
    7. Mantisalca Cass. Mantisalca.
    8. Plectocephalus D. Don in R. Sweet. Basketflower.
    9. Saussurea. Saw Wort.
    10. Volutaria Cass.

There is a more recent paper (Herrando-Moraira, Sonia, et al. 2019) describing the phylogeny of Cardueae using Hyb-Seq data. It is, however, behind a paywall until August 1, 2020, and we eagerly await its unveiling.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Achillea millefolium;  

Achillea millefolium L. “Common Yarrow”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v.2, p. 899) published Achillea millefolium without mention of habitat in North America.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
14. ACHILLEA foliis bipinnatis nudis: laciniis linearibus dentatis. Hort. cliff. 413. Fl. fuec. 705. Mat. med. 397. Roy. lugdb. 175. Gron. virg. 101. Dalib. parif. 263.
Achillea foliis pinnato-pinnatis. Fl. lapp. 311.
Millefolium vulgare album. Banh. pin. 140.
β. Millefolium purpureum. Tabern hift. 130.

Habitat in Europæ pascuis pratisque.

Millefolium. Habitat in European meadows and pastures.

Literature Cited:
- Kalm, Pehr, 1762.
Full Size ImageKalm (1762) mention of Achillea millefolium in Montreal, Canada.  

Kalm (1762, v. III., p. 499) notes presence in Montreal, Canada, of A. millefolium, in addition to Prunella vulgaris, Oenothera biennis, Viola canadensis, and others. There might be additional information but I struggle to read Swedish in the old font used in the report.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 563) thought that Achillea millifolium may have been introduced from Europe.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
3. A. foliis bipinnatifidis pilosis linearibus dentatis mucronatis, caulibus sulcatis. Smith fl. brit. 2. p. 908. Willd. sp. pl. 3. p. 2208.

Icon. Fl. dan. 737. Engl. bot. 758.

In fields an on road sides ; common. ♃. June-Aug. v. v. Probably introduced from Europe. Flowers white or rose-coloured.

Millefolium. Probably need to see what Willdenow says about A. millefolium, i.e., does he mention North American occurrence? However, when I checked (11 May 2021), the Real Jardin Botanico (Madrid) server was not working.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 171) also thought that A. millefolium was naturalized in North America.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1841-1843, v. 2, p. 409) recognized that A. millefolium occurred throughout North America, but also noted it was introduced from Europe into pastures, &c.

   

Agoseris sp., “Goat-Chicory”

[Greek agos, leader, and seris, chicory; allusion unclear]

Agoseris has a New World, amphitropical distribution. All of the species are restricted to North America except A. coronopifolia (D’Urville) K. L. Chambers, which is found in temperate regions of southern South America. The South American disjunction appears to be the result of long-distance dispersal from North America (K. L. Chambers 1963).

Literature Cited:
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel van, 1791.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Schreber, 1789-1791, publication details;  

Schreber (1789-1791) published edition 8a of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum. In the second volume he described Krigia Schred. The volume is not available online, so I am unable to read the description. Publication of this volume preceeded the publication of Troximon by Gaertner. How much it preceeded Gaertner's publication, I don't know. But it was enough to give Krigia priority over Troximon.

Literature Cited:
- Robin, C. C. (Charles-Ce´sar), 1817.  

C. C. Robin published an account of his travels in Louisiana, West Florida and the West Indies from 1802 to 1806. He included descriptions of plants observed in Louisiana. Rafinesque undertook to translate, revise, and improve (as he says!) the plant list, and to see it published in New York.
Original Text English Translation Comments
180. Troximon odoratum Raf. Hispidum, ramis fastigiatis, foliis sessilibus ovato-oblongis acutis integris ciliatis scabris, floribus racemosis nudis, perianthis pilosis 8 partitis, sub 12 floris Raf. — Chicoracee fenouillette Rob. P. 425. Stems four feet high, round milky; leaves a little thick, flowers pale yellow, sweet-scented, ligules five-toothed, anthers and stigmas very projecting, deep yellow ; seeds oblong compressed striated with a thick long down. This species together with Tr. Virginicum, Tr. Pallidum and Tr. Bulbosum will form the genus Troximon ; the other species which are acaules and with an embricated calyx, must form a peculiar genus which I shall call Agoseris. Raf. Found in woods.   The way I read this, Rafinesque has validly published Agoseris by saying that it is like Troximon that is acaulescent and has an imbricated calyx (or the involucral bracts are imbricated).
Rafinesque gets/takes credit for the name Agoseris.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Troximon glaucum, Nuttall, 1841;  Agoseris parviflora, Nuttall, 1841;
• Glossary:  rostrum;  

Original Text Comments
TROXIMON. (Nutt. Gen. Am., non Gaertner)  
Capitulum many-flowered. Involucrum imbricate, subcampanulate, divisions lanceolate, distinct, or united at base. Receptacle naked, punctate. Achenium subterete, with ten obtuse ribs, attentuated above into a somewhat similarly striated, and rather short, thick rostrum. Pappus copious, setaceous, persistent, widest at base, longer than the achenium, and scarcely scabrous. — Stemless perennials, with fusiform roots, and mostly entire, linear, smooth, sublanceolate leaves. Scapes terete, exserted, one-flowered; flowers yellow or rose-coloured. OBS. The only species of this genus known to Gaertner, T. lanatum, is now referred to Scorzonera, the name thus unoccupied may, therefore, still be retained for the American species. The question is: was Troximon really available? Or, was Troximon illegitimate because Krigia had priority?
Nuttall then goes on to propose Troximon glaucum (=Agoseris glauca) and T. parviflorum sp. Nov. (=A. parviflorum).

Literature Cited:
- Lee, Joongku, Bruce G. Baldwin, and L. D. Gottlieb, 2003.  

Phylogenetic analysis of relationships in the Cichorieae place Agoseris in the Microseris clade along with Nothocalais, Uropappus, and Stebbinsoseris. Krigia (and Glyptopleura) was not placed in any major clade.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca;  

Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf. “Pale Goat-Chicory”

 
  Troximon glaucum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 2: 505 (1813).

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pale Goat-Chicory was first published by Frederick Pursh in Volume 2 of his Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text Translation and Interpretation Comments
604. TROXIMON. Gaert. Carp. P. 360. Pers. Syn. 2 p. 360          
1. T. scapo unifloro, calycinis foliolis imbricatis cuspidatis, foliis linearibus integerrimis utrinque glaucis. glaucum. Troximon with single-flowered scape, involucre with imbricate bracts with acute tips, green leaves are linear with entire margins. glaucum.    
On the banks of the Missouri. ♂. v. s. ; v. v. in Hortis. Flowers bright yellow.   On the banks of the Missouri. Biennial. I have seen it dried. I have seen it live in gardens. Flowers bright Yellow.   Pursh doesn't tell us whose dried collection he saw. It could have been a Bradley collection. It probably was not a Lewis & Clark collection because Moulton (1999) does not list an Agoseris collection in the Lewis & Clark herbarium.  

What we now consider to be a male symbol – ♂ – probably means the plant is biennial.

  Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf., Atlantic J. 6: 39 (1833).

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Troximon, Nuttall, 1841;
• Glossary:  rostrum;  

Original Text Comments
Achenium terete, shortly rostrate, with obtuse ribs This is the first section of Nuttall's Troximon and will contain T. glaucum [=Agoseris glauca].

T. parviflora [=A. parviflora] will be segregated into the second section that has a distinct rostrum (beak).

Troximon glaucum. The involucrum is usually smooth, the divisions in about three series, the outer shorter, all of them lanceolate and acute.  
HAB. On the plains of the Platte, and Missouri, about the Great Bend.  

Literature Cited:
- Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich, 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dietrich, 1847, publication details;  

Though Rafinisque published Agoseris in 1817, it wasn't until 1847 that D. Dietrich placed Pursh's Troximon glaucum in Agoseris.
3606. AGOSERIS Rafin. (1817). (Troximon Nutt.)
2. A. cuspidata;
2. A. glauca; glaucescens; fol. lineari-lanceolatis acutus integris scapoque glabriusculis; setis pappi capillaribus rigidis. Troximon Nutt. B. M. T, 1667. β dasycephalum Torr. Et Gray. T. glaucum α Hook. B. M. t 3462. Ammogeton scorzonerifolium Schrad. In Amer. Bor. ♃.
3 A. parviflora (Troximon Nutt.):
4. A. rosea
5. A. taraxacifolia;

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris parviflora;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1101, Agoseris parviflora  

Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Troximon, Nuttall, 1841;  

Nuttall (1841) described a new species of Troximon, T. parviflorum in describing the plants from his travels along the Oregon Trail in 1834 and 1835. It will become our current Agoseris parviflora.
Original Text Comments
†† Achenium compressed, with ten shallow, acute ribs, and attenuated into a distinct rostrum, shorter than the long and bristly pappus. Involucrum ovate, in about three series of unequal, lanceolate sepals. This is the second section of Nuttall's Troximon and it has a “distinct rostrum” or beak. The section starts off with Nuttall's new species T. parviflorum [=Agoseris parviflora].
Troximon * parviflorum; leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth or pubescent, often runcinately denticulate towards the base; scape pubescent at the summit, lanuginous; sepals nearly smooth, in three unequal series, lanceolate, acuminate; flowers yellow.
Hab. On the plains of the Platte to the Rocky Mountains. About four or five inches high. The leaves about two lines wide, acuminated at each end. Pappus minutely scabrous; the outermost divisions of the involucrum only about half the length of the inner.

Literature Cited:
- Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich, 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dietrich, 1847, publication details;  

Dietrich (1847) in his Synopsis Plantarum placed the North American Troximon into Agoseris Raf.
3606. AGOSERIS Rafin. (1817). (Troximon Nutt.)
. A. cuspidata;
2. A. glauca;
3 A. parviflora (Troximon Nutt.): glabriuscula; fol. Anguste lanceolato-linearibus acute asuminatis integris subretrorsp-denticulatis; pappo capillari rigido. In mont. Rocky. ♃.
4. A. rosea
5. A. taraxacifolia;

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ambrosia artemisiifolia;  

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. “Annual Ragweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ambrosia psilostachya;  

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. “Western Ragweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.  

DeCandolle (1836, v. 5, p. 526) published A. psilostachya from a collection by Berlander in Mexico.
Original Text
9. A. psilostachya, caule herbaceo erecto tereti paniculato-ramoso foliisque scabridis, foliis subsessilibus pinnatipartitis lobis lineari-lanceolatis acnminatis hinc inde pinnatim incisis, racemis plurimis gracilibus inter capitula mascula remota ebracteatis, fructibus infra apicem tuberculis obtusis 5-6 onustis apice conico elongato. — in Mexico inter San-Fernarido et Matamoros legit cl. Berlandier (pl. exs. n. 2280!). Fructus plurimi parvi in invol. foem. Capitula masc. pubero-scabrida parva. (v. s.)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ambrosia tomentosa;  

Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt. “Ragweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

603. AMBROSIA. L. (Bitter-weed.)
Monoicous (sic). — Masc. Calix 1-leaved. Anthers approximate, but not united. Receptacle naked. — Fem. Calix 1-leaved, entire or 5-toothed, 1-flowered. Corolla none. Nut formed from the indurated calix, 1-seeded.
Tall herbaceous and mostly annual plants; leaves rough, the lower most opposite, the upper alternate, bipinnatifid, trifid, or rarely entire; flowers in long terminal and proximately axillar spikes, upper flowers masculine numerous, the lower fewer, feminine, glomerated, clusters 2 to 5-flowered, tribracteate.
Species. 1. A. integrifolia. 2. bidentata. 3. trifida. 4. elatior. 5. artemisifolia. 6. paniculata. 7. heterophylla.
8. * tomentosa. Perennial; stem low; leaves bipinnatifid, upper side white and tomentose; spikes solitary. Hab. In Upper Louisiana on the banks of the Missouri; rare. Only 1 or 2 feet high.
A North American genus, with the exception of 1 species in Peru and another indigenous to the sea-coasts of the Levant.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

FRANSERIA. (Cavan.)
Franseria * bipinnatifida; ...
Franseria * pumila; ...
Franseria * discolor; ♃, root creeping; leaves ubterruptedly bipinnatifid, above nearly smooth, canescently and closely tomentose, segments subovate, acute, confluent in the wide rachis; stem short, with the lateral branched decumbent.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains, neat the Colorado of the West. A very remarkable and distinct, as well as elegant species. Stem about a span long, slightly pubescent; leaves on long petioles, with a lanceolate outline, acute, about six inches lone, white beneath, green above, the pinnatifid segments lanceolate, the rachis incisely toothed. Male florets rather numerous; receptacle with narrow, pubescent palea; involucrum about five or six-toothed; female flowers few, fruit spiny.
Franseria * cuneifolia; ...

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ambrosia trifida;  

Ambrosia trifida L. “Giant Ragweed”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Anaphalis margaritacea;  

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Bentham & Hooker “Western Pearly Everlasting”

 
  Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 850) was fairly clear that G. margaritaceum was native to North America.
Original Text
margaritace-
um.
3. GNAPHALIUM foliis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis alternis, caule fuperne ramofo, corymbis faftigiatis. Hort. cliff. 401. Hort. upf. 255. Gmel. fib. 2. p. 107.

Gnaphalium latifolium americanum. Bauh. pin. 263.

Gnaphalium americanum. Clif. hift. 1. p. 327.

Habitat in America feptentrionali, kamtfchatca.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.  

DeCandolle (1837, v. 6, p. 271) published Anaphalis, but he placed our margaritacea in Antennaria Sect. II. Margaripes.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittman (2012) state that Anaphalis is an anagram of Gnaphalium.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Antennaria parvifolia;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1128, Antennaria parvifolia
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1909, Antennaria parvifolia  

Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;
• Glossary:  sarment;  

Nuttall (1841) first described A. parvifolia collected on his trip on the Oregon Trail with the Wyeth expedition.
Original Text
Antennaria * parvifolia; subcaespitose, with procumbent sarments; stem simple; lower leaves spathulate, or spathulate-linear, the upper linear, all whitely tomentose; flowers conglomerate; scales of the involucrum oblong-ovate, eroded, yellow.
Hab. On the Black Hills and plains of the upper part of the Platte. A dwarf species, spreading out in canescent tufts with very small leaves, which are about half or three quarters of an inch long, and about two or three lines wide; the flowers in an irregular, somewhat round mass, not a circular corymb, with the scales of the corynb sulphur yellow, and very conspicuous. Radical leaves somewhat rhomboidally spathulate. The pappus of the male flower is very conspicuously clavellate: the female flower has purple oblong-lanceolate scales to the involucrum, and a filiform pappus. A specimen of this sex from Altai has a near resemblance to our plant, but is larger in all its parts, and is the A. hyperborea of Don.

Literature Cited:
- Bayer, Randall J., 1990.  

Randal J. Bayer, who wrote the treatment of Antennaria for the Flora of North America published a cladistic analysis (Bayer, 1990) of the sexually reproducing Antennaria. However, A. parvifolia is not one of them because some individuals are dioecious and others are apomictic. The article is behind a paywall. I thought this was interesting, “ … polyploidy and two asexual means of reproduction, agamospermy and horizontal stolons, have evolved in the more specialized groups, the Pulcherrimae and Catipes … ” This would imply to me that A. parvifolia would be a member of one of those two groups.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Antennaria rosea;  

Antennaria rosea Greene “Rosy Pussytoes”

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1898.  

Greene (1898, p. 281) in his “Sect. 2. Some northern species of Antennaria” described a new Antennaria.
Original Text
A. rosea. A. dioica, var. rosea, Eaton, Bot. King Exp. 186. A. parvifolia, var. rosea, Greene, p. 175 supra. A. parvifolia, Nutt. in small part, but not of spec. char. Plant by no means small, often 12, sometimes 14 or 15 inches high, yet frequently only 6 or 8 inches: leaves comparatively small, of the thinnest, as to texture, only canescently tomentose, but permanently so on both faces, the quite gradually dilated upper portion acute; cauline long and narrow, acute or acuminate: heads small, closely compacted pound cymose rounded cluster: bracts of the involucre pluriserial, their basal part concealed by wool, the tips from broad and obtuse in the outer series to narrow and acute in the inner, all rose-red.
Of this only the female plant is known to me; which is the more remarkable in view of the fact that no other north-western Antennaria so abounds in every large herbarium. It is a dry-ground species of subalpine habitat, with either short or elongated slender dry and subligneous stolons; in this quite unlike the true A. parvifolia. From A. hyperborea more difficult to distinguish it, except by the looser inflorescence, longer heads, less woolly involucre, and fewer paler narrower bracts of the last named. I give the following rather copious list of localities for A. rosea. North Park, Colorado, Chas. S. Sheldon, n. 128 ; Yellowstone Park, Frank Tweedy, n. 728; mountain meadows in Kootenai Co., Idaho, J. B. Leiberg, n. 646 ; Nez Perces Co., Idaho, Heller, n. 3441 ; Salmon River, British Columbia, Dawson (Can. Surv. n. 11281); Spence's Bridge, B. C, Macoun, n. 11282; summit of Mt. Arrowsmith, Vancouver Island, Macoun, n. 11279; pine woods near Spokane, Washington, C. V. Piper, n. 2273; Mt. Hood, Oregon, Thos. Howell; Crooked Creek, southeastern Oregon, and Warner Range, northeastern California, Mrs. Austin.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Arnica cordifolia;  

Arnica cordifolia Hook. “Heart-Leaf Leopardbane”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1840.  

Hooker (1834, v. 1, p. 334) described A. cordifolia from collections by Drummond in the Rocky Mountains and by Douglas along the Columbia River in Washington Territory.
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
4. A. cordifolia ; caule elato, foliis cordatis glabriusculis basi sinu distincto, inferioribus longe petiolatis pari supremo solummodo sessili, panicula 1-3-flora.  
Hab. Alpine woods of the Rocky Mountains, on the east side, Drummond ; and on the west side, in mountain woods between the Kettle Falls and Spokan River, and in the Blue Mountains. Douglas. — This appears quite distinct from the preceding, and is very constant in the shape and petiolation of its leaves. The preceding was A. menziesii.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Arnica fulgens;  

Arnica fulgens Pursh “Shining Leopardbane”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 527) published A. fulgens from an unidentified collection on the banks of the Missouri. There is no Lewis & Clark collection of this taxon, so it may have been an unattributed Bradbury or Nuttall collection.
Original Text
3. A. pubescens ; foliis radicalibus lanceolatis obtusiusculis basi attenuatis petiolatis trinervibus, caulinis oppositis remotis linearibus, caule unifloro.

On the banks of the Missouri. ♃. v. s. About a foot or more high, very slender ; leaves on the stem generally two pairs ; flowers somewhat smaller than the preceding, of a very deep and beautiful yellow.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 164) treated A. fulgens as a variety of A. montana.
Original Text
563. ARNICA. L.
Calix hemispherical, leaflets equal, mostly in a simple series? Radial florets often producing 5 filaments destitute of anthers. Receptacle naked. Pappus simple, scabrous.
A polymorphous and divided genus? Some of the species caulescent and also shrubby; those of Europe and North America, with a few others, often scapigerous, scapes 1-flowered, sometimes producing 1 or 2 pair of opposite leaves; flowers mostly yellow.
Species. 1. A. montana. β fulgens. A. fulgens. Ph. 2. p. 527. Scarcely dissimilar to specimens of the alpine variety in the Banksian herbarium. Hab. On the margins of marshy springs and in depressed situations, from the Arikarees to Fort Mandan, and probably as far as the Mountains. Flowering in July. Flowers bright yellow. Obs. Minutely pubescent. Scape about 12 inches high, mostly with 2 pair of leaves, terminated by 1 rarely 3 flowers. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 5 nerved; summit of the caudex tomentose. Calix a simple series of leaflets, somewhat hirsute. Tube of the florets pilose; rays without filaments; seed hirsute, slender. A. plantaginea, of Pursh from the specimen which I have seen, appears also a mere variety of the above.
2. Doronicum. 3. nudicaule. Doroonicum nudicaule. Mich. 2. p. 121. A. Claytoni. PH. 4. maritima.
A genus principally indigenous to Europe and the Cape of Good Hope, there are also 2 species in South America, 2 in Japan, 1 in Arabia Felix, and a shrubby species, or something else, in New Zealand.

   

Artemisia Linnaeus subg. Dracunculus Besser, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 1: 223. 1829.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Four species of Artemisia within subgroup dracunculus are recognized by Ackerfield (2015).
  • A. campestris, 493 collections, widely distributed except northwest Colorado, including 20 in Jefferson County.
  • A. dracunculus, 691 collections, including 27 in Jefferson County.
  • A. filifolia, 247 collections, mostly eastern Colorado, esp., out on the plains, not in Jefferson County.
  • A. pedatifida, 12 collections, mostly Moffatt County, none in Jefferson County.

Five secies are not recognized by Ackerfield (2015):

  • A. aleutica, no collections.
  • A. borealis, 191 collections in Colorado, widely scattered in the mountains, treated by Ackerfield (2015) as A campestris var. purshii. The count of collections is not included in the count of A. campestris above.
  • A. porteri, no collections in Colorado.
  • A. pycnocephala, no collections in Colorado.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia campestris;  Notes on Artemisia dracunculus, Linnaeus, 1753;  

Artemisia campestris L. “Field Sagewort”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 846) published A. campestris stating that its habitat was dry, sunny fields in Europe.
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
campeftris. 4. ARTEMISIA foliis multifidis linearibus, caulibus procumbentibus virgatis. Hort. cliff. 403. Fl. fuec. 668. Roy. lugdb. 154. Gmel. fib. 2. p. 117.

Abrotanum campeftre. Bauh. pin. 136.

Ambrofia altera. Cam. epit. 597.

Habitat in Europæ campis apricis, aridis.

 

Habitat in sunny, dry European fields.

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 2006.  

The Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 2006) was written by Leila M. Shultz. There is a local connection in that many collections at Rocky Flats were made by Ms. Shultz, who was working with G. Kunkel.

In her description of A. campestris, Ms. Shultz states that the species varies, and that each morphological form grades into another. Taking a conservative approach, she recognizes three subspecies: subsp. pacifica (Nuttall) H. M. Hall & Clements, subsp. canadensis (Michaux) Scoggan, and subsp. caudata (Michaux) H. M. Hall & Clements. Subspecies caudata and pacifica are known to occur in Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oligosporus, Cassini, 1817;  

Weber & Wittmann (2012, p. 104) do not accept presence of A. campestris L. in Colorado. Instead, they accept Oligosporus caudatus (Michx.) Poljakov and O. pacificus (Nutt.) Poljakov.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015, p. 121) accepts three varieties of A. campestris L. in Colorado, variety purshii (Hook.) Cronquist, variety caudata (Michx.) Palmer & Steyerm., and variety pacifica (Nutt.) M. Peck.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia dracunculus L.;  

Artemisia dracunculus L. “Tarragon, Dragon Wort”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia campestris;  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 849) ....
Original Text
16. ARTEMISIA foliis lanceolatis glabris integerrimis. Hort. cliff. 403. Hort. upf. 256. Gmel.fib. 2. p. 126. t. 59. & 60. f. 1.

Abrotanum lini folio acriori & odorato. Tournef. inft. 459.

Dracunculus hortenfis. Bauh. pin. 98.

Draco herba. Dod. pempt. 709.

Habitat in Sibiria, Tataria. ♃

Dracunculus

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Oligosporus, Cassini, 1817;  

Weber & Wittman (2015, p. 103) recognize Oligosporus dracunculus (L.) Poljakov subsp. glaucus (Pallas) Löve & Löve for our Artemisia dracunculus.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015, p. 121) accepts A. dracunculus without infraspecific taxa.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia filifolia;  

Artemisia filifolia Torrey “Sand Sage, Old-Man Sagebrush”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

In describing the collections of Edwin James, MD, John Torrey (1828, v. 2, p. 211) informally “published” A. filifolia.
Original Text
210. Artemisia ludoviciana, Nutt. gen. ii. p. 143. Arid plains of the Platte, with all the following of Nuttall : A. Serrata, columbiensis, longifolia, cernua, and canadensis.

Obs. Besides the above six species, Dr. James found another, which appears to be new, but the specimen is without lower leaves, and cannot, therefore, be certainly determined.
Artemisia filifolia, caule herbaceo ? ramoso ? foliis canescenti-pubescentibus ; superioribus simplicibus, filiformibus, et subpinnatifidis, semiteretibus ; floribus conglomeratis.

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.  

Goodman & Lawson (1995, p. 159) note that James could have collected A. filifolia in any one of five states the expedition passed through, and that the species occurs abundantly in the Texas panhandle which is perhaps the most likely collecting site.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia frigida;  

Artemisia frigida Willd. “Prairie Sagewort”

 

Literature Cited:
- Stearn, William T., 2004.
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1803.  

Willdenow (1803v. 3, pt. 3, p. 1838) published A. fridiga ...
Original Text
*51. ARTEMISIA frigida. W.
A. foliis incanis pinnatis , pinnis tripartitis linearibus acutis, floralibus pinnatis tripartitisve, caule adfcendente, floribus globofis nutantibus. W.
Kalter Beyfus. W.
Habitat in aridis frigidis Dauuriae. ♃.
Habitu praecedenti quoad Jiguram Gmelini aliquatenus affinis fed toto coelo diverfa. Caules adfceudentes femipedales vel pedales ramofi, inferne glabri, fuperne fubcanefcentes. Folia incana, caulina pinnata, foliolis tripartitis linearibus acutis, quadrantem pollicis longa fesfilia; radicalia petiolata ejusdem formae et magnitudinis , floralia triplo minora pinnata vel tantum tripartita fesflia. Panicula fimplex, ramis fimplicibus longis erectis. Flores globoji breve pedunculati nutantes maguitudine Abfinthii. Receptaculum villofum. W.

I think the location of “Dauuriae” is likely equivalent to “Dauria,” “Dahuria,” or “Davuria,” which Stearn (2004) cites as a name for a region of southeast Siberia.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia ludoviciana;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  connivent;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1281, Artemisia ludoviciana  

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. “Silver Wormwood”

553. ARTEMISIA. L. (Wormwood, Southern-wood, &c.)
Calix imbricated, scales rounded, connivent. Rays of the corolla none. Receptacle subvillous, or nearly naked. Pappus none.
Shrubby or herbaceous; leaves mostly multifid, flowers often racemose.
§ 1. Leaves simple.
Species. 1. A * longifolia. ... 2. * serrata. ... 3. * columbiensis. ... 4. * Gnaphaloides. ...
5. * ludoviciana. Stem simple and herbaceous; lower leaves incise, subpinnatifid, the upper lanceolate and en- entire(sic), on both sides pubescent, beneath tomentose; flowers ovate, erect and sessile; calix pubescent, panicle simple. — Hab. On the banks of the Missisippi, near St. Louis; also on the alluvial plains of the Missouri. Obs. Perennial. Stem about 2 feet high. Lower stem leaves lanceolate, irregularly and divaricately laciniate, segments entire, oblong-lanceolate and acute.
6. * cernua. ... 7. chinensis ...
§ ii. Leaves compound; stem paniculate.
8. Sontonia? Ph. 9. sericea.

The specific epithet “ludoviciana” is a Latinization of “Louisiana.”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bahia dissecta;  

Bahia dissecta (A. Gray) Britton “Ragleaf Bahia”

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Locations: Mora River.  

Gray (1849, p. 104) was unsure what name to apply to Fendler's and Fremont's specimens because they were incomplete.
† 425. Amauria ? dissecta (sp. nov.) : hierbacea, puberula ; caule adscendente apice corymbosi-polycephalo ; foliis alternis petiolatis biternatisectis segmentis cuneiformibus vel sublincaribus saepius 2-3-fidis, summis parvis ; pedunculis glandulosis ; involucri squamis oblongo-lanceolatis subtriseriatis, intimis subscariosis ; receptaculo convexo ; ligulis circiter 16; styli ramis fl. disci cono brevissimo truncati-capitatis ; acheniis ad angulos laevibus. — A few miles east of Mora River ; Aug. (537.) Also gathered in Fremont's third expedition, probably towards the head-waters of the Arkansas. — Stem 12 or 15 inches high, apparently from a perennial root. Leaves about an inch in diameter, cut into narrow divisions. Peduncles clothed both with viscous and capitate-glandular hairs. Involucre herbaceous, more or less viscous, a third of an inch in diameter. Receptacle entirely destitute of chaff. Flowers all yellow: rays linear-oblong, 2-3-toothed ; the tube very glandular. Disk-corollas with the slender tube extremely glandular, the expanded 5-cleft limb slightly so. Branches of the style short, flattish-semiterete, capitate with a very short and flattish obtuse cone. Achenia cuneate-linear, slender, compressed-quadrangular, smooth ; the ovary sprinkled with sparse and minute hairs. Pappus none. — The specimen of Fendler has not matured fruit ; and the stamens are abortive in all the disk-flowers. The specimen from Fremont's collection, communicated by Dr. Torrey, is very imperfect, but has ripe achenia. From the character of the Californian genus Amauria, Benth. in Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 31, this plant differs very essentially in the styles, and in the convex receptacle. But I am unwilling to constitute it a distinct genus upon the present imperfect materials.*

Literature Cited:
- Britton, N. L., 1889.  

Britton (1889, p. 68) published Bahia dissecta from collections by Dr. E. A. Mearns, in the Mongollon and San Francisco Mountains, Arizona.
Original Text Comments
Bahia dissecta (Gray). Amauria (?) dissecta, Gray. Mem. Amer. Acad. iv. 104 (1849); Villanova chrysanthemoides, Gray, Smithsonian Contr. v. 96 (1853); Bahia chrysanthemoides, Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. xix. 28 (1883). Copper Cañon. A form with involucral scales not acuminate (183). It is unclear which Copper Cañon this might be. There is no Copper Cañon contained within the current named San Francisco Mountains or the Mongollon Rim. The closest might be Copper Canyon along US Interstate 17 near Camp Verde.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1915.

Locations: Mora River.  

Rydberg (1915, v. 34, pt. 1 [1914]) published Amauriopsis with A. dissecta being the type species.
Original Text Comments
28. AMAURIOPSIS Rydberg, gen. nov.  
Glandular-pubescent annuals. Leaves alternate, twice or thrice ternately divided. Heads in leafy corymbs, radiate. Involucre hemispheric; bracts 16-20, herbaceous, oblanceolate in about 3 series. Receptacle fiat, alveolate. Ray-flowers 16-20, pistillate, fertile; ligules cuneate, 3-cleft. Disk-flowers numerous, hermaphrodite and fertile; corolla-tube densely glandular, longer than the funnelform throat; teeth lanceolate, longer than the throat. Achenes elongate and narrowly obpyramidal, 4-angled, striate, rounded at the apex. Pappus wanting.  
Type species, Amauria dissecta A. Gray.  
1. Amauriopsis dissecta (A. Gray) Rydberg.  

Amauria dissecta A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II. 4: 104. 1849.
Villanova chrysanthemoides A. Gray, PI. Wright. 2: 96. 1853.
Bahia chrysanthemoides A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 19: 28. 1883.
Bahia dissecta Britten, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 8: 68. 1888.
Eriophyllum chrysanthemoides Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 307. 1891.
Villanova dissecta Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 37: 333. 1910.
 
A tall annual; stems 3-6 dm. high, puberulent and glandular, especially above; leaves 1-3 times ternately divided into obovate, oblong, or oblanceolate toothed divisions, puberulent; involucre hemispheric, 6 mm. high, 10-13 mm. broad; bracts oblanceolate, acuminate. glandular-hirsute; ligules spatulate, 6-8 mm. long, 3-cleft with rounded teeth; disk-corollas 3 mm. long; achenes narrowly obpyramidal, 4 mm. long, 0.5 mm. thick, glandular-puberulent,  

Type locality: A few miles east of Mora River [New Mexico].
Distribution: Wyoming to New Mexico, Arizona, and Chihuahua.
Illustration: Clements, Rocky Mt. Fl. pl. 41, f. 1.
 

Literature Cited:
- Baldwin, Bruce G., and Kenneth R. Wood, 2016.  

Baldwin and Wood (2016) examined phyllotaxy within the Bahia alliance and, among other findings, showed that merger of Amauriopsis and Hymenothrix into a common, monophyletic genus within the Bahia alliance would simplify the taxonomy. Hymenothrix has priority for such a group, which is characterized in part by alternate leaves, obtuse to acute style-branch apices, often zygomorphic disc corollas (of outer florets), and pappus scales generally ≥ 10 or absent.

Literature Cited:
- SEINet, 2019+.  

The SEINet taxon tree treats Amauriopsis dissecta (syn: Bahia dissecta) separatelty from Hymenothrix dissecta. Therefore, it is necessary to search for both when searching for either.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Balsamorhiza sagittata;  

Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. “Arrow-Leaf Balsam Root”

 

Other articles:
• Tin Cup Ridge (social trail):   at Coll. 1109;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1109, 14 May 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1109, Balsamorhiza sagittata  

How the heck did it get to Tin Cup Ridge?

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Original Text
649. BUPHTHALMUM. Gen. pl. 1231.
  ...
sagittatum. 3. B. tomentosum ; foliis radicalibus longissime petiolatis oblongis sagittatis integerrimus subtrinervibus, caulinis oblongis in petiolum attenuatis, caule subtrifloro, calycinis foliolis exterioribus disco longioribus.
  On dry barren hills, in the Rocky-mountains. M. Lewis. ♃ June, July. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers large, yellow. The natives eat the young stems as they spring up, raw.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.  

From Nuttall's (1834a) catalogue of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth.
Original Text
ESPELETIA, Humb. and Bonpl. — BALSAMORHIZA, Hooker.
Calyx imbricatus, subsquarrosus, foliaceus. Colollulae radii femineae, vix dentatae. Receptaculum planum paleaceum. Pappus nullus. Semina compressa planiascula, subquadrangulata. Herba perennis, pumila, grandiflora. Helianthi facie ; radix resinosa.
This genus has also been proposed by Dr. Hooker in his Flora Boreali-Americana, under the name of Balsamorhiza, for a species of Heliopsis there described.
66. ESPELETIA sagittata. Tomentosa, incana, foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis cordato-hastatis integris acutis, caulinis paucis lineari-oblongis in periolum attenuatis, caule subtrifloro pumilo, calicibus foliosis squarrosis, pl. 4. BUPHTHALMUM sagittatum, Ph. 2, p. 564.
♃ With a large yellowish root like a dock. Radical leaves about the length of the stem, seven or eight inches, softly and copiously tomentose, hoary. The stem also downy, resembling a scape, with about two or three small leaves like bracts on its upper part. Calyx very white and softly tomentose, leafy, the inner leaves linear-lanceolate and somewhat acute. Rays bright yellow, very large, from sixteen to eighteen, bidentate at the tips. Seed flattish, elliptic, very smooth, and wholly devoid of any vestige of pappus.
Hab. On the borders of Flat-Head river. Flowering in June.
The root of this plant also, when fermented a day or two in the ground, in a hole made for the purpose, and heated with hot stones, is then eaten and possesses an agreeable saccharine taste. The stems are never employed for food.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Original Text
§ II. * ARTORHIZA. — Leaves entire, deltoid or cordate; involucrum very leafy at base; rays numerous. Receptacle flat.
Balsamorhiza sagittata. Buphthalmum sagittatum? Pursh, Vol. II., p. 564. Espeltia sagittata; Nutt. in Journ, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII., p. 39. Canescently tomentose; stem low, about one to three flowered; radical leaves cordate-ovate, entire, somethat three-nerved at base; cauline leaves linear, attenuated below; external leaves of the involucrum longer than the inner, spreading, lanceolate, densely tomentose; rays numerous, (twenty to twenty-four.)
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains, by Flat-Head River, towards the sources of the Oregon. Flower large and showy, about three to four inches in diameter, while the scapoid stem is not more than a span high. Stigmas very hirsute, filiform. Rays feminine, with infertile filaments.

 

Literature Cited:
- Elliott, Stephen, 1821-1824.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elliott, 1821-1824, publication details;  

Brickellia Elliot

Elliott (1823) published the name Brickellia in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia.
BRICKELLIA. E.
Involucrum polyphyllum, inbricatum. Semina sub glabra, 10 striata. Pappus pilosus sive scaber. Receptaculum nudum, punctatum. Involucrum many leaved, imbricate. Seed nearly glabrous, 10 streaked. Pappus hairy or scabrous. Receptacle naked, dotted.
1. Cordifolia. E. …
This plant which in its artificial characters is closely allied to the Eupatorium, differing principally in size and number, in its general aspect, bear more resemblance to the Vernonia. I have named it in commemoration of Dr. John Brickell, of Savannah, who at one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser and others, many of its undescribed plants.
The name is conserved against Brickellia Raf., Med. Repos. Ser. 2, 5:353 (1808), nom. Illeg. Nom rej., which turns out to be a synonym of Gilia Ruiz & Pav.

Literature Cited:
- Schilling, Edward, Randall W. Scott, and Jose L. Panero, 2015.  

Schilling, et al., 2015, infrageneric classification for Brickellia is behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Schilling, Edward E., Jose L. Panero, Bonnie S. Crozier, Randall W. Scott, and Patricia Davila, 2015.  

Schilling, et al., 2015a, also behind a paywall, results supported the hypothesis that Brickellia is monophyletic and showed Barroetea, Phanerostylis, and Kuhnia all embedded within the genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia californica;  

Brickellia californica (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray. “California Brickelbush”

 

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Gray, Asa, 1849.
- Kunth, Karl sigismund, 1833-1850.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;

Locations: Mora River.  

Gray (1849) describes B. californica in his Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.
Original Text Comments
308. B. (Bulbostylis) Californica, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2. p. 79 : var. foliis plerisque subcordatis. — Rocky hill-side on the Mora River, and eight miles eastward, in bottom land; Aug. (346.) — The cauline leaves are mostly cordate, and with rather longer petioles than in the Californian specimens collected by Douglas ; but the plant of Hartweg's recent collection is wholly intermediate. Mr. Bentham (in Bot. Voy. Sulph.) has very properly carried out the intimation given in the Flora of North America, and annexed Bulbostylis to Brickellia. The pappus is so strongly barbellate-denticulate in some species (as in the original B. cordifolia and especially in B. cylindracea, Gray & Engelm., from Texas, and an undescribed Mexican species found by Dr. Wislizenus *) that Clavigera is separated by a merely arbitary character.† I almost fell off my chair to see that Torrey & Gray applied Bulbostylis DC. to our Brickellia. DeCandolle (1836) did in fact propose it for a group in the Eupatorieae. That name is now considered illegitimate and the name in Cyperaceae, which would appear to be Bulbostylem Kunth, is a conserved name (Kunth, 1833-1850, v. 2, pg. 205).

The undescribed Mexican species is Brickellia wislizeni A.Gray, an accepted species that occurs only in Mexico.

The dagger (†) refers to an undescribed Stevia in Coulter's Mexican collection.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia eupatorioides;  

Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners. “False Boneset”

 

Literature Cited:
- Linne, Carl von, and Lars Salvius, 1763.  

Linnaeus (1763) publication of Kuhnia eupatorioides from a collection in Pensylvania by Adam Kuhn.
Original Text
Eupatorioides. 289. KUHNIA. (Pentandra, Monogyna.)
  Eupatoria conyzoides odorata, folio crenato molli fubincano. Pluk. alm. 140. t. 87. f. 2?
  Habitat in Penfylvania , unde vivam attulit Adam Kuhn. ♃
  Caules fesquioedales, erecti, laeves, rigiduli. Folia alterna, petiolata, lato-lanceolata, nuda, fubrugefa, fubtus venofa, fusdentata ferraturis mediis majoribus. Rami alterni, e medio caule. Corymbi parvi, terminales & etiam fape ramorum lateralium. Corollae albe. Stamina albo-flavefcentia. Planta refert Eupatorium, fed Piftilla clavata, & Antherae diftinctae, cylindricaw, apice labio dehifcentes, absque exemplo in alio Compofits flore.

Immediately above this entry is one for Ellisia nyctelea.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia grandiflora;  

Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. “Tasselflower Brickellbush”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1840.  

Hooker (1840) described a single spcimen collected by Douglas.
Original Text
COMPOSITAE Omissae
Post Eupatorium occidentale, v. 1. p. 305, adde
5.* Eupatorium? grandiflorum; glabrum, foliis alternis petiolatis cordato-triangularibus acuminatis grosse serratis venosis, paniculae floribus glomeratis, incolucri foliolis multiserialibus lineari-oblongis acutis striatis exterioribus e lata basi subulatis subsquarrosis, acheniis cylindraceis striatis scabridis.
Hab. On the low hills betweeb the north and south branches of Lewis and Clarke's River, in stony places. Douglas. — Three to four feet high, herbaceous. Stem rounded. Flowers large, white, clustered. The leaves bear a considerable resemblance to those of E. occidentale, but the flowers are totally different, larger than is usual in this Genus, each of many florets, and with the stigmas less exserted than usual. I possess only a solitary specimen.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Nuttall (1841) described Brickellia grandiflora from collections on his trip with the Wyeth expedition, citing Eupatorium grandiflorum Hook. as a synonym.
Original Text
Brickellia grandiflora, leaves alternate, deltoid-cordate, acuminate, incisely dentate towards the base, entire at the point, smooth on both surfaces, and covered beneath with resinous atoms; flowers in fastigiate clusters, the upper part of the stem branching; inner scales of the involucrum linear-lanceolate, acute; pappus white, achenia smooth. — Eupatorium? grandiflorum. Hook. Flor. Am., Vol. II., p. 26.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountain range, by streams, in gravelly places, and west, to the lower falls of the Columbia. — Perennial. Stems many from the same root, about twelve to fifteen inches high. The whole plant almost perfectly glabrous. Leaves alternate, sometimes almost opposite, approximate, on longish petioles, deltoid-cordate, acuminate, coarsely and deeply toothed towards the base, smooth and green, but shhining, aith a coating of yellow resinous atoms having a heavy aromatic scent; stem branching above; branches terminating in corymbulose clusters of subsessile flowers, about five capituli in each. Florets straw-yellow, inclining to white, cylindric and smooth, the border connivent. Stigmas exserted, smooth, thicker toward the extremity. Achenium cylindric, ten-striate. Pappus of a single series of twenty to twenty-four scabrous hairs. Receptacle naked, flat.

 

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Cirsium Mill. Thistle.

Twenty species of Cirsium “Thistle” are found in Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015). Eighteen of them are native, while two are introduced: C. arvense and C. vulgare. There are two endemic thistles: C. osterhoutii and C. perplexans.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cirsium ochrocentrum;  

Cirsium ochrocentrum A. Gray “Yellowspine Thistle”

 

 

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cirsium undulatum;
Full Size ImageDistribution of collections of Cirsium undulatum  

Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. “Wavy Leaved Thistle”

Cirsium undulatum is widely distributed in the wstern half of North America from the dry plains and plateaus of the Pacific Northwest eastward across the Great Plains to Manitoba and the Dakotas and south to Texas, New Mexico, and northwestern Mexico. It occurs in scattered localities in the Rocky Mountains and northeastern Great Basin region. At least some of the few widely scattered records from the eastern United States are probably introductions. Cirsium undulatum is both widespread and variable. Plants of the Great Plains region tend to be low-growing with a few large heads and elongate corollas. Plants of the Pacific Northwest are usually taller and produce smaller, more numerous heads with shorter corollas. A detailed study of this species might reveal races worthy of recognition as infraspecific taxa.

Wavyleaf thistle is listed by California as a noxious weed. However, most reports of Cirsium undulatum in California are based upon misidentifications of C. canescens. Cirsium undulatum is known to hybridize with C. flodmanii, C. hookerianum, and C. scariosum var. coloradense. J. T. Howell (1960b) reported that C. undulatum was suspected to hybridize with C. brevifolium in the Pacific Northwest.

— David J. Keil in Flora of North America (vol. 19, 20 and 21)

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Philip, 1754.  

The genus Cirsium was first proposed by Miller (1754) in his Gardener's Dictionary.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  ventricose;  

Nuttall (1818) published his Carduus undulatus in his Genera of North American Plants, in the section Cnicus because the pappus is plumose. He saw the plant on Lake Huron and in the upper Louisiana Territory. I have not found a type specimen, but saw a note that the material might be in the Gray Herbarium.
538. CARDUUS. L. (Thistle.) Calix ventricose, imbricate, scales spiny. Receptacle villous. Pappus pilose or plumose, deciduous.
§ II. CNICUS. Pappus plimose
11. * undulatus. Stem low and few-flowered; leaves amplexicaule, pinnatifidly sinuate, and plicately undulated, on both sides tomentose, but beneath white, lobes bifid and spiny; calix subglobose, scales lanceolate, eredt and mucronate. HAB. On the calcareous islands of lake Huron, and on the plains of Upper Louisiana. — Leaves almost like some species of Cynara, but not remarkably large, moreslenderly tomentose on the upper side; stem often 1,2, or few-flowered, and 1 to 2 feet high. Flowers large, reddish purple.

Literature Cited:
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.  

Original Text Translation
undulatum * 45. C. caule humili paucifloro, foliis amplexicaulibus finuato-pinnatifidis undulato-plicatus utrinque tomentofis, laciniis 2fidis fpinofis, fquamis anthodii lanceolatis erectis mucronatis. In infulis lacus Huronum et Louifiana fuper. (Cnicus Nutt.) undulatum * Cirsium [with] short few-flowered stems, leaves amplexicaul curved-pinnatifid undulate-plicate both sides hairy, lobes divided spiny scales anthodii laneeolatis putting pointed. The islands of Lake Huron and upper Louisiana.

Literature Cited:
- Frankton, C., and R. J. Moore, 1961.  

Frankton and Moore (1961) compare and contrast of Cirsium undulatum and C. flodmanii, both of which are known to occur in Colorado is behind a paywall, so I have reproduced the abstract here.
Abstract. The morphology and specific differences of Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. And of C. flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur are described and their Canadian distributions are reported in detail. The chromosome numbers are C. undulatum f. undulatum and f. album Farwell, 2n = 26; C. flodmanii f. flodmanii and f. albiflorum D. Löve, 2n = 22. The origin of four North American species of Cirsium that do not follow the world-wide base number 17 is discussed; it is postulated that reduction in number has occurred by translocations. The chromosomes of species with reduced numbers are larger than those of the unreduced species but the total length of the chromosomes of both groups is approximately the same.

Literature Cited:
- Häffner, Eva, and Frank H. Hellwig, 1999.  

Haffner and Hellwig (1999) investigated relationships within tribe Cardueae using ITS sequence data. The sole North American Cirsium in their study was C. texanum which does not occur in Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- Garcia-Jacas, Nuria, Teresa Garnatje, Alfoonso Susanna, and Rosier Vilatersana, 2002.  

Garcia-Jacas, et al. (2002) worked on tribal and subtribal delimitation of the Cardueae, unfortunately without any North American specimens.

Literature Cited:
- Kelch, Dean G., and Bruce G. Baldwin, 2003.  

Kelch and Baldwin (2003) studied historical biogeography and ecology of true thistles (Cirsium, Cardueae, Compositae) in the New World. Unfortunately, their sample of thistles did not include Cirsium undulatum. However, three other native thistles, C. muticum, C. discolor, and C. rhaphilepis, that commonly cluster with C. undulatum and did in fact cluster together in this study.

Literature Cited:
- Bodo Slotto, Tracey A., David P. Horvath, and Michael E. Foley, 2012.  

Abstract. Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native and non-native Great Plains Cirsium spp. And other thistles to determine if host specificity follows phylogeny. The monophyly of Cirsium spp. And Carduus within the tribe Cardinae was confirmed with native North American and European lineages of the Cirsium spp. Examined. We did not detect interspecific hybridization between the introduced invasive and the native North American Cirsium spp. Selected host-biological control agent interactions were mapped onto the phylogenic tree derived by maximum likelihood analysis to examine the co-occurrence of known hosts with biological control agents. Within Cirsium-Cardueae, the insect biological control agents do not associate with host phylogenetic lines. Thus, more comprehensive testing of species in host-specificity trials, rather than relying on a single representative of a given clade may be necessary; because the assumption that host-specificity follows phylogeny does not necessarily hold. Since the assumption does not always hold, it will also be important to evaluate ecological factors to provide better cues for host specificity.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coreopsis tinctoria;  

Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. “Golden Tickseed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1821, publication details;  

Nuttall (1821, v. 2, p. 114) described a plant he found in the Arkansa Territory and introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia.
Original Text
1. COREOPSIS * tinctoria, foliis radicalibus pseudobipinnatis, foliolis subovalibus integris glabris, superioribus pseudopinnatis laciniis linearibus; floribus binatis ternatisve; calcibus exterioribus brevissimis; radiis bicoloribus; seminibus nudis immarginatis.
Habitat. Throughout the Arkansa territory to the banks of Red River, chiefly in the prairies which are subject to temporary inundation. — Flowering, from June to October.
Description. Annual and biennial, stem erect, smooth, and much branched, extremely variable in magnitude, being from one to five feet high. The leaves, in common with the genus, are somewhat think and succulent, the primary ones simple, radical pseudobipinnate, the segments also occasionally pinnate, oblong-oval, commonly smooth, and entire, the ultimate divisions largest. Flowers often terminating the branchlets by pairs, with the peduncles unusually short. Exterior calix, minute, much shorter than the interior, and in common with it. And the number of rays mostly eight-leaved. Rays three-lobed at the extremity, of a bright orpiment yellow and brown towards the base; disk brown, and rather small. Receptable paleaceous, the leaflets deciduous. Seed small, blackish, immarginate, curved and naked at the summit.
Economical Use. The flowers of this species afford a yellow dye, in common with those of the C. senifolia.
As an ornamental plant, of easy culture and uncommon brilliance, it promises to become the favourite of every garden where it is introduced.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis;  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;  

Crepis occidentalis Nutt. “Largeflower Hawksbeard”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.  

Nuttall (1834a, v. 7, p. 29) described Crepis occidentalis from a collection by Nathaniel Wyeth in 1833 between the Falls of the Columbia and the first navigable waters of the Missouri.
COMPOSITAE
50. Crepis *Occidentalis. Canescente-pubescens, pumila, foliis sessilibus, runcinato-pinnatisentis, laciniis linearibus, acutis subdenticulatis, floribus paucis fastigiatis.
♃ About a span high, covered with a close very short whitish pubescence, The leaves runcinate and acute, about two on the spem, greatly resembling those of the common Shepard's purse ; above, beneath the ultimate flowers, diminishing into simple undivided bracts. Flowers (in the only specimen before me) three, axillary and terminal, all attaining nearly the same height on the stem. Calyx slightly caliculate, the larger leaves of it disposed in a single series, the divisions linear and rather obtuse. Flowers bright yellow, rather large, about the size and appearance of those of Apargia autumnalis ; liguli five-toothed ; the anthers simple, the style bifid, deeply and far exserted. Pappus pilose, somewhat scabrous through a lens, the hairs more than twenty, not dilated at base, or in any way distinguishable from those of Hieracium, nor are they all stipitate. Seed smooth, brown. Probably the Hymenonema laciniatum of Hooker, in Flor. Boreal. Amer. L. c.
Hab. Common on the borders and in the vicinity of the river Columbia.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;
• Glossary:  achenium;  testa;  

In his Descriptions of new Species and Genera of Plants … Nuttall (1841) proposed Psilochenia occidentalis for his previously published Crepis occidentalis Nutt.
Original Text
* PSILOCHENIA
Crepis, but with the achenium cylindric, curved, narrower above, and without any visible striae, the testa indurated, and, when mature, black ; an abortive outer series of florets, with the achenium empty. Pappus copious, slenderly pilose, scabrous, and yellowish white, about the length of the achenium. Receptable naked, alveolate, the alveoles minutely fringed. — A low perennial herb; stem dichotomous and corymbose. Leaves lanceolate, runcinately pinnatifid, and, as well as the somewhat hirsute involucrum, cinereously and closely lanuginous; flowers yellow, rather large.
Psilochenia * occidentalis. Crepis occidentalis, Nutt. In Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII., p. 29.
Hab. On the plains of the Platte, towards the Rocky Mountains. The whole plant more or less canescently pubescent. Stem about six or seven inches high, forked and corymbose at the summit. Leaves about an inch wide, four or five inches long, deeply and runcinately pinnatifid, the segments linear-lanceolate and denticulate, uppermost leaves linear. Involucrum campanulate; sepals about twelve to fifteen in a single series, linear and somewhat acute; involucel or bractes four or five, small and subulate: there are blackish hairs mixed with the hoary pubescence of the sepals. Florets about twelve, yellow, exserted.

Literature Cited:
- Babcock, E. B., and G. Ledyard Stebbins, 1938.  

Original Text
TAXONOMIC HISTORY OF THE INDIGENOUS SPECIES
The first record of the occurrence of Crepis in North America (outside of the arctic regions) was made by Hooker in his “Flora Boreali-Americani” (1834, vol. 1, p. 297), in which he identified as the European C. biennis James's Hieracium runcinatum. In the same year Nuttall published his C. occidentalis, and seven years later (1841), in describing the plants collected on a tour to the Pacific added another species, C. acuminata. In this publication he created a new genus, Psilochenia, for C. occidentalis, and another, Crepidium, for Hieracium runcinatum (Hooker's “C. biennis” of America), and placed Crepis acuminata in a new sub-genus, Leptotheca. Two new species, Crepidium glaucum and C. caulescens, were also described. Two years later Torrey and Gray (1843) reduced Nuttall's two genera to Crepis, and recognized, in addition to the arctic-alpine C. nana Richards., and C. elegans Hook., four species, C. runcinata, C. glauca, C. occidentalis, and C. acuminata. For the next fifty-three years the group received little attention, although a few species and varieties were described by Gray and others. In his “Syntopical Flora of North America” (1876) Gray recognized, in addition to the six species included in his earlier work, two more, C. Andersonii Gray and C. intermedia Gray, and listed two varieties under the latter and three under C.occidentalis. With the heading of the section including C. occidentalis, intermedia, and acuminata he made the terse comment “species difficult,” an opinion with which all later workers on the group, including the present writers, are inclined to agree.
Coville (1896) was the first to make a monographic study of any of the American species. Omitting the arctic-alpine species and the group of C. runcinata, as well as C. acuminata and C. intermedia, which latter he considered to be not well enough understood, he included seven species, four of which, C. monticola, C. scopulorum, C. rostrata, and C. barbigera, were described as new. His treatment, although well worked out according to the knowledge then available, was based on a relatively meager series of specimens, and included little information on the interrelationships of the species, while their distribution could be stated only in relatively broad terms.
Since the work of Coville, no particular attention has been paid to the genus in North America, except for the description of numerous new “species,” mostly of the group of C. runcinata, by Greene, Rydberg, and others. These were published without consideration of the group as a whole, were based on fickle characters such as leaf shape and pubescence, and none of them are considered valid by the present writers. Meanwhile in the affinity of C. occidentalis and C. acuminata the species were variously interpreted by the writers of the different floras, the keys to them varied considerably, while the identification of the ever increasing number of collections by various students of the western flora bore out Gray's opinion, “species difficult.”

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1983.  

Original Text
The American species of Crepis were treated in a now classic monograph by Babcock & Stebbins (Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 504. 1938). The authors seem to have been preoccupied with the species alone, and unfortunately they did not discuss the significance of their cytological findings as having a bearing on the generic level, even though Nuttall (1841) had proposed the name Psilochenia for the American species.
All of the native American species of Crepis, with the exception of two Old World species (C. elegans and C. nana), representing an ancient Tertiary extension of the genus onto western North America, have the chromosome base number x=11. “This is in striking contrast to the Old World species of Crepis, whose basic haploid numbers range from x=3 to x=7, 4 and 5 being much the most common" (Babcock & Stebbins, op. cit.). The authors went on to postulate that the American species may have arisen by amphidiploidy from a cross involving Crepis species with x=4 and x=7. Whether or not this can ever be substantiated, the fact remains that the American species of Crepis form an indisputably monophyletic line, spatially and genetically isolated from the Old World species.
Recently Love (1982, p. 360) transferred Crepis runcinata to Nuttall's genus Psilochenia because of this evidence. but among the rest of the species, only the type, Psilochenia occidentalis Nuttall, has a name in that genus. The following combinations are needed.
Weber then goes to to propose 23 new combinations in Psilochenia.

Literature Cited:
- Enke, Neela, 2009.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis, Weber & Wittman, 2012;  

Enke (2009) is one of several papers by Enke and others exploring the genomics of the genus Crepis. Unfortunately their data includes only one representative of the indigenous North American CrepisC. acuminata — which, I think, resulted in their results being somewhat unclear with regard to that group. Nevertheless, their data supports the maintenance of section Psilochenia within Crepis and does not rule out elevation of the section to the rank of genus as Weber (1983) has proposed.
Original Text
Crepis acuminata differs from all other species of clade V in morphology, karyology and geographic distribution. As all members of sect. Psilochaenia it occurs exclusively in North America, is polyploid and has a basic chromosome number of x=11. The singularity of these features within Crepis s.str. Support the maintenance of sect. Psilochaenia.

Original Text
Crepis sect. Psilochenia (Nutt.) Babc. (1947) ≡ Psilochenia Nutt. (1841). — Type: C. occidentalis Nutt.

Note. — The North American species of Crepis sect. Psilochaenia are polyploid and their placement within the genus remains unlcear at present.

*C. acuminata Nutt.
?C. atribarba A. Heller
?C. bakeri Greene
?C. barbigera Coville
?C. intermedia A. Gray
?C. modocensis Greene
?C. monticola Coville
?C. occidentalis Nutt.
?C. pleurocarpa A. Gray
?C. runcinata (E. James) Torr. & A. Gray

Literature Cited:
- Babcock, E. B., and G. Ledyard Stebbins, 1938.
- Weber, William A., 1983.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis, Enke, 2009;  Solidago nana, Nuttall, 1841;  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) place the indigenous North American Crepis in Psilochenia also spelled Psilochaenia saying,
Original Text
The genus Psilochenia encompasses the indigenous North American species of Crepis (with the exception of the Old World taxa C. elegans and C. nana, which represent a Tertiary extension). The chromosome base number x=11 is unknown in Eruasia. See Babcock & Stebbins 1938, Weber 1983. The FNA ignores Psilochenia altogether.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield retains our Largeflower Hawksbeard in Crepis as C. occidentalis Nutt.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cyclachaena xanthifolia;  

Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. “Carelessweed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 185) described his Iva xanthiifolia from a collection made near Fort Mandan. Fort Mandan was the name of the encampment which the Lewis and Clark Expedition built for wintering over in 1804-1805. The encampment was located on now-private land on the Missouri River approximately twelve miles from the site of present-day Washburn, North Dakota, which developed later. The exact location is unknown and may be partially submerged by the river.
602. IVA. L.
Calix about 5-leaved, or 5-parted. Feminine florets of the ray 5, naked. Receptacle setosely paleaceous. Seed obovate, naked.
Herbaceous or shrubby; leaves 3-nerved, mostly carneous, opposite and alternate; flowers spiked or paniculated, axillar and terminal.
Species. 1. ciliata. ... 2. * xanthiifolia. Annual; leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate-ovate, acuminated, douply serrate, softly villous, beneath canescent; spikes paniculated, naked; calix 5-cleft. Hab. In arid soils, near Fort Mandan, &c. on the banks of the Missouri. Obs. Plant very large, 5 or 6 feet high, with leaves nearly of the size and form of Xanthium Strumarium, but covered with a soft and almost velvet-like villus; upper leaves ovate; flowers extremely numerous, in a diffuse panicle. Calix 5-cleft, divisions ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Style of the discal florets simple; stigma subcapitate. Fertile florets 5, naked. Receptacle subsetaceous. — Flowering in August.
3. imbricata. ... 4. axillaris. ... &c.
A North American genus with the exception of I. annua indigenous to the tropical regions of the same continent.

There is a collection of Iva xanthiifolia attributed to Nuttall with a location of Upper Louisiana at the Harvard University Herbaria, though there is no image and the type status is not indicated in the data record.

Literature Cited:
- Fresenius, Georg, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fresenius, 1836, publication details;
Full Size ImageFootnotes from Index Seminum in which Cyclachaena is proposed  

Georg Fresenius is the apparent author of Index Seminum. Frankfort am Main, a list of seeds available from the Senckenberg Herbarium in Frankfort am Main. In the 1836 Index, seeds are available for Cyclachaena xanthiifolia Fresen. Footnote 4 in that document proposes Cyclachaena as a new genus. However, there is no reference to Iva xanthiifolia Nutt. As the basionym.

Although no basionym reference was given Art. 41.4 (Melbourne Code) applies,

41.4. If, for a name of a genus or taxon of lower rank published before 1 January 1953, no reference to a basionym is given but the conditions for its valid publication as the name of a new taxon or replacement name are fulfilled, that name is nevertheless treated as a new combination or name at new rank when this was the author’s presumed intent and a potential basionym (Art. 6.10) applying to the same taxon exists.

— International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, 2012 — Melbourne Code text: © 2012, IAPT — web-edition: © 2014, Paul van Rijckevorsel (all rights reserved)

Basionym Iva xanthiifolia Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall]. 2: 185 (1818).

Full Size Image
Page 1 from Index Seminum Frankfort/Am Main

Literature Cited:
- Miao, Bomao, Billie L. Turner, and Tom Mabry, 1995.  

Results support the dismemberment of Iva s.l. and recognition of Iva s. str., largely because Iva s. l. is shown to be paraphyletic. Most members of the section Cyclachaena were found to have relatively close interspecific relationships. Nevertheless cpDNA data strongly support two lineages within Cyclachaena. One lineage, including I. xanthiifolia, I. acerosa, I. nevadensis, and I. dealbata, has a close relationship with genus Euphrosyne.

Literature Cited:
- Flann, C (ed), 2009+.  

The Global Composite Checklist treats Iva xanthiifolia as an accepted name, and Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. as a synonym. Plants of the World (Kew) does not follow their lead and accepts Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen..

   

Dieteria Nutt.

Sometimes placed in Aster, Dieteria, or Macheranthera.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Nuttall(1840, p. 300) in describing his plants from trip to the Oregon Territory, described a new genus for a subset of Asters.
Original Text
* DIETERIA.
Flower radiate, rays styliferous, fertile ? liguli one or two series, boradish, those of the disk hermaphrodite, fertile. Stigma filiform, hirsute and exserted. Sepals of the involucrum, for the most part, closely imbricated in two to four series, scariose and carinate, the tips usually reflected and herbaceous. Receptacle flat or convex, alveolate, the alveolæ deep, with toothed and lacerated margins. Achenium obovate, subcylindric, ten to fifteen striate, pubescent. Pappus of several series, scabrous and unequal, that of the ray shorter and less copious. — Annual or biennial, (in one anomalous species perennial,) divaricately branching herbs, more or less pubescent; leaves nearly entire, incisely serrate or pinnatifid, the points often pungently mucronulate. Flowers fastigiate. The disk yellow. Liguli red or purple. — Allied to Aster, but with the involucrum regular; the achenia convex, distinctly striate when ripe; the receptacle deeply alveolate; the pappus of the ray different from that of the disk; the leaves incise or pinnatifid, and the duration only to the first period of flowering. They are also allied to te first section of Heterotheca by the deficient pappus of the ray, but that of the disk is simple, and the rays are purple. The while olant bitter to the taste. — (So called from their biennial duration.)

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Dieteria Nuttall

Nuttall (1841, p. 300) proposed a new genus Dieteria without identifying a type, the concept of which was lacking at the time. I suspect that D. canescens (syn: Aster canescens Pursh) is probably the closest thing we have to a type.
*DIETERIA.
Flower radiate, rays styliferous, fertile? liguli one or two series, broadish, those of the disk hermaphrodite, fertile. Stigma filiform, hirsute and exserted. Sepals of the involucrum, for the most part, closely imbricated in two to four series, scariose and carinate, the tips usually reflected and herbaceous. Receptacle flat or convex, alveolate, the alveolae deep, with toothed and lacerated margins. Achenium obovate, subcylindric, ten to fifteen striate, pubescent. Pappus of several series, scabrous and unequal, that of the ray shorter and less copious. — Annual or biennial, (in one anomalous species perennial,) divaricately branching herbs, more or less pubescent; leaves nearly entire, incisely serrate or pinnatifid, the points often pungently mucronulate. Flowers fastigiate. The disk yellow. Liguli red or purple. — Allied to Aster, but with the involucrum regular; the achenia convex, distinctly striate when ripe ; the receptacle deeply alveolate ; the pappus of the ray different from that of the disk; the leaves incise or pinnatifid, and the duration only to the first period of flowering. They are also allied to the first section of Heterotheca by the deficient pappus of the ray, but that of the disk is simple, and the rays are purple. The whole plant bitter to the taste. — (So called from their biennial duration.)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dieteria bigelovii;

Locations: Sandia Mountains.  

Dieteria bigelovii (A. Gray) D. R. Morgan & R. L. Hartman “Bigelow's Tansy Aster”

 

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, 1857.  

Gray, in Torrey (1857, p. [97] 41)
Original Text
Aster Bigelovii (sp. nov,) : ramis viscido-hirsutis ad apicem usque foiiosis; ramulis corymbosis monocephalis ; foliis membranaceis oblongo-lanceolatis semiamplexicaulibus grosseserratis fenuiter triplinerviis hirto-puberulis glabratis ; capitulis magnis globosis ; involucri pluriserialis squamis attenuato-subulatis basi appressis superne longe caudato-appendiculatis squarroso-recurvis glanduloso-viscidis ; acheniis glaberrimis. Arroyos in the Sandia mountains ; October. A wholly new and most remarkable Aster, of the Grandiflori group ; but the apparently showy heads larger than those of A. grandiflorus, being an inch in diameter, and the numerous (blue and violet) rays an inch long. It is probably a tall plant ; but the base of the stem was not collected. Cauline leaves two or three inches long, coarsely dentate-serrate throughout ; the uppermost, and those of the short branchlets, smaller and less toothed. Scales of the imbricated involucre half an inch long when extended, very slender ; the long and almost filiform appendicular portion recurved, spreading and very glandular. Receptacle flat, alveolate ; the alveolae short and entire. Achenia perfectly glabrous, linear, compressed, three lines long. Pappus not abundant, nearly in a single series.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dieteria canescens;  

Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt. “Hoary Tansyaster”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2., p. 547) ... Aster canescens ...
Original Text
636. ASTER. Gen. pl. 1291.  
* Foliis integerrimis.  
17. A. cano-pubescens ; foliis linearibus, panicula corymbosa ramisissima foliosa, calycibus imbricatis acutissimus disco longioribus. canescens.  
On the banks of the Missouri. ♄. Aug.-Nov. v. s. Flowers the size of a daisy, rays pale purple.   Seen by Pursh in the dried state, but neither the collector nor the herbarium is identified. Probably was not Lewis & Clark, because their single specimen was collected on the Columbia River and first thought to be Aplopappus sp. More likely a Nuttall collection, though Bradbury cannot be ruled out.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Nuttall (1840, p. 300) published Dieteria and placed Aster canescens Pursh in it.
Original Text
Involucrum subovate, of three or four series of scales.
Dieteria canescens; leaves entire, linear, sessile, radical spathulate; stem low and much branched, canescently villous, as well as the involucrum; flowers fastigiate; rays about eighteen to twenty; pappus very slender.
Hab. On the denuded banks of the Missouri. Aster canescens, Pursh, Bor. Am., Vol. II., p. 547. Not in the least allied to Aster multiflorus. A. biennis, Nutt. Gen. Am., Vol.II., p. 155. I doubt if the leaves are always entire, a fact so contrary to all the rest of the genus to which it is, in all other respects, so intimately allied.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dyssodia papposa;  

Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. “Fetid Marigold”

 

Literature Cited:
- Ventenat, Etienne P., Jacques M. Cels, and Henri J. Redoute, 1801.  

Jacques Philippe Martin Cels (1740–1806) was a French botanist specializing in horticulture. He started a botanical garden in which he cultivated foreign plants for sale, contributing to the growing public appetite for exotic flowers. He received and acclimatized numerous North American plants brought back by André Michaux and Louis-Augustin Bosc d'Antic. He strove to introduce many exotic species into France. The species in his garden were described by the botanist Étienne Pierre Ventenat (1757–1808) and illustrated by Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1759–1840) in Description des plantes nouvelles et peu connues, cultivées dans le jardin de J.-M. Cels, published in Paris in 1799 (WikiPedia, 2021).

Ventenat's (1801) description of Tagetes papposa states that it was discovered by A. Michaux in the countryside of Illinois.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1891.  

Hitchcock (1891, p. 503) moved our plant to Dyssodia papposa in a catalogue of plants in Ames, Iowa.
Original Text

Dysodia papposa, (Vent.) — Tagetes papposa, Vent. Hort. Cels. 1800. — D. chrysanthemoides, Lag. Nov. Gen. & Spec. 1816.

Sterile soil; frequent.

The pappus consists of “scales dissected into britles” instead of “capillary bristles,” as it may at first appear.

   

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler

  • How did we get to the name of Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens?
    • What is the history of the genus name Chrysothamnus?
    • What is the history of the name Ericameria nauseosa?
    • What is the history of the name ____ graveolens? And how did it become a variety of Ericameria nauseosa?

See my page about Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens or “How did rubber rabbitbrush get that long scientific name?”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ericameria nauseosa nauseosa;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 2440, Ericameria nauseosa var. nauseosa
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2440, Ericameria nauseosa var. nauseosa  

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G. I. Nesom & G. I. Baird var. nauseosa. “Rubber Rabbitbush”

 

   

Erigeron L. “Fleabane; Daisy”

The Erigerons that are known from collections in Golden s.l. are:
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. (Syn: Erigeron compositus Pursh var. discoideus A. Gray, Erigeron compositus Pursh var. glabratus Macoun) Cutleaf Daisy.
  • Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.
  • Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.
  • Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. (Syn: Stenactis strigosa (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC.) Prairie Fleabane.
  • Erigeron tracyi Greene. (Syn: Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson, Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray) Running Fleabane.
  • Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron compositus;  

Erigeron compositus Pursh “Cutleaf Daisy”

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Locations: Kooskoosky River.  

Of the western Erigerons found in Golden s.l. the first to be described was E. compositus Pursh. The holotype was collected by Meriwether Lewis on the Kooskoosky (Clearwater) River, date unknown, and the voucher is now at ANS.

Pursh (1814) described it as follows:

Syngenesia Superflua. Erigeron 535
14. E. pilosum, subacaule; foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis triplicato-3-partitis, laciniis linearibus divaricatis, caulinis linearibus plerumque indivisibus, caule superne nudo unifloro. compositum
  On the banks of the Kooskoosky. M. Lewis. ♃. July, Aug. v. s.; v. v. cultum. Not above a span high; flowers resembling a daisy exceedingly; they change during their flowering, from white to a lively pale red.  

My collection of this taxon was made as Little Scraggy Peak, (Buffalo Creek Recreation Area), Jefferson County, Colorado.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1901, Erigeron compositus
  A. Gray (1862) proposed variety discoideus. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.
  Macoun (1884) proposed variety glabratus, but the name is not now recognized. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.

   

Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Glossary:   fastigiate;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2092, Erigeron divergens  

The first publication of the entity we now call Erigeron divergens was by Nuttall (1840).
Erigeron *divaricatum; ☉ hirsute, stem branching from base; branchlets one-flowered, rather naked, fastigiate; radical leaves spathulate, the rest linear, sessile, acute, attenuated below, all entire; inner pappus of about eight setæ rays nery numerous, narrow, white.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains and the plains of Oregon. About one foot high, at length very much branched, the leaves an inch or more long, about a line wide. Pappus double in ray and disk, the inner of remarkably few rays, very deciduous.

It might be helpful to remember that the plains of Oregon would include a good part of southwest Wyoming.

The name E. divergens had been previously used by Michaux (1803) and was not available for use be Nuttall.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Torrey & Gray, 1841;  

Torrey & Gray (1841, p. 175) in Flora of North America proposed Erigeron divergens for the small fleabane that was previously illegimately published by Nuttall as E. divaricatuum.
26. E. divergens: somewhat hoary with a minute hirsute pubescence, diffusely branched from the base; leaves small, entire, acute; the radical somewhat spatulate, narrowed into a short petiole; the cauline scattered, sessile, linear, narrowed at the base; heads (small) mostly solitary terminating the naked branchlets or pecuncles; rays very narrow and numerous, twice the length of the hirsute involucre; inner pappus of few (8-12) very slender and deciduous bristles. — Erigeron (Oligotrichum) divaricatum, Nutt. ! In trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7. p. 311, not of Michx.
Rocky Mountains, and plains of the interior of Oregon, Nuttall ! — ① Stems about a foot high, diffuse, ascending, slender, at length much branched. Leaves half an inch to an inch long, 1 to 2 lines wide, mucronate-acute. Heads rather smaller than in E. tenue; the rays (white, Nutt.) nearly similar; the exterior pappus shorter.

   

Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.

 

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Gray, A., 1849;  

334. E. flagellare (sp. nov.): bienne? striguloso-puberulum, pumilum; caulibus gracillimis e basi ramosis, floriferis seu primariis simplicibus superne aphyllis monocephalis, sterilibus patentibus flagelliformibus; foliis spathulatis mucronulatis inferioribus in petiolum attenuatis integris seu radicalibus parce inciso-lobatus, ramealibus parvulis sublinearibus sessilibus; ligulis numerosis gracilibus (albis purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et discii conformiduplici, exteriore coroni-forme-squamellato conspicuo, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus. — Low, moist places, along Santa Fe Creek; May, June. (381.) — Root slender. Flowering stems 5 to 7 inches high, very slender, few-leaved below the middle, naked, and pedunculiform above; the head rather than the preceding species; the involucre, &c., similar. Lower leaves one to two inches long, including the slender petiole; those of the runner-like sterile branches decreasing to 2 or 3 lines in length. This species should rank next to the foregoing.*

The “preceding species” and “foregoing” was Erigeron cinereum (sp. Nov.), now treated as a synonym of E. tracyi Greene.

The head was described as “… as large as those on Bellis perennis …” and the involucre was described as “… hirsutum duplo superantibus …” [… coarse erect or ascending hairs doubly … ??? ]

The asterisk “*” refers to some collections sent by Mr. Spaulding from Oregon, which I don't think are particularly relevant to E. flagellaris.

Other articles:
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1116, 28 May 2015;   Coll. No. 1829, 16 May 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1116, Erigeron flagellaris
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1829, Erigeron flagellaris  

 

   

Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron pumilis;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  nutant;  

Syngenesia. Superflua. 147
557. ERIGERON. L. (Flea-bane.)
Calix imbricated, subhemispherical, in fruit often reflected. Rays of the corolla linear, very narrow, and numerous. Receptacle naked. Pappus double, exterior minute, interior pilose, of few rays. (12 to 25?)
Herbaceous; stems simple or branched, flowers solitary, axillary and terminal, subcorymbose or fastigiately paniculate; radii white, or purplish, rarely destiture of pappus. Seed very small, rather smooth, oblong, and compressed; pappus simply pilose, deciduous, not much longer than the seed, exterior pappus minute and paleaceous.
§ I. Stem simple
SPECIES. 1. E. alpinum. 2. * pumilum. Hirsute; stems aggregated, 1-flowered, leaves oblong-linear, entire and sessile; flower large and hemispherical, before flowering nutant; calyx very hirsute. HAB. On the plains of the Missouri. Flowering in May. E. hirsutum. Ph. 2. Suppl. p. 742. but this name has been previously employed for another species. OBS. Stems several from the same root, often, indeed, connected at the base, 4 or 5 inches high, 1-flowered. Leaves 2 inches, more or less, nearly linear, attenuated downwards, scarcely 2 lines wide. Flower naked, (or pedunculate) white, and large as a Daisy; rays as long as the calix, narrow and numerous. Pappus double, internal short, about 12-rayed.
“nutant”, adj., drooping or nodding.

   

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. Prairie Fleabane.

 

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1803.  

The first of the Erigeron found in the Golden, Colorado area was described from a collection made in Pensylvania. Willdenow (1803) published the name from a description written by Mühlenberg.
11. ERIGERON ʃtrigoʃum.
E. foliis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis ſubdentatis ſtrigoſo-piloſis, floribus corymboſo-paniculatis. W.
Erigeron ſtrigoſum. Mühlenb. In litt.
Behaartes Berufungskraut. W.
Habitat in Penſylvania. (v. ʃ.)
Caulis erectus ʃtriatus, pilis ʃparʃis albis obʃitus. Folia alterna lanceolata baʃ et apice attenuata, utrinque oilis copioʃis adpresʃis obʃita, integerrima, vel medio utrunque ʃerraturis 2. ʃ. 3 inʃtructa. Flores corymboʃo-paniculati. Radius copioʃus filiformis albus. W.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.  

DeCandolle (1836) proposed Stenactis strigosa DC.

5. S. strigosa, caule erecto sparse et patentim piloso, foliis lanceolatis utrinque stteniatis dentatis strigoso-hispodid, capitulis laxe corymboso-paniculatis, invol. Glaberrimo, ligulis numerosis filiformibus. ② ? In Pensylvania (Muhl.), Noveboraco (Torrey!). Erigeron strigosum Muhl. In Willd. Sp. 3. p. 1956. Erig. Australe Horn. Ex Spreng. An Erig. Strigosun Ell. Sketch 2. p. 394 et Doronicum ramosum Walt. Fl. Car. 206 in Carolina cresc. Ad hanc speciem referenda? (v. s. comm. A cl. Torr.)

Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 2008.  

Stenactis is currently treated as a section of Erigeron (Nesom, 2008).

   

Erigeron tracyi Greene. Running Fleabane.

 
  Some of the current synonyms for E. tracyi are:
  • Erigeron cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron cinereus var. cinereus
  • Erigeron cinereus var. aridus M. E. Jones
  • Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson
  • Erigeron commixtus Greene
  • Erigeron dicladus Greene
  • Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron tephroides Greene
  • Erigeron williamsii Phil. The Plant List and the Global Composite Checklist each give E. williamsii Phil as a synonym of E. tracyi. IPNI.org does not. I suspect that E. williamsii is a valid name for a South American species, and does not apply to E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

The first known description of the taxon we now call E. tracyi was by A. Gray (1849) in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae, a description of plants collected by Augustus Fendler in New Mexico in 1841
333. E. cinereum (sp. Nov.): bienne? Undique molliter cinereo-pilosum: caule e basi ramoso; ramis adsurgentibus apice longe nudis monocephalis; foliis spathulatis vel lineari-oblongis basi attenuatis integerrimis seu radicalibus paucidentatis incisisve; ligulus numerosissimis gracilibus (albis nunc purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et disci conformi duplici, exteriore coroniformi-squamellato, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus deciduis. — Var. a. Is a dwarf, vernal form, only a span high, quite hoary, the primary flowering stems erect and almost scapiform (no. 374 of the distribution). Dry, exposed places around Santa Fe; May. Var. ß has taller and more diffuse stems (10 inches high), the leaves almost lanceolate, entire, the lower tapering into slender petioles. Low, sandy banks of the Rio del Norte and of Santa Fe Creek; May to June. (380.) Var. ? is a larger, coarser, and much more leafy state; from the valley of Santa Fe Creek, near irrigating ditches; May to July. (385.) — The heads are as large as those of Bellis perennis, solitary on peduncles, or the naked summit of the stems, of from 2 to 4 inches in length. The species belongs to the first division of the section Phalacroloma, Torr. & Gray, l. c. † Some forms of this, or of an allied species (possibly E. affine, DC.), with rather less numerous and white rays, and either entire or incised leaves, were gathered at Buena Vista and Encantada by Dr. Gregg.

Unfortunately, the name was unavailable, having been previously used by Hooker and Arnold for their E. cinereus, a native of Chile.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Gray (1852, pt. 1, p. 91) places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae. He make no comments that describe his thinking.

268. E. divergens, var. cinereum. E. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 68. New Mexico; the locality not recorded.

Gray (1852, pt. 2 p. 77) also places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae, part 2.

E. divergens, var. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Wright, l. c. Moutains, around the copper mines; Oct: a late, much-branched state. (1169) Hills near El Paso; March, April: the early normal form (1398.)

This placement is still accepted by Harrington one hundred years later (Harrington, 1954, 1964 2nd ed.).

Literature Cited:
- Buckley, S. B., 1861.  

These plants were collected by the author while engaged in the State Geological Survey of Texas, during 1860 and '61. Specimens of them are in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, and also in the herbarium of Elias Durand, Esq.

Erigeron (Eurigera) nudiflorum, s. n. — Hirsutum pumilum, ramosum; foliis lineari-oblongis, integris, sentis, confertissimis; ramis apice longe nudis, monocephalis; ligulis albis, plurimis, subuniseriatis, involucrum duplo excidentibus, acheniis oblongis glabris vel parum pilosis; pappo radii et disci conformi, duplici; exteriore breve setacea.

Northern Texas. May.
Very much branched from the root. Stems erect, 4-6 inches high; leaves numerous near the root and upwards on the stems about 3 inches; the upper stems, two inches below the flowers, naked; whole plant strigose hirsute, the white hairs not appressed; flowers about 1/4 of an inch in diameter; leaves 1/2 - 1 inch long and a little more than a line wide.

 

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Greene, E. L., 1902;  

E. L. Greene (1902) then published two names for what we now treat as a single species. The names he published were: Erigeron commixtus and E. tracyi.

Erigeron commixtus. With the habit of E. flagellaris, smaller, less stoloniferous, the leaves relativelt broader, some entire, others with one or more conspicuous lobes at base of the blade, the whole plant almost hoary with stiffly hirsute pubescence, this spreading on the leaves and petioles, retrorse on the stems and peduncles: heads, rays, achenes, etc., much as in E. flagellaris.
Cañon of the Limpia, mountains of western Texas, 26 April 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle; also collected by the present writer, in the same general region, namely in the mountains near Silver City, New Mexico, 18 May 1880, and distributed for E. flagellaris. The species last named has a rather obscure, fine closely appressed hairiness. That of the new one is so extremely different, that were the plants the size of a Sunflower or Goldenrod, no botanist would confuse them as one species, were the pubescence the only character. I may remark that true E. flagellaris reaches the mountains of even southern New Mexico, where, however, it occurs only in a more elevated biological zone

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.
- Nesom, Guy L., 2004.  

Erigeron Tracyi. Allied to the last (Erigeron commixtus — Ed.) but dwarf, only 2 or 3 inches high, densely leafy at base and with no stolons (at least at flowering time): petioles of the spatulate-lanceolate entire leaves shorter than the blade or obsolete; the whole herbage silvery-hoary with a fine dense strigulose pubescence, or this more sparse and spreading on the solitary scapiform peduncle: involucre hispidulous: outer pappus very conspicuous though consisting of only shorter and setiform hairs, the inner of a few very delicate capillary ones.
Davis Mountains, western Texas, Tracy and Earle, 28 April 1902.

E. commixtus was published before E. tracyi, quite literally a matter of a few inches. It would therefore seem to have priority over E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Aven Nelson, 1909.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  cinereous;  

33. Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Stems few to several from s slender annual taproot, ascending, naked pedunculiform above the middle, very leafy, flowering when very short, the later heads on stems 7-15 cm. long: leaves mostly linear-spatulate to linear, the basal sometimes oblanceolate and 3-lobed at apex, all softly cinereous-pubescent: heads musc as in E. divergens. (E cinereus Gray, Pl. Fendl. 68. 1848; not E. cinereus H. & A. Comp. Bot. Mag. 2: 50. 1836) — Southern Colorado and New Mexico.

It is interesting to me that A. Nelson does not mention Greene's (1902) publication of Erigeron tracyi, whereas other names of Greene are acknowledged.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1910.  

Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58. 1902
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. 4: 68. 1849. Not E.cinereus H. & A. 1836.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels,; Coult. & Nels. New Man. Cent. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
Another specific name proposed by Professor Nelson, Erigeron colo-mexicanus, to replace the untenable E. cinereus A. Gray, is in my opinion rather distasteful. Fortunately I do not need to use the name, as the same species has been described by Dr. Greene under the name E. commixtus.

Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, 1925.  

Tidestrom (1925) recognizes Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

7. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 4: 68. 1849. Not E. cinereus Hook. & Arn. 1836
Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. in Coulter, New Man. Rocky Mount. 529. 1909.
Artemisia, pinyon and yellow pine belts; Utah and Colorado to Mexico.

The author also recognizes E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.

Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, and Sister Teresita Kittel, 1941.  

Tidestrom and Kittell (1941) recognize Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

9. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Artemisia, Pinyon and Yellow Pine belts; Utah and Colorado southward to Mexico.

The authors also recognize E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.

Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, Arthur, 1947.
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Cronquist (1947) accepts Grays (1852) treatment of E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens.

Along the way his key uses arrangement of hairs on stems as as a character to distinguish between E. divergens and E. flagelaris:

6. Some or all of the hairs of the stem appressed or closely ascending, or the stem glabrous.
which leads to E. flagellaris. The other half of the couplet:
6. Hairs of the stem all spreading.
leads to E. divergens where E. tracyi is treated as a variety.

Key to the varieties of Erigeron divergens
1. Earliest heads on leafy peduncles; plant without long stoloniform branches. A. var. typicus.
1. Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long leafy stolons or stoloniform branches. B. var. cinereus.

112B. Erigeron divergens var. cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
 
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II 4:68. 1849. Not H. & A. 1836.
E. nudiflorus Buckl. Prec. Acad. Phil. 1861: 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902.
E. tracyi Greene. Pittonia 5: 59. 1902.
E. divergens nudiflorus A. Nels. Man. Bot. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Loc. Cit.
? E. dicladus Greene. Leafl. 2: 214. 1912.
Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long loafy stolons or stoliform branches; basal leaves more often persistent than in var. typicus. Southern Nevada and Utah, through Arizona and New Mexico to northern Mexico, central Texas, western Oklahome, and southwestern Kansas; reported from Colorado and western Arkansas.
Type: Fendler 374, near Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1847 (NY).
… Texas: Tracy & Earle 279, Limpia Canyon, April 26, 1902 (type of E. commixtus Greene) (MI, NY); Tracy & Earle 320, Davis Mountains, April 28, 1902 (type of E. tracyi Greene) (MI, NY); … Colorado: Rydberg & Vreeland 5438, 5 miles southwest of La Veta, Huerfano Counto, May 22, 1900 (NY); …
The variety cinereus has usually been treated as a distinct species under the name E. nudiflorus Buckl., but there are two many intermediates for it to stand. There are occasional intermediates with E. modestus, having the pubescence of the latter, and habit of E. divergens var. cinereus. These plants are more likely to have conspicuously lobed basal leaves than is typical var. cinereus.

The variety cinereus is what we are calling E. tracyi today.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (2nd ed., 1964, p. 565) placed E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens. This repeats his treatment of the taxon in his first edition (Harrington, 1954).

8B. Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, (var.) Pl. Wright. 1:91. 1852.
E. cinereus A. Gray; E. nudiflorus Buckl.; E. commixtus Greene; E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels.; E. divergens nudiflorus (Buckl.) A. Nels. -- Earliest heads on long naked or nearly naked peduncles; plants producing long leafy stolons later in the season. --- Dry often sandy soil. Kansas ro Nevada, south to Texas and Arizona. Our records scattered over Colorado, mostly in the southern part, at 4000-8000 feet.

Of note is Harrington's acceptance of E. commixtus but not E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 1989.  

Nesom (1989c) accepted E. tracyi as having priority over E. colomexicanus.
Erigeron tracyi an earlier name for Erigeron colomexicanus
I have been using Erigeron colomexicanus as the name for this species, but both E. tracyi and E. commixtus were published seven years earlier, simultaneously (immediate succession in the same paper: Greene 1902). Plants of the type collections of E. tracyi, as well as those of E. commixtus, are early season forms (essentially a basal rosette with a single, subscapiform, monocephalous stem) that had not yet produced runners characteristic of the species.
Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia 5:59. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Davis Mts., 28 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 320 (Holotype: US!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!, OC!).
Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Cañon of the Limpia, Mountains of west Texas, 26 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 279 (Holotype: US!; isotypes: GH!, NY!, TAES!, TEX!).
Erigeron cinereus A, Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts n.s., 4 [Pl. Fendler.]; 68. 1849 (not Hook. & Arn. 1836). Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 3, Art. 5 [Pl. Wright.]:91. 1852. Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nels. [nom. Nov.], Man. Bot. Rocky Mts., 529. 1909. Type: U. S. A. NEW MEXICO. [Santa Fe Co.:] near Santa Fe, 1847, A. Fendler 374 (Holotype: GH!; isotypes: GH, NY! UC-2 sheets!, US!).

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.  

Volume 20 of Flora of North America North of Mexico was published in 2006. The treatment of Erigeron was written by Guy L. Nesom.

160. Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia. 5: 59. 1902.
Running fleabane
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849, not Hooker & Arnott 1836; E. colomexicanus A. Nelson; E. commixtus Greene; E. divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 2.5–8(–12, 18) cm; usually taprooted, sometimes fibrous-rooted, caudices simple or branched. Stems first erect (greenish proximally), then producing herbaceous, leafy, prostrate runners (stoloniform branches, sometimes with rooting plantlets at tips), densely hirsutulous (hairs spreading-deflexed, of relatively even lengths and orientations), sparsely minutely glandular. Leaves mostly basal (persistent in early season); blades oblanceolate to spatulate (obovate-elliptic laminae), 10–30(–60) × 3–6(–12) mm, cauline abruptly reduced distally, margins entire, dentate, or lobed, faces densely hirsute, eglandular. Heads 1(–3 rarely, from midstem or proximal branches). Involucres 3.5–4.5(–6) × 6–9(–12) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, sparsely to moderately hirsute, minutely glandular. Ray florets 60–130; corollas white, often purplish abaxially, sometimes with an abaxial midstripe, 5–9 mm, laminae not coiling or reflexing. Disc corollas 2–3 mm (throats indurate and slightly inflated). Cypselae 0.7–1.3 mm, 2-nerved, faces sparsely strigose; pappi: outer of setae, inner of 12–16 bristles. 2n = 27.
Flowering Mar–Oct. Desert scrub, grassy slopes, oak chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodlands, Douglas fir-ponderosa pine; 700–2300(–2400) m; Ariz., Colo., Kans., Nev., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Utah; Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sonora, Zacatecas).
In March through June, plants of Erigeron tracyi produce leaves in a basal rosette usually with a single, erect, monocephalous, stem. Stoloniform branches are soon formed (often recognized on pressed specimens by the leaves mostly on one side of the branches), and by the end of the season (August through October), prostrate runners are usually evident, sometimes forming terminal, rooting plantlets.
Erigeron tracyi is similar in habit to E. flagellaris, particularly in the herbaceous stolons or stoloniform branches; the stem pubescence of E. tracyi is different, the stolons much less commonly produce rooting plantlets at the tips, and the plants tend to be perennial with woody or lignescent caudices, although they are variable both in habit and duration. Apparent hybrids with E. modestus and E. flagellaris are occasionally encountered, and the most common form of E. tracyi is perhaps (speculative) a stabilized, apomictic hybrid between the latter and E. divergens. All chromosome counts thus far have shown E. tracyi to be triploid and asynaptic.

Literature Cited:
- Snow, Neil, 2009.  

Erigeron tracyi Greene - FNA
[Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849 {not Hook. & Arnott 1836} - FNA
[Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson] - KTZ, E
[Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nelson] - SFE, W&W
[Erigeron commixtus Greene] - FNA
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray] - HDH, UTF
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray] - IMF
[Erigeron modestus A. Gray] - GPF

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

11a. [10] Heads solitary on elongate, mostly leafless stems from the basal leaf clusters; plants developing long, nonrooting, stolon-like, spreading shoots. E. tracyi Greene [for Samuel Mills Tracy, 1847-1920]. Dry, gravelly floodplains and meadows, mimicking E. flagellaris but with spreading stem hairs. Flowering very early in the spring. The FNA suggests that this is a triploid apomictic hybrid between E. divergens and E. flagellaris. (E. colomexicanus is a later name.)

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield's (2015) description of E. tracyi does not describe the stem hairs, or the direction in which they point. Also, I think the stated length of the stoloniferous branches is quite short. Perhaps, the length should be expressed in decimeters, such as “... stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) dm. Long.” Finally, the only synonym identified is E. colomexicanus perhaps because it has long been used in Colorado and New Mexico, but E. commixtus and E. nudiflorus are not noted.

Erigeron tracyi Greene, Running Daisy. [E. colomexicanus A. Nelson]. Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 1-4 dm.; leaves oblanceolate to linear, entire or few-toothed, the stems forming stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) cm. long; involucre 3-5 mm. hih, hirsute with curved hairs; disk flowers 2-2.5 mm. long; ray flowers 4-6 mm. long, white or pink; pappus double. Common on the eastern slope in open meadows and on dry slopes, with scattered occurrences on the estern slope, 4000-9000 ft. April-July. E/W

Couplet 24 of Ackerfield's key to Erigeron addresses the question of stem hairs:

24a Stems with spreading or tangled (pointing in all directions) hairs or mostly glandular … 25
24b. Stems with appressed or ascending hairs (at above the middle), not glandular … 34

Couplet 25 eventually ends up at Couplet 29 which differentiates between E. tracyi and E. divergens.

Couplet 34 eventually leads to E. flagellaris.

   

Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.

 

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1905.  

Erigeron vetensis sp. nov.
Densely cespitose-puvinate perennial ; stems 5-8 cm. high, hirsute, few-leaved ; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, hirsute, 2-4 cm. long; heads solitary, about 7 mm, high ; bracts hnear, acuminate, hirsute as w^ell as slightly glandular-puberulent ; rays purple, 8-10 mm. long, over i mm. wide; achenes strigose; pappus more or less double.
In dry places on high mountains of southern Colorado at an altitude of 2400-3000 m. It is intermediate between E. radicatus and E. glandulosus, resembling the former most in pubescence, and the latter in habit.
Colorado: Mountains near Veta Pass, 1900, Rydberg & Vreeland 5427 (type); Veta Mountain and Ojo, 5421, 5422; West Spanish Peak, 5424.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described E. pumilum found on the plains of the Missouri.
Original Text Comments
2. *pumilum. Hirsute; stems aggregated, 1-flowered, leaves obling-linear, entire and sessile; flower large and hemispherical, before flowering nutant; calix very hirsute. Hab. On the plains of the Missouri. Flowering in May. E. hisutum. Ph. 2. Suppl. p. 742. but this name has been previously employed for another species. Obs. Stems several from the same root, often, indeed, connected at the base, 4 or 5 inches high, 1-flowered. Leaves 2 inches, more or less, nearly linear, more or less, nearly linear, attenuated downwards, scarcely 2 lines wide. Flower naked, (or pedunculate) white, and large as a Daisy; rays as long as the calix, narrow and numerous. Pappus double, internal short, about 12-rayed.  

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heliomeris multiflora;  

Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. “Showy Golden Eye”

The International Plant Names Index continues to use H. multiflorus, whereas nearly all other floras and checklists use the corrected Latin gender of H. multiflora.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.  

Original Text
* HELIOMERIS. †
Capitulum many-flowered, heterogamous; rays ligulate, in a single series, neuter; discal florets tubular, hermaphrodite. Involucrum irregularly imbricated and leafy, in about two series, and rather spreading. Receptacle conic, the palea embracing the florets, lanceolate and acute. Corolla, rays ligulate, (10-12,) those of the disk tubular, the tube short, throat wide and cylindric, border five-toothed. Stigmata with obling tips. Achenia laterally compressed, somewhat tetragonous, smooth, and without any pappus.
A perennial tall herb, exactly resembling an Helianthus, with narrow, entire, somewhat scabrous leaves, the lower ones opposite ; flowers yellow, terminal, numerous.
H. *multiflorus. A stoutish perennial, three or four feet high, much branched ; stems terete and striated ; leaves narrow, lanceolate, entire, nearly sessile, above somewhat scabrous, opposite below, on the branchlets alternate ; flowers terminal, numerous and showy, bright yellow, with to to twelve rays, sometimes with deeper discoloured blotches towards the base or lower half, entire and oblong ; leaflets of the calyx oblong-lanceolate, somewhat spreading, in nearly a simple series ; achenia black and smooth. Scarcely distinguishable from Helianthus, except by a short conic receptacle, and naked seeds.
Hab. Mountains of Upper California, (Dr. Gambel,) and was also collected in the Rocky Mountains by Mr. Gordon.
‡ In allusion to its close affinity to Helianthus.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Helianthus pumilus;  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Helianthus pumilus Nutt. “Little Sunflower”

 
  Nuttall (1841, p. 366) described the Little Sunflower from plants he collected on plains of the Platte enroute to Oregon Territory.
Original Text
Helianthus * pumilus; ♃ hirsutely pilose and scabrous; leaves ovate-lanceolate, opposite, attenuated below, subpetiolate, nearly entire, and three-nerved, upper leaves lanceolate, alternate; involucrum hoary, hispid; sepals imbricated, lanceolate, acute, as well as the receptacular paleae; achenia smooth.
Hab. Rocky Mountains and plains of the Platte. A low, perennial, simple stemmed species, about a foot high, leaves two to three inches long, about an inch wide. Capituli about three to five (apparently) sessile. Rays about sixteen, longer than the disk, paleae somewhat obtuse, hirsute at the summit, scales of the achenium rather large and wide.
There are no online data records of the Nuttall collection of his Little Sunflower.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heterotheca foliosa;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1258, Heterotheca foliosa  

Heterotheca foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners. “Hairy False Goldenaster”

Full Size Image
Inflorescence of Coll. No. 2177, Heterotheca foliosa
 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Nuttall (1840) described this from the Rocky Mountain plains, near the banks of the Platte.
Original Text Comments
Chrysopsis * foliosa; ♃, sericeously villous, and more or less canescent, the margin and lower surface of the leaves scabrous; flowers fastigiate, corymbose; leaves entire, oblong or oblong-ovate, subamplexicaule, crowded, acute, ciliate below; scales of the involucrum linear, acute, villous; achenium silky; pappus scarcely scabrous, outer pappus slender, dimidiate.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountain plains, near the banks of the Platte. Flowering in August. About a foot high, sending up many hairy stems from the same root. Nearly allied to C. villosa, but far more pubescent and hoary, with the leaves widest at the base. In some specimens quite hoary, the hairs feel as soft as silk, but on removing this clothing, the under surface is covered with numerous scabrous elevations. A very showy species.  
  Heterotheca foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners was published in a journal called Field & Laboratory, contributions from the Science Departments of Southern Methodist University (Field & Lab. 19:71 (1951).)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nothocalais cuspidata;  

Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene “Prairie False Dandelion”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, suppl., p.742) published Troximon cuspidatum from a collection in upper Louisiana by John Bradbury.
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
Troximon cuspidatum. — T. scapo unifloro superne subtomentoso, foliis linearibus margine undato tomentosis, calycinis foliolis imbricatis cuspidatis glabris.

In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury.v. s. in Herb. Bradbury. Flowers large, yellow. Resembles the preceding.

The preceding was Troximon glaucum (=Agoseris glauca)

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1884.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Comandra umbellata pallida, DeCandolle, 1857;  

Nothocalais was first published by Gray (1884, p. 420) as a section of Microseris.
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
§ 4. Nothocálais. Pappus of 20 to 24 narrowly linear-lanceolate silvery-white paleae, occupying two or more series, with obscure mid-nerve, very gradually attenuate into a slender awn : akenes attenuate-fusiform : seed not reaching to the tapering summit : bracts of the oblong-campanulate involucre narrowly lanceolate, nearly equal, in about two series : perennial from a thick caudex. Intermediate between Microseris and Troximon ! — Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xix. 65.  
M. troximoides, Gray. Acaulescent or nearly so: leaves tufted on the caudex, rather fleslhy, narrowly linear-lanceolate, entire or undulate, 4 to 6 inches long : scapes a span to a foot high: involucre three-fourths inch high: ligules somewhat elongated: mature akenes half-inch long : pappus somewhat longer, its almost setiform paleae a quarter of a line wide below. — Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 211. — Wooded hills and open plains, Montana and Idaho (first coll. by Spalding), Washington Terr., and Oregon to N. W. California. Another first collection by Spalding was Comandra umbellata ssp. pallida, also in Washington Territory.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1886.  

Greene (1886, p. 55) elevated Gray's section Nothocalais to the rank of species.
Original Text
N. CUSPIDATA. — Akene little contracted, 3 lines long, filled by the seed : pappus of 40 — 50 unequal, very narrow, setose paleae and scabrous bristles: leaves all radical, longer than the flowering scapes: involucre glabrous. — Troximon Pursh, Fl. ii. 742; Torr. & Gray, Fl. ii. 489; Gray, Syn. Fl. ii. 437: T. marginatum, Nutt. Gen. ii. 127.

On bleak, stony hills and fertile prairies, from Dakota and Colorado to Wisconsin and Illinois. Scarcely distinguishable from its far Western congeners except by the pappus. The undulate-crisped, white-hairy margins of the grassy leaves of this giving it an aspect so strikingly unlike the general appearance of the other species of his genus Troximon, were points not overlooked by that well traveled and most keenly observant botanist, Mr. Nuttall. That he noticed the peculiarity and was impressed by it is evinced by his effort to invest the species with a new specific name, marginatum, more appropriate than Pursh's cuspidatum, which was given to it in reference to the acuminate rather than cuspidate bracts, and has, therefore, no fitness, but which must needs be retained in deference to its priority. The name marginatum would, indeed, be equally and in the same way, applicable to each of the three known species of Nothocalais.

   

Oligosporus Cassini “Tarragon, Sagewort”

 

Literature Cited:
- Cassini, Alexandre H. G., 1817.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Artemisia campestris, Weber & Wittmann, 2012;  Notes on Artemisia dracunculus, Weber & Wittmann, 2012;
• Glossary:  calathid;  synantheree;  

Cassini (1817, p. 31) dscribed his new genus of Oligosporus
Original Text Translation
51. Oligosporus. Ce genre, ou sous-genre, de la tribu des anthemidées, comprend toutes les espèces d' Artemisia, L., dont la calathide est composée de fleurs femelles et de fleurs males. Telle est, par exemple, l' Artemisia campestris, L. 51. Oligosporus. This genus, or subgenus, of the anthemid tribe, includes all species of Artemisia, L., whose calathid is composed of female and male flowers. Such is, for example, Artemisia campestris, L.

   

Packera A. Löve & D. Löve

SEINet (2021+) data includes collections of Packera that have been determined the following species:
  • Packera cana, two collections, Genesee Park, and Pine Valley Ranch.
  • Packera fendleri
  • Packera multilobata, one collection, near Evergreen (GREE24339).
  • Packera plattensis
  • Packera pseudaurea, three collections, Rocky Flats, Pine Valley Ranch, and South Platte (town).
  • Packera tridenticulata, eleven collections, mostly high plains, one near Evergreen.
  • Packera werneriifolia, Two collections, Meyer Ranch, and Rampart Range.
There are no collections of P. streptanthifolia made in Jefferson County.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed., p. 610) distinguishes between Packera fendleri and P. plattensis by the hairiness of the achenes, those of P. fendleri being glabrous, and those of P. plattensis hispidulous along the angles.

Literature Cited:
- Trock, Debra, 2006.  

Trock (2006) key to Packera has two ways to get into P. fendleri and four ways to get into P. plattensis.
 
Packera streptanthifolia (Greene) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, Phytologia. 49: 48. 1981. Packera pseudaurea (Rydberg) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, Phytologia. 49: 48. 1981. Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, Phytologia. 49: 48. 1981. Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve Coll. No. 2064
Rocky Mountain groundsel False-gold groundsel Prairie groundsel Fendler's Ragwort
Perennials, 10–50+ cm; fibrous-rooted (caudices weak to stout, horizontal to suberect). Perennials, 20–70+ cm; fibrous-rooted (bases simple or branched, horizontal to erect). Biennials or perennials, 20–60+ cm; rhizomatous and/or fibrous-rooted (bases erect to suberect), sometimes stoloniferous (mostly eastern populations). Perennials, 10–40+ cm; rhizomatous (rhizomes horizontal to suberect, branched). Perennial herb, 25-35 cm., caudex , some, perhaps older ones, are stout and erect;
Stems 1 or 2–5, clustered, usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely floccose-tomentose proximally and in leaf axils. Stems usually 1, sometimes 2–4, clustered, glabrous or sparsely tomentose proximally. Stems 1 or 2–3, clustered, floccose-tomentose proximally and in leaf axils, otherwise sparsely tomentose or glabrescent. Stems 1 or multiple (crowded to subcespitose), floccose-tomentose or glabrescent. Stem, tomentose, especially in axils, thinning distally;
Basal leaves (and proximal cauline, relatively thick and turgid) petiolate; blades spatulate to oblanceolate, or ovate to orbiculate, 20–40+ × 10–30+ mm, bases tapering to abruptly contracted or subcordate, margins entire, crenate, dentate, or weakly lobulate (faces usually glabrous, sometimes hairy). Basal leaves petiolate; blades usually broadly lanceolate to ovate, sometimes subhastate, 20–50+ × 20–40+ mm, bases truncate to subcordate or obtuse, margins crenate, denticulate, bluntly dentate, or sharply dentate (proximal cauline leaves petiolate; margins usually pinnately lobed to laciniate, sometimes subentire). Basal leaves (and proximal cauline) petiolate; blades narrowly elliptic to elliptic-ovate or oblanceolate to suborbiculate or sublyrate, 20–70+ × 10–30+ mm, bases tapering to rounded or abruptly contracted, margins subentire to crenate, serrate-dentate, or pinnately lobed (abaxial faces floccose-tomentose, especially along midribs, ± glabrescent). Basal leaves petiolate; blades lanceolate to oblanceolate, 30–60+ × 10–30+ mm, bases tapering, margins shallowly, evenly pinnatifid to pinnatisect or wavy (adaxial faces floccose-tomentose or subglabrescent). Basal leaves, petiole, 35-40 mm, long, thin not winged, tomentose, blade 20-24 mm. × 7-9 mm. wide, ovate, some (7 of 23 = 30%) lyrate, 2-7-2.8 × longer than wide, mid-vein tomentose thinning distally, tips, mostly entire, some 3-toothed;
Cauline leaves gradually to abruptly reduced (± petiolate or sessile; entire or subentire). Cauline leaves gradually reduced (becoming sessile, sometimes clasping). Cauline leaves gradually reduced (petiolate, sublyrate or pinnatisect, abaxial faces sparsely hairy; distals sessile, subentire to irregularly dissected). Cauline leaves gradually reduced (sessile; lanceolate to oblanceolate, pinnatisect to wavy). Cauline leaves, reduced distally, sessile, base not auriculate, inreasingly pinnatisect distally;
Heads 2–20+ in loose, corymbiform or subumbelliform arrays. Peduncles bracteate, glabrous or sparsely tomentose. Heads 5–20+ in open or congested, subumbelliform arrays. Heads 6–20+ in open or congested, corymbiform arrays. Peduncles conspicuously bracteate, sparsely to densely tomentose. Heads 6–25+ in open or compact, corymbiform arrays. Inflorescence, heads #3-5 per stem, >leaves;
Peduncles bracteate, glabrous. Peduncles bracteate, densely to irregularly floccose. Peduncles, 8-12 mm.;
Calyculi conspicuous. Calyculi inconspicuous. Calyculi inconspicuous. Calyculi 0 or inconspicuous (bractlets red-tinged). (Calyculi inconspicuous)
      Involucre, 5 mm. × 9 mm. wide, ovoid, thinly tomentose;
Phyllaries (8–)13 or 21, green (tips sometimes cyanic), 4–7+ mm, glabrous. Phyllaries (13–)21(–30+), light green, 3–8 mm, glabrous. Phyllaries 13 or 21, green (tips sometimes cyanic), 5–6+ mm, densely tomentose proximally, glabrescent distally. Phyllaries 13, green, 5–7 mm, floccose proximally to glabrescent distally. Phyllaries, in 2 equal series, 5.5 mm. × 1.0-1.3 mm. wide, green, thinly tomentose, margins, flat, scarious, tip, reddish brown;
  Receptacle, epaleate;
      Flowers, of 2 kinds;
Ray florets 8 or 13; corolla laminae 5–10 mm. Ray florets 0, 8, or 13; corolla laminae 6–10+ mm Ray florets 8–10; corolla laminae 9–10 mm. Ray florets 6–8+; corolla laminae 5–7 mm. Ray flowers, #10-12, tube 3 mm. + blade 6.5-7.5 mm. × 2.7 mm. wide, color yellow, fertile;
Disc florets 35–60+; corolla tubes 2–4 mm, limbs 2.5–4 mm. Disc florets 70–80+; corolla tubes 2.5–3.5 mm, limbs 2–3 mm. Disc florets 60–70+; corolla tubes 2.5–3.5 mm, limbs 3.5–4.5 mm. Disc florets 30–40+; corolla tubes 2.5–3 mm, limbs, 2.5–3.5 mm. Disk flowers many, tube 4 mm. + lobes 0.5 mm., throat expanding gradually, yellow, open, bisexual;
      Pappus, many, well-developed. bristles, 4.5 mm., ±equal;
Cypselae 1–2.5 mm, glabrous; pappi 3–6 mm. Cypselae 1–1.5 mm, glabrous; pappi 4.5–5.5 mm. Cypselae 1.5–2.5 mm, usually hirtellous, sometimes glabrous; pappi 6.5–7.5 mm. Cypselae 2.5–3 mm, glabrous; pappi 4–5 mm. 2n = 46. Fruit, 1.2 mm. × 0.5 mm. wide, compressed front-to-back, color brown, margin, thinly pubescent;
2n = 46, 92. 2n = 46, 92. 2n = 46.  
Flowering late May–late Aug. Forests, open meadows, valleys, dry to damp and loamy soils; 1000–3400 m; Alta., B.C., N.W.T., Sask., Yukon; Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo. Flowering mid Apr–early Jun(–mid Jul, north). Prairies, meadows, open wooded areas, along highways, railroads, around mining and construction areas, usually on limestone; 50–1800 m; Ont., Sask.; Ark., Colo., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., La., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Va., Wis., Wyo. Flowering late May–early Oct. Steep slopes, loose, dry rocky or gravelly soils, along streams, open forests, disturbed sites; 1600–3200 m; Colo., N.Mex., Wyo.  
Packera streptanthifolia is widespread and variable throughout the Western Cordillera. It includes weakly defined phases that have been treated as distinct species or as varieties. Characteristics used to delimit those taxa often overlap and are difficult to score; some ""phases"" grade into each other. Northern populations are sometimes segregated as a distinct taxon (e.g., Senecio streptanthifolia var. borealis; J. F. Bain 1988). Packera plattensis is abundant, widespread, and almost weedy. Putative hybrids with other species are known. Plants in mesic, remnant prairies in the east are sometimes stoloniferous. Packera fendleri is abundant, almost weedy in the southern Rocky Mountains. It thrives in a wide range of elevations and in a wide variety of habitats; flowering times vary. It frequently grows in close association with other species of Packera and may hybridize with them.  
Filename: 280Packera_plattensis_streptanthifolia.html

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) key focuses mainly on the shape of the basal leaves …
Original Text Interpretation
3a. Basal leaves and most stem leaves deeply pinnatifid or runcinate-pinnatifid. P. fendleri (A. Gray) Weber & Love. Abundant in gravelly soil, open forests of the foothills. Producing rosettes from long, slender rhizomes; leaf lobes uniform, shallow; leaves white tomentose.  
3b. Basal leaves oval, rately pinnatifid except at the very base. … 4  
4b. Basal leaves narrower, on winged petioles, irregularly toothed, lobed or entire. … 10 Leads eventually to P. plattensis.
  Ackerfield (2015) key also focuses on the shape of the basal leaves …
Original Text Interpretation
2a. Basal and stem leaves nearly all deeply and evenly pinnately dissected or runcinate-pinnatifid … 3 This couplet leads to P. multilobata and P. fendleri.
2b. Basal leaves with entire, toothed, or crenate margins (in P. plattensis and P. tridenticulata a few basal leaves may have pinnatisect margins, but the majority of the leaves will have entire or merely toothed margins), stem leaves entire to pinnatisect or sublyrate … 4 This couplet eventually leads to P. plattensis after elininating seven other taxa, and arriving at a group including P. plattensis, P. streptanthifolia, and P. pseudaurea.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Packera fendleri;  

Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve. (Syn: Senecio fendleri A. Gray ) Fendler"s Ragwort.

Fendler's Ragwort — Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve — is widespread and fairly common in dry meadows and slopes of Golden s.l.. The author has collected it at North Washington Open Space, and Deadman Gulch. Others have collected the plant on North and South Table Mountains.

P. fendleri is frequently confused with P. plattensis which is more a plant of the great plains.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;

Locations: Santa Fe River.  

Gray (1849, p. 109) writing in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae described P. fendleri from a collection made “ ...along the Creek, twelve miles above Santa Fé …” The current accepted name is Santa Fe River.
Original Text Comments
444. S. Fendleri (sp. nov.) : perennis, flocoso-incanus, demum subglabratus ; caule folioso erecto pedali corymbosi-ramoso ; foliis oblongis omnibus pinnatifidis supra glabratis inferioribus in petiolum nudum attenuatis summis sessilibus haud amplexicaulibus, segmentis 11-21 confertis oblongis obtusissimis plerisque inciso-dentatis seu 2-4-lobatis ; corymbis compositis polycephalis ; involucro campanulato fere ecalyculato 12-phyllo multifloro ; ligulis 7-8 oblongis disco duplo longioribus ; acheniis glaberrimis. — Foot of mountains along the Creek, twelve miles above Santa Fe ; June, July. (478, † 480.) — A well-marked species, related to S. eremophilus. Stem stout. Leaves from 2 to 4 inches long including the petiole, some of the lower often only sinuate-pinnatifid, but commonly all deeply pinnatifid or pinnately parted, the crowded lobes from one fourth to half an inch long, early glabrate above ; but still floccose of white-wooly underneath. Involucre 3 lines long. Rays 4 or 5 lines long. *  

There follows a half page discussion of similar Senecio found throughout the southwest, such as Senecio multilobatus (Torr. & A. Gray, ined.)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Packera plattensis;  

Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve. “Prairie Groundsel”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Original Text
Senecio * Plattensis; ♃, somewhat pubescent; base of the stem arachnoidly tomentose; leaves all pinnatifid, the radical petiolate, cauline amplexicaule, lobes oblong, denticulate, the centre lobe sublanceolate; corymb nearly simple; involucrum subcampanulate, minutely bracteolate; sepals about twenty, scute; rays usually twelve, oblong, a little longer that the short involucrum; achenium puberulous; pappus about the length of the florets.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountain range, and in Arkansa. About ten to fourteen inches high ; stem simple, striated. Corymb nearly simple, with ten to twelve heads of flowers, pedicels one to two inches long, slightly bracteolate. The Arkansa specimen is taller and more slender, with the primary small radical leaves entire and smooth, the leaves more elongated, and less denticulate. The whole habit of the plant, as well as the flowers, are very similar to S. tomentosus, at lease the smoother variety, but the achenium is less pubescent.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Picradeniopsis oppositifolia;  

Picradeniopsis oppositifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. ex Britton. “Opposite Leaf Bahia”

 

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 167-168) ...
Original Text Comments
568. * TRICHOPHYLLUM. †  
Calix oblong-cylindric, many-leaved, equal. Radial florets oblong. Receptacle naked. Pappus paleaceous, minute, 5 to 8-leaved, leaflets obtuse, awnless.  
Herbaceous; leaves alternate? or opposite, palmately pinnatifid, tomentose or villous; peduncles 1-flowered, dichotomal and terminal.  
Species.  
1. T. lanatum. Actinella lanata, Ph. 2. p. 560. Every where whitely and lanuginously tomentose; leaves alternate, those of the stem subpalmately pinnatifid, of the branches linear and entire; peduncle elongated, the summit thicker. Hab. Near the sources of Columbia river. M. Lewis. Flowering in June and July. v. s. in Herb. Lambert. — Perennial; stem erect and branching, about a foot high. Leaves alternate? (perhaps not constantly so) those of the stem elongated, narrow at the base, dilated and divided pinnatifidly above, division ligulate and somewhat toothed, uppermost entire. Calix oblong-cylindric, composed of a simple series of leaves, about 12 to 14, linear-lanceolate, acute. Rays about the same number, oblong, bidentate. Pappus 5 to 8-leaved. Seed pentangular? glabrous, attenuated downwards. — The flowers are bright yellow, and in form and character strongly resemble those of the genus Tagetes. This would become Eriophyllum lanatum (Moulton, 1999).
2. * oppositifolium. Decumbent and much branched, shortly and canescently pubescent; leaves opposite, all palmately trifid, segments ligulate, simple or divaricately subdivided; peduncle filiform, mostly dichotomal, scarcely longer than the leaves. Hab. On denudated sterile hills, near Fort Mandan; abundant. Flowering in July and August. — Perennial? stem diffuse, 6 to 12 inches high, grooved; oppositely branched. Leaves petiolate, trifid, canescent, pubescence very short, segments about an inch long, thickish and opaque, the lateral ones mostly bifid, the central one trifid, all somewhat obtuse and linear. Peduncle slender, 1 to 2 inches long, a little thicker under the calix. Calix oblong-cylindric, simple, leaflets 5 to 8, oblong-ovate, erect; rays about the same number, very short. Pappus paleaceous, 5 to 8-leaved, minute, leaflets partly obtuse and somewhat lacerate. Seen nearly smooth, rather long, and attenuated downwards, or inversely conic. Receptacle small and naked. — The whole of this plant is very sensibly bitter and destitute of aroma.  
There is nothing in the habit of this genus which would lead us to suppose it allied to Actinella of Jussieu, and scarcely more in the generic character. In Actinella the calix is very short, flat, and horizontally spreading; the leaflets of the paleaceous pappus awned, and the seeds villous; the leaves are also alternate and entire. The proximate affinity of the present genus is to Tagetes.  

† The copious pubescence, particularly distinguishing these plants from the genus Tagetes.
 

Literature Cited:
- Britton, Nathaniel Lord, 1901.  

Britton (1901, p. 1008) Flora of the Northern States and Canada ...
Original Text Comments

76. PICRADENIOPSIS Rydb.
[Bahia Nutt., not Lag.]
Britton gives Rydberg credit for the genus name, but I don't see a place that Rydberg ever published it himself.
… [English genus diagnosis not reproduced.] … [Name referring to resemblance of this genus to Picradenia.]  
1. Picradeniopsis oppositifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. False Bahia. (I. F. f. 3967.) …. [English description not reproduced.] … On plains, S. Dak., Neb. and Mont. to Kans. and N. Mex. June-Sept. [Bahia oppositifolia Nutt.] Reference is to the “Illustrated Flora” figure 3967.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibida columnifera;
• Water Tank Road:   above the curve;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1198, 12 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1198, Ratibida columnifera  

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. “Upright Prairie Coneflower”

“Upright Prairie Coneflower” Ratibida columnifera is predominantly a Great Plains species which extends from southeastern British Columbia to Manitoba and Michigan, south through Illinois to Louisiana, and west through Texas and northern Mexico to Arizona.

[So, is the cypsela ciliate on the abaxial side, or the adaxial side?]

   

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Greene, Edward L., 1889.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;
• Glossary:  flosculi;  fulvous;  

Fraser's (1813) catalogue of new and interesting plants published for the first time a number of new taxa for North America. Many of these were Thomas Nuttall collections that were subsequently published in Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis and Nuttall (1818) Gen. Am.

Original Text Comments

75 * Rudbeckia columnifera. ‡ Spontaneous varieties of this plant sometimes occur with bright fulvous flowers, colored like Tagetes patula : the stem is simple, seldom producing more than three flowers, which are of an uncommon length, appearing like a column of flosculi, subtended by 5-8 neutral florets, and a simple calyx.

Tagetes patula is commonly called the French Marigold, also in the Asteraceae, and native to Mexico and Guatemala.

76 Rudbeckia purpurea. * serotina. ‡ Stem somewhat branching and hirsute, flowers brighter and more numerous.

I think this might be what we now call Echinacea purpurea, not native to Colorado, but widely cultivated, and found occasionally as a garden escapee.
* New Species. — † A Shrub. — ‡ Perennial. — M. from Missourie.  

Copies of Fraser's (1813) catalogue were quite rare, so Greene (1889) republished it. It is unclear who actually wrote the catalogue. Greene was convinced that Nuttall wrote it having seen an original copy sent to Zaccheus Collins from Messrs. Fraser, saying

It had passed through the hands of Nuttall, and had received one or two slight corrections from his pen. Moreover, he had written his name in ink, as the author of the Catalogue …

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (v. 2, 1816) published the name, citing Fraser's (1813) catalogue.
Original Text
657. RUDBECKIA. Gen. pl. 1324.
11. R. caule stricto simplici summutate paucifloro, pedunculis elongatis, foliis pinnatifidis incisis, laciniis linearibus, calyce simplici 5-phyllo, radiis 5-8., disco cylindraceo elongato.
R. columnifera, Fraser catal. 1813
On the Missouri. v. s. The singular appearance of the receptacle of this plant distinguishes it from all the other known species.

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) published Rudbeckia columnaris
Original Text
590. RUDBECKIA. L.
Calix subequal, mostly consisting of a double series of leaflets. Receptacle paleaceous, conic. Pappus a 4-toothed margin.
Herbaceous; leaves alternate, entire, lobed of pinnaifid ; flowers terminal ; disk often dark, rays yellow, rarely brown, in R. purpurea purple. — Stigma often obtuse.
Species. ....
12. columnaris. Hispid; stem nearly simple, 1 or few-flowered, peduncles very long; radical leaves nearly entire, cauline pinnatifid, segments linear-lanceolate; calix simple, 5 to 8-leaved, rays 5 to 8; disk cylindric, elongated. Hab. On the plains of Upper Louisiana. Flowering in July. Perennial: 1 to 2 feet high. Rays sometimes brown-red, as in Tagetes patula.
13. ...
A North American genus, with the exception of R. nudicaule of Monte Video, which appears to be scarcely distinct from R. spathulata. The seeds of R. purpurea are pungently aromatic.

In this publication, Nuttal has altered R. columnifera to R. columnaris not referred to R. columnifera as published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue. I suspect this might be enough to render R. columnaris and illegitimate name. If so, this will have an impact on Rafinesque's proposal of Ratibida columnaris Raf., nextunder.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818a.
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amer Monthly Mag Crit Rev, publication details;  

Rafinesque (1818) wrote a two-part review of Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text
125. Rudbeckia columnaris must form the genus Ratibida of Raf. Fl. Miss.
Ratibida columnaris Raf. is treated as a synonym of R. columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.

The reference to “Fl. Miss.“ is a puzzle. I have seen another reference to this publication that it was “ined.” However, it is unclear whether “Miss.” refers to either Mississippi or Missouri.

Literature Cited:
- Wooton, E. O., and Paul C. Standley, 1915.  

Original Text
2.Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. Fraser's Cat. No. 75. 1813.
Rudbeckia columnaris Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 575. 1814.
Ratibida columnaris D. Don in Sweet, Brit. Flower Gard. II. 4: pl. 361. 1838
Lepachys columnaris Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2:313. 1842.

Type locality: Upper Louisiana.

Range: British Columbia and Saskatchewan to Arizona, Texas, and Tennessee.

New Mexico: Sierra Grande; mountains west of Grants Station; Santa Fe and Las Vegas mountains; Clayton; Lower Plaza; White and Sacramento mountains. Plains and low hills, in the Upper Sonoran and Transition zones.

2a. Ratibida columnifera pulcherrima (DC.) Woot. & Standl.

Obeliscaria pulcherrima DC. Prodr.5:559. 1836.
Ratibida columnaris pulcherrima D. Don in Sweet, Brit. Flower Gard. II. 4: pl. 361. 1830
Lepachys columnaris pulcherrima Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 313. 1842.

Type locality: “In Mexici provinc. Texas as San-Fernando de Bejar, et in sinu Spiritus-Sancti ad lacum Sancti-Nicolai.”

Range: With the species, but more common in New Mexico.

New Mexico: Dulce; Chama; Pecos; Santa Antonita; Ramah; near Las Vegas; mountains west of Grants Station; El Cedro; Tucumcari; Mongollon Mountains; White Mountains; Buchanan; Redlands; Queen; Knowles; Artesia.

This is a mere form of the type and hardly deserves a name. Both forms almost invariably occur together, although occasionally they grow alone, It is possible to find in a single patch every possible gradation in the color of the rays from pure bright yellow to solid brown-purple. The same variation in color occurs in R. tagetes, but since that has very small and inconspicuous rays no one has yet thought to distinguish the various forms by name.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Reveal (1968) comments on Fraser (1813) Catalogue - 1;  

Reveal (1968) summarized the evidence and opinions on the author of the names in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue and the legitimacy of them. Excerpts from Reveal's introduction were presented above, whereas his specific comments on Ratibida columnifera are below.

75. Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. In Fras. Catal. 1813. In my opinion, this species is adequately described in Fraser's Catalogue, as Nuttall states:
“Spontaneous varieties of this plant sometimes occur with bright fulvous flowers, coloured like Tagetes patula: the stem is simple, seldom producing more than three flowers, which are of an uncommon length, appearing like a column of flosculi, subtended by 5-8 neutral florets, and a simple calyx.”
This species was also described as R. columnaris Sims, Bot. Mag. 39: 1601. 1813, from cultivated plants given to Sims by the Fraser Brothers who had grown the species from seeds collected by Nuttall. The Pursh name, R. columnaris Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 2: 575. 1814, is an illegitimate substitute for Nuttall's R. columnifera and is thus an exact synonym of it. The species is now commonly known as Ratibida columnifera (Nutt. In Fras.) Woot. & Standl., Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 19: 706. 1915.

Literature Cited:
- Richards, Edward Leon, 1968.  

Monograph on Ratibida

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Senecio integerrimus;  

Senecio integerrimus Nutt. “Columbia Ragwort”

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  carnose;  sphacelate;  

Original Text
564. SENECIO. L. (Ragwort.)
Calix cylindric, subcaliculate: scales sphacelate at the point. Receptacle naked. Pappus simple, capillary, and copious.
Suffruticose oe more commonly herbaceous; leaves entire or pinnatifid; flowers mostly corymbose or terminal; yellow or rarely purple. A few species are destitute of rays.
Species. 1. ...
15. * integerrimis Smooth; stem simple and attenuated; leaves perfectly entire; radical ones long petiolate, lanceolate, acute, cauline, sessile, acuminate, uppermost minute; corymb simple, 8 to 12-flowered? peduncles 1-flowered, rays shorter than the hemisperical caliculate calix. HAB. In depressed and moist situations on the plains of the Missouri, near the Great Bend. Flowering in June. Flower large and yellow. Stem 12 to 18 inches high. Lower leaves thickish and somewhat carnose, very smooth, uppermost minutes, slightly tomentose; corymb coarctate. Seeds smooth. Nearly allied to S. aquaticus.
A genus of more than 140 species principally indigenous to Europe and the Cape of Good Hope.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Senecio spartioides;
• Field Notes:  6 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2231, Senecio spartioides with a praying mantis and a beetle.
Full Size ImageSenecio spartioides adventive in my garden.  

Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray. “Broomlike Ragwort”

Known from Apex Park and Tin Cup Ridge, North and South Table Mountains, and North Washington Open Space.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• US Highway 287:   at Jeffrey City;

Locations: Jeffrey City.  

Senecio spartioides was described by Torrey and A. Gray (1843) from a Lt. John Fremont collection.
Original Text
* * * * Perennial : heads corymbose, chiefly radiate
† Leaves entire or denticulate.
8. S. spartioides : glabrous throughout; stems suffruticose, very numerous from the same ligneous tap-root, rigid, corymbose at the summit, leafy; leaves fleshy, narrowly linear, perfectly entire, rather obtuse, sessile; heads (large and showy) fastigiate-corymbose, on short minutely bracteolate peduncles ; the calyculate scales subulate, minute ; scales of the cylindrical involucre about 12, lanceolate-linear, acutish; rays mostly 7, oblong-linear, elongated ; achenia silky-canescent.
Upper Platte; on a steep sand-bank of the Sweet-water River, Lieut. Fremont! Aug.–Sept. — Stems a foot high, forming a dense tuft. Leaves 1-3 inches long, about a line wide, very numerous. Heads half an inch in length. Rays golden-yellow. Pappus as long as the disk-corolla. — A remarkable and handsome species.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago missouriensis;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1256, Solidago missouriensis at Ranson/Edwards.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1732, Solidago missouriensis at North Table Mountain.  

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. “Missouri Goldenrod”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;  

Nuttall (1834a, p. 32-33) published Solidago missouriensis ...
Original Text
55. Solidago * Missouriensis. Pumila, glabra, recemis erectis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, inciso-subserrularis, superioribus integris, panicula brevi laxa, floribus majus-culis
Stem slender, smooth, leafy, about a foot or so high. Leaves scabrous at the margin. Panicle about three inches long, the branchlets slender, the flowers pedicellate, and brought together in a somewhat rhomboidal raceme. Rays as long as the calyx.
Hab. in the upper branches of the Missouri and in Arkansas.
Even though this was described with collections by Wyeth, the locations noted seem much more like Nuttall collections from his 1811 trip on the Missouri River and 1819 trip to Arkansas. Wyeth collections would have been along the Platte, Snake, or Columbia.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago nana;  

Solidago nana Nutt. “Baby Goldenrod”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Crepis occidentalis, Weber & Wittman, 2012;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2439, Solidago nana.  

Nuttall's (1841) description of S. nana.
Original Text
Solidago * nana; somewhat cinereous and pulveulently pubescent, dwarf, many stems from the same root; lower and radical leaves spathulate, obtuse, entire, or subserrulate at the apex, stem leaves linear, narrowed below; ramuli fastigiate, subcorymbose; bractes linear; involucrum nearly smooth, scales ovate; rays about seven, oblong, as long as the disk; achenium pubescent.
HAB. In the Rocky Mountain range, near Lewis' River of the Shoshonee. About a span high, with a large, black, almost woody root. Stem leaves small, radical ones about one and a half inches by half an inch wide; scales of the involucrum unusually broad, pubescent on the margin, rays conspicuous. Apparently allied to S. nemoralis, though very distinct and alpine.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago speciosa;  

Solidago speciosa Nutt. “Showy Goldenrod”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Original Text
560. SOLIDAGO. L. (Golden-Rod.)
...
†† Racemes erect
27. *speciosa. Stem tall and smooth, simple or virgately branched; leaves lanceolate, entire, somewhat carnose. scabrous on the margin, the lower very broad, radical ones subserrate; racemes mostly terminal, erect and compound, pubescent; pecuncles mostly shorter than the calix; rays elongated about 5; seed smooth. Hab. In shady woods, on the banks of the Schuykill, also in Jersey; near Philadelphia, but rare. S. sempervirens. Mich. S. integrifolia? Persoon, 2. p. 449. Allied to S. petiolaris. Stem often 6 feet high, smooth and sulcate. Lowest leaves a span long, and 3 inches broad, irregularly and remotely subserrate, upper leaves very entire. gradually diminishing upwards, in dry and shady situations, membranacei=ous and veined, in gardens subcarnose and smaller, with the veins partly obliterated, racemes also numerous, but always rigid, terminal and erect. Flowers larger than the preceding, with the calix also coloured (which in the preceding is green); rays bright yellow, unusually broad. The seeds in this species are perfectly smooth, in our sempervirens pubescent. This is one of the most ornamental plants of the genus.

   

Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom

 

Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.  

Publication of Aster ericoides L. var strictus Porter in Porter and Coulter (1874).
Aster ericoides, L., var strictus, Porter. Low ¾ °-1° high, glabrous, except the scabrous margins and ciliate bases of the leaves, erect, slender, paniculately branched above, branches short; scales of involucre narrowly linear, lax, outer ones very acute, often entirely green, inner ones scarious with a central green line; radical leaves narrowly oblanceolate. -- “In the mountains at middle elevations,” Hall & Harbour, 254. Near Denver, Coulter. Foot-hills west of Denver, Porter; Meehan; Hoopes.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1880.  

basionym:Asteraceae Aster porteri A.Gray Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts xvi. (1880) 99.

Among the true Asters are several forms which have to be named, such as A. Porteri for A. ericoides, var. strictus, Porter & Coult. Fl. Colorado. 56, and A. pringlei, from the northern end of Lake Champlain …
   

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Townsendia grandiflora;  

(Nuttall, 1840, p. 306) ...
Original Text Comments
Townsendia * grandiflora; stem canescent, divaricately branching from the base, branches one or few-flowered, leaves linear-sublanceolate, very acute, nearly smooth, or minutely pubescent, green ; capitulum hemispherical ; involucrum of three series, the sepals lanceolate, filiformly acuminate, minutely fringed ; rays twenty-eight to thirty, or more, bidentate.  
Hab. With the preceding, which it resembles wholly in habit, but with the flower as large nearly as that of the China Aster, (Callistephus Chinensis) Branching from the base, and spreading out sometimes from six to ten inches along the ground, Leaves linear, much attenuated below, and very acute, when green rather succulent, and appearing smooth, though somewhat pubescent beneath, (seen through a glass.) Sepals elegantly imbricated, perfectly lanceolate, much acuminated, scariose, except the centre, which is green, the margin minutely lacerate-ciliate. Rays pale lilac, longer than the disk. — A plant which well deserves cultivation, from its large, showy flowers. The prededing was Townsendia strigosa which was found “On the Black Hills, (or eastern chain of the Rocky Mountains,) near the banks of the Platte.” In Colorado, it is found only in westernmost counties.
   

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Alopecurus aequalis;  

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. “Shortawn Foxtail.”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Andropogon gerardii;  

Andropogon gerardii Vitman. “Big Bluestem”

 

Literature Cited:
- Vitman, Fulgenzio Antonio Maris, 1789-1792.  

Original Text Interpreted Latin Interpreted English Comments
1365. ANDROPOGON. Hermaphr. Cal. gluma 1-fl. Cor. gluma bafi ariftata . Stam 3. Styl. 2. Sem. 1. follic. involutum , ariftatum .

Maf. Cal. Cor. Stam. prioris .

1365. ANDROPOGON. Hermaphroditic. Calyce gluma 1-floris. corolla gluma basi aristata. Stamina 3. Stylis 1. Folliculus involutum, aristatum.

Maf. calyce corolla stamina prioris .

1365. ANDROPOGON. Hermaphroditic. Calyx glume single-flowered, corolla glume (i.e., lemma) bristled from base (???) Stamens 3. Style 1. Follicles rolled, bristled.

Maf. calyx of the corolla less than the stamens.

Where on the lemma does the awn arise???

What does “Maf.” mean?

...        
Gerardi. A. fpicis digitatis : fl. alterne geminis ; hermaphrodito fefilli , ariftato ; mafculo pedunculato , mutico . Gerard. gallo-prov. cum. fig.

In Gallo provincia.

Gerardi.

Andropogon spicis digitatis: floris alterne geminis; hermaphrodito sesilli, aristato, masculo pedunculato, mutico.
Gerard. Flora Gallo-Provincialis cum figura.

In Gallo provincia.

Gerardi. Andropogon with spikes digitate, flowers alternately twinned, the sessile flower is hermaphroditic and bristled, the pedunculate flower is masculine and pointless.
[Published in] Gerard, 1760. Flora Gallo-Provincialis with figure. In Provence.

The location literally translates to “In Provence,” but I think it might really mean “In the French provinces [of Canada.]”

The honoree's name is Gérard, Louis, 1760, author of Flora Gallo-Provincialis. Parisiis : Ad Ripam PP. Augustinorum, Apud C. J. B. Bauche, Bibliopolam, Ad insigne St.ae Genovefae, & S.ti Joannis in deserto 1761

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aristida purpurea;  

Aristida purpurea Nutt. “Purple Threeawn. ”

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834b.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea var. longiseta  

First collected and described by Nuttall (1834) in his report in his near-fatal trip to Arkansa Territory.
Original Text
1. Aristida stricta. 2. A. oligantha. 3. A. dichotoma. 4. A. pallens
5. A. * purpurea. Panicula erectiuscula gracili ; cal. Valvulis remotis aristulatis apice bifidis ; aristis capillaribus longissimis ; foliis brevibus scabris. — Hab. On the grassy plains of Red river, in arid situations. Flowering in May. — Obs. Perennial ' leaves narrow, short and scabrous ; ligula pilose ; culm about one foot high ; panicle many flowered, a little spreading, branches capillary ; flowers commonly in pairs (after the manner of the genus), bluish purple ; one valve of the calyx nearly double the length of the other, both bifid at the summit and shortly awned, the longer valve exceeding the corolla ; awns equal, capillary, nearly three times the length of the corolla and scabrous ; corolla minutely stipitate.

   

Bouteloua Grama Grass

Genus name honors two Spanish brothers Claudius (d. 1842) and Exteban Boutelou (d. 1813) professors of botany and agriculture respectively.

Literature Cited:
- Gould, Frank W., 1979.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  Kranz Syndrome;  

Abstract. Bouteloua was established in 1805 by Mariano Lagasca. The type species is B. curtipendula (Michaux) Torrey, originally named B. racemosa by Lagasca. In the present treatment, 39 species are recognized, 29 of these restricted to North America and Central America, 2 species are endemic to the Antilles, 2 species occur in the Antilles, as well as at other locations, 5 species are distributed in both North and South America, and 1 species, B. megapotamica, is represented only in southern South America. Bouteloua is a characteristic member of the tribe Chlorideae of the subfamily Eragrostoideae (Chloridoideae). The species all are C4 plants with typical Kranz leaf anatomy and starch storage features. Chromosome numbers have been reported for 29 species with most species being diploid (2n = 20) or tetraploid (2n = 40). Aneuploid records or series of counts have been reported for 9 species.

All species of Bouteloua are characterized by features of the Kranz Syndrome. They are C4 in their photosynthesis and have a characteristic chloridoid leaf anatomy. Starch storage is in specialized plastids of the leaf sheath bundles, and the arrangement of cells in the leaf blade is typically Kranz. The 39 recognized species are all variously adapted to shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands, and xeric sites along desert shrub areas, and sandy shores.

The genus Bouteloua was described in 1805 by Mariano Lagasca. Lagasca proposed five species, B. racemosa, B. hirsuta, B. barbata, B. simplex, and B. prostrata, but did not designate a type species. Griffiths (1912), Hitchcock (1920), and Hitchcock et al. (1939) all have accepted the first species, B. racemosa, as the type. As plants of the type species had been named Chloris curtipendula by Michaux in 1803, the legitimate name for this taxon is Bouteloua curtipendula.

Bouteloua was named in honor of two Spanish gardeners, the Boutelou brothers. Lagasca's original spelling of the genus name was Botelus. In a later publication (1816), he corrected this to Bouteloua.

Two subgenera, Bouteloua and Chrondrosium (Desvaux) Gould. Weber & Wittmann (2012) retain Chrondrosium at the rank of genus, though spelling it Chrondrosum Desvaux, suggesting that we see Clayton, W. D., 1986, Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. XIII. 389 p. Peterson, et al. (2015) treat Chrondrosum as a section of Bouteloua containing B. gracilis and one other known in Colorado, B. simplex.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bouteloua curtipendula;  

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. in Marcy. “Side-Oats Grama”

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

The basionym of B. curtipendula is Chloris curtipendula Michx.
Original Text My Interpretation
CHLORIS. Sw. CHLORIS. O. P. Swartz (1788) Nova Genera & Species Plantarum seu Prodromus
Spicae unilateriflorae, spiculis subsessiliter biseriatis : quarum gluma communis 2-valvis, 2-6-flora : floribus dissimilibus ; valva altera ( saltem nonnullorum ) aristata : uno hermaphrodito , fertili ; caeteris inperfectis , masculis neutrisve ; ultimo pedicellato. Spikes unilateral flowered, darts subsessiliter biseriatis, of which the husk common 2-doors, 2-6-flowered, flowers are different; second valve (at least some) anstata one hermaphrodito, fertile; the rest of the imperfect, or the males neutrisve; last pedicellatae.
curtipendula. C. racemo erecto longo ; e spicis plurimis , distiche alternis , e basí emittens rudimentum secundi floris inane , promisse aristatum ; intra quod bina alia rudimenta quasi in sola arista consistentia. curtipendula. Chloris, even on a long raceme; very many out of the ears of corn, distiche every other day, And I will send the initial stage of the second base of the flower out of the void, Retz promised; the rudiments of other things, and within it two of every sort as the only grain condition.
Plantae cultae statura major; spicae 6-12-glumes. If cultivated plants are taller; 6-12-spike glumes.
Hab. in aridis regionis Illinoensis ad Wabast et in rupibus ad prairie du rocher. ♃ Habitat. In arid regions of Illinois to Wabash River and watercourses of Prairie de Rocher (a town in southwest Illinois). Perennial.

Prairie du Rocher is one of the oldest communities in the 21st century United States having been founded in 1722 by French colonists, mostly migrants from Canada. About four miles to the west, closer to the Mississippi River, is Fort de Chartres, site of a French military fortification and colonial headquarters established in 1720.

Literature Cited:
- Emory, William H., 1848.  

Emory (1848) hinted as the existence of Bouteloua curtipendula as a name but this would be invalid because he really did not place B. racemosa in synonomy. I assume that Emory had heard from Torrey that B. curtipendula was the correct name but perhaps did not know that Torrey had not published the name.

____teloua racemosa, Lagasca. ? Culm erect, simple; spikes nu-
____s (20-40,) reflexed, 3-flowers; lower glume linear subulate;
____ one linear-lanceolate, scabrous, entire, nearly as long as the
____ts; lower palea of the perfect flower unequally tricuspidate,
____ent; abortive flower reduced to a slender awn which is nearly
____g as the perfect flower, furnished at the base with 2 short
____onspicuous bristles. Valley of the Gila, rare. This plant
____pretty well with Kunth's description of B. (Eutriana,) race-
____xcept in the pubescent lower palea, and the minute bristles
____base of the neiter flower. Whether it be the plant of La-
____r not is very difficult to determine from his brief character.
It certainly is very different from B. racemosa of the United States,
which has a large 3-awed neuter flower, and if distinct from La-
gasca's, must receive another name. That of B. curtipendula
would be appropriate.

Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

IPNI (2020) indicates that Bouteloua curtipendula was credit to Torrey in Marcy (1854), whereas Marcy seems to credit Torrey in Emory's report. IPNI also suggest that new combination was invalid, “Torrey (in Emory, Notes milit. Reconn. 154. 1848) mentioned this comb. Nov. (invalid)”
Bouteloua racemosa, Lag. Var. Cienc. (1805) p. 141 ; Torr. In Emory's Rep., p. 154 ; not of Torr. Fl. N. York. Dinebra curtipendula, DC.? Kunth, Syn. Pl. Eq. 1, p. 281 ; excl. syn. Michx. Eutriana curtipendula, Trin. Fund. P. 161 (in part); Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 280, and Suppl. P. 233 ; excl. syn. Michx. And Willd. Main Fork of Red River; July. The detailed description of this species by Kunth, l. c., (drawn from a Mexican specimen collected by Humboldt) shows that the Chloris curtipendula of Michaux (Bouteloua curtipendula, Torr.) is a distinct species, as indicated in Emory's report, l. c.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bouteloua gracilis;  

Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths. Blue Grama Grass.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

110. ATHEROPOGON. Muhlenberg.
... [Description of A. apludoides, syn: Chloris curtipendula, Mich. = Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torrey – Ed.]
2. A. * oligostachyum. Spikes 2 or 3, nearly terminal, many flowered; calix and corolla pilose; outer valve of the corolla distinctly 3-awned, the 2 lateral awns shorter, arising near the middle of the valve; neutral valve 3-awned.
On the plains of the Missouri with the above. [Bouteloua curtipendula – Ed.] Common.
Culm round, filiform, nearly naked, or with a single leaf, 8 to 12 inches high, smooth and erect. Leaves very short, smooth, and subulate, stipule and base of the spikes shortly bearded. Spikes 1, 2, or 3, about an inch long, usually curved backwards, unilateral, compressed, and pectinate, the second spikes bibracteate, rachis semiterete. Glumes in a double row, opposite; each 2-flowered; calix bluish-purple, exterior valve lanceolate, mucronate, with a single nerve; the nerve beset with a few scattered hairs arising from so many tubercles; inner valves shorter, very narrow. Corolla, outer valve lanceolate, carinate, 3-awned, pilose along the margins of the nerves, and at the base; inner valve smooth, shortly bi-cuspidate. Neutral flower 1-valved, obtuse, with 3 awns, and pubescent at the base.
This species, though certainly a congener of the preceding, is considerably allied to Chloris, appearing to unite that genus and Sesleria, agreeing partly with the latter in the structure of the flowers, and with the former in its habitus. (A North American genus)

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bromus lanatipes;  

Bromus lanatipes (Shear) Rydb. “Wooly Brome”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bromus polyanthus;  

Bromus polyanthus Scribn. ex Shear. “Great Basin Brome”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloe dactyloides;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1673, 16 Jun 2017;   Coll. No. 1674, 19 Jun 2017;  Coll. No. 1690, 29 Jun 2017;  

Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  v. v.;  

Buffalo Grass was first recognized in the field and published by Nuttall (1818). However, Nuttall only saw the staminate plants, and published the grass that way. He also was not sure of the genus, but settled on Sesleria as his best guess.
95. SESLERIA. L. (Moor-grass.)
Calix 2 to 5-flowered. Corolla 2-valved, valvea toothed at the point. Stigmata somewhat glandulous. — Flowers spiked, often purplish, base of the spike breacteate, or involucrate. Early flowering subalpine grasses, growing in calcareous mountains.
Species. 1. S. Dactlyoides. Culm setaceous, leafy; leaves short, flat, subulate, and somewhat hairy; stipules bearded; spikes 2 or 3, few-flowered; flowers in 2 rows, disposed upon an unilateral rachis, calix mostly 2-flowered, and with the corolla acuminate and entire.
Hab. On the open grassy plains of the Missouri; abundant. Flowers in May and Junes. v. v. Root after flowering resembling a bulb.
Culm smooth and round, furnished with 2 or 3 leaves, about 4 or 5 inches high. Leaves flat, subulate, and somewhat hairy, 1 to 2 inhes in length, and about 2 lines wide; sheathes shorter than the internodes, very hairy around the stipules. Spikes 2 or 3, somewhat ovalm subtended by a single leaf, with which they are at first sheathed; rachis compressed, margined,spikelets 6 to 8, by pairs, inclined to one side. Calix 2-valved, 2 or 3-flowered, vales very unequal, each with a single nerve and carinate, the larger oblong-ovate, mucronulate. Outer valve of the corolla oblong-lanceolate, entire, 3-nerved, smooth, and menbranaceous, longer than the calix; inner 2-nerved, nearly the length of the outer. Anthers linear, entire, fulvous, exserted. Styles filiform, pubescept.
This species appears on the one hand, alloed to Atheropogon, and on the other to Dactylis. Though rather a Sesleria than any other genus, it recedes from it in having the valves of the corolla entire at the apex, and thus it approaches Dactylis at least, the D. glomerata.
With the exception of the present species, the genus Sesleria is confined to the alpine regions of Northern Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1819.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  nomen nudum;  

Rafinesque (1819), recognizing that the grass must be distinct from the Old World Sesleria, published a genus name Bulbilis for Nuttall's grass.

18. Sesleria dactyloides must form a peculiar genus by Mr. N's. own account, it may be called Bulbilis.

The question will become whether this is a validly published name, or whether it is a nomen nudum.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

I don't see any grasses in Torrey & Gray's (1838-1843) Flora of North America.

Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

Sesleria dactyloides, Nutt. Gen, 1, p. 65; Kunth, Enum, 1, p. 323; Torr, in Emory's report, p. 323, t. 10. Upper tributaries of the Red River; July. This is the well known Buffalo-grass of the western prairies. It is remarkable that neither the grain nor the fertile flowers of this grass are known.

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, M.D., 1859.  

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
TWO NEW DIOECIOUS GRASSES OF THE UNITED STATES.  
By George Engelmann, M.D.  
The grasses, though usually hermaphrodite, show a tendency to a separation of the sexes, and polygamous flowers are not rare among them. About 25 to 28 genera, one-twelfth of the whole number known, comprising only 75 to 80 species, about one seventy-fifth of all species, * are described as having monoecious and mostly heteromorphous flowers.  
Only two genera of dioecious grasses are known to the books; of these, Spinifex, Lin., with 6 species from the East Indies and Australia, bearing on some plants staminate and on others complete flowers, is only incompletely dioecious; the other genus is Gynerium, H. B. K., five South American species. Some other dioecious species of genera, generally hermaphrodite, are noticed; such as Calamagrostis dioica, Lour., and Guadua dioca, Steud.  
The unisexual grasses mostly belong to Oryzeae, Phalarideae, Paniceae, and Rottboellieae; none have been known among the tribes of Stipeae, Agrostideae, Chlorideae, Avenaceae, Festiceae, and Hordeeae.  
They were unknown in the northern temperate zone, with the exception of Zizania and Tripsacum of North America and the cultivated Zea, all with heteromorphous staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. The dioecious grasses of our Flora are both species of Brizopyrum;† Eragrostis reptans is also frequently or mostly dioecious, and other species of this genus seem to be imperfectly so.  
In the following pages, two new dioecious North American grasses are described, both types of new and very distinct genera, and both, it is believed, belonging to Chloridae.  

 
* In the latest work on Grasses, Steudel's Glumaceae, published in 1855, about 6,000 species of Grasses are described, very unequally distributed in about 300 genera, many general containing only a single species, while Panicum alone comprises 864, Andropogon 461, Eragrostis 247, and Festuca 239 numbers.  
Brizopyrum spicatum, Hook. Is from the eastern seacoast, and B. strictum from the saline soils of the Missouri region and of Utah. The flowers of both sexes are conform, but the staminate plants are readily distinguished from the pistillate ones by their more slender growth, the spikes overtopping the leaves; while in the pistillate plants the latter are longer than the spikes. = Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene
  Engelmann's description of the new genus:
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
BUCHLOË, Nov. Gen. BUCHLOË, New Genus
Gramen plantitierum Americae Septentrionalis aridarum Missouriensium, Texensium, Mexicanarumque gregarium, perenne, stoloniferum, humile, sparse pilosum vel glabriusculum; ligulis barbatis. — Buchloe pro nimis longo Bubalochloe nomen vernaculum “Buffalograss,” graece reddit. Grass of arid North America, Missouri, Texas, Mexico, perennial stoloniferous, small, sparsely hairy or glabriusculus; ligules bearded. — Buchloe from a long form, Bubalochloe (Χορτ ο βου β αλ ου) The name of the breed “ Buffalograss” in Greek.

Literature Cited:
- Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb, 1855.  

Description of the new species:
Buchloe dactyloides.
Syn. Plantae masculae: Sesleria dactyloides, Nuttall, Gen. I. p. 64. Sesleria (?) dactyloides, Torrey, in Emory's Rep. 1848, p. 153, Pl. X; id. In Whipple's Rep. Pacif, R.R. Expl., IV., p. 157. Calanthera dactyloides, Kenth (?) in Hooker's account of Geyer's Rocky Mountain plants, in Kew Journ. Bot., VIII., p. 18. Triodiae spec., Bentham, in Pl. Hartweg, nro. 250, p. 28. Lasiostega humilis, Rupprecht (ined) in Benth, Pl. Hartw. Corrig., P. 347. — Drummond Tex., Ill., nro. 378. Lindheimer, Pl. Tex. Exsicc. 569. Fendler N. Mex., 940. Berlandier, nro. 1612 and 1614. Hartw, 250 (fide Gray).
Syn. Plantae faemineae: Antephora axilliflora, Steudel, Glum. I. . 111 — Drummond Tex., II., 359. Wright, 1849, 785; 1851-1852, 2079 (fide Torrey).
This remarkable plant is found in our western pariries from the British possessions throughout the Mossouri Territory, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico, down to Texas and Northern Mexico, and is, under the name of “Buffalo-grass,” well known to hunters and trappers as one of the most nutricious grasses, on which, for a part of the year, subsist and fatten immense herds of buffalo and the cattle of the hunter and emigrant. Since the time of Nuttall, who published an account of it, in his “Genera,” as early as 1818, the male plant has been collected by almost every botanist traversing those regions. The female plant had escaped the observers until it was described by Steudel, in the year 1855, from Drummond's Texan specimens, as a totally different plant and belonging even to a different tribe. Though Prof. Torrey had already, in Emory's Report, 1848, suggested the probability of the Buffalo-grass being a dioecious plant, the possibility that Nuttall's Sesleria dactyloides and Steudel's Antephora axilliflora could be the male and female of the same species was not even suspected, till finding both together in a collection sent by my brother, Henry Engelmann, who, as a geologist, accompanied the topographical corps attached to the army of Utah, I was struck with their similarity. My surmise, much doubted at first, became a certainty, when I discovered among some male plants, collected by A. Fendler, about Fort Kearny on the Platte River, a monoecious specimen, showing both male and female flowers on different stalks from the same rhizome. A figure of this important specimen is given on Pl. XII., fig. 3.
That our plant is distinct from Sesleria has already been stated by Torrey (l. c. p. 154), and indeed by Nuttall himself (l. c. p. 65), and both have pointed to its affinity to Atheropogon or Chondrosium. The description now given fully confirms both positions. It also leaves no doubt that is is not an Antephora, nor at all paniceous. A new generic name, therefore, had to be given, and I have preferred to propose an abbreviated translation of the popular and widely known name of “Buffalo-grass,” retaining of course Nuttall's original specific appellation. The synonyms of the male plant, supplied through the kindness of Prof. Gray, are uncertain, Kunth never having published such a name as Calanthera, which, moreover, is quite unmeaning; nor can I learn that a genus Lasiostega has ever been described.
The Buffalo-grass grows in dense tufts, sending out stolons. These, in most herbarium specimens, are only a few inches long, with internodes of 1/2-2 incles in length; Lindheimer, however, sends specimens from New Braunfels, Texas, with stolons 1-2 feet long, the internodes often measuring over 3 and even as much as 5 inches. The male plant seems to throw out more numerous runners than the female, and may often overspread and kill it out. Which would account for the much greater scarcity of the latter.
Leaves 2-4 inches long, 1/2-1 1/2 lines wide, sparsely hairy or ciliate or glabrous; sheaths striate, glabrous, strongly bearded at the throat.
  Engelmann (1859) wrote a very long and detailed description of the staminate plant.

  Engelmann (1859) then wrote a very long and detailed description of the pistillate plant. The Engelmann article then continues with a description of Monanthochloë, and M. littoralis Engelm. This is also known as shore-grass and not known from Colorado, so the description is not included here.

Literature Cited:
- Plank, E. N., 1892.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1895;  

E. N. Plank (1892) argued that the plant was actually monoecious. He based this on a single observation,
During one of my botanical rambles in Kansas, while walking over soil newly moved by a freshet, I noticed the peculiar appearance of the individual plants of buffalo grass growing upon it. There were scores of them, if not hundreds. All of them appeared to be seedlings, having not yet sent out stolons. All of these plants were monoecious. That seems to be sexually the original character of the species. The fact of the unisexual flowering stems, proceeding from different parts of the plants, with its stoloniferous character generally increasing and spreading in that way, will fully account for its dioecious habit.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1895.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Plank, 1892;  

Hitchcock (1895) refuted Plank's (1892) observation that Buffalo Grass was monoecious.
Note on buffalo grass. — I read with interest an article by Mr. Plank on “Buchloe dactyloides Englm., not a dioecious grass.” He asserts that the grass in question is not dioecious, as usually described, but monoecious, and in support records observations made in Kansas.
Wishing to satisfy myself experimentally as to the correctness of this assertion, a few seeds were germinated in the greenhouse in the spring of 1893. A single seedling was transferred to an outdoor plat. This grew vigorously through the season, sending out stolons and forming a compact mat. During 1894 the mat became larger and denser, but no flowers appeared.
However, the plant flowered this season (1895). Both staminate and pistillate flowers were present, the former preponderating. The flowers arose mostly from nodes that had taken root and thus become essentially independent plants. In no case did I find the two kinds of flowers from the same node, but from the interwoven state of the stolons I was unable to determine whether the two kinds of flowers were borne upon independent stolons.
The plant was first described by Nuttall (Gen, 1: 65. 1818) from a staminate specimen, and named Sesleria dactyloides. He is evidently doubtful about the plant belonging to the genus Sesleria.
Rafinesque having occasion to review Nuttall's Genera (Am. Monthly Mag. 2: 190. 1819) makes a note regarding this plant: “18. Sesleria dactyloides must form a peculiar genus by Mr. N.'s own account. It may be called Bulbilis.” It is upon this basis that Dr. Otto Kuntze establishes Bulbilis dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. (Rev. Gen. Pl. 763).
Nuttall remarks in his description: “Root, after flowering, resembling a bulb,” from which, doubtless, Rafinesque derives Bulbilis. Upon the margin of the copy of the American Monthly Magazine above quoted (in the library of the Missouri Botanical Garden), someone has suggested another derivation, “bull's bile!” — A. S. Hitchcock, Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan.

Literature Cited:
- Lamson-Scribner, F., 1900.  

Uses Rafinesque's name of Bulbilis dactyloides.

Literature Cited:
- Schaffner, John H., 1920.  

Schaffner (1920) published an article on the dioecious nature of Buffalo Grass. He combined field observations and greenhouse experiments to support his contention that Buffalo Grass is strictly dioecious.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1927.  

Hitchcock (1927) proposed conservation of Buchloë against Bulbilis and others because Engelmann's Buchloë was the first name under which both staminate and pistillate plants were described.
Buchloe Engelm. (1859) is conserved against Bulbilis Raf. (1819), Calanthera “Nutt.&rdquo: (1856), and Casiostega Rupr. (1857). Bulbilis was proposed by Rafinesque in a review of Nuttall's Genera as follows: “Sesleria dactyloides must for a peculiar genus by Mr. N's own account, it may be called Bulbilis.” Calanthera was mentioned by Hooker in a list of Geyer's plants from the Upper Missouri. “Calanthera dactyloides Kth.–Nutt. Sesleria.” Casiostega (of the Nomina Conservanda, a lisprint for Lasiostega Rpur.; Benth, Pl. Hartw. 347. 1857) is a nomen nudum. Nuttall's description of Sesleria dactyloides was based on the staminate plant only and until Engelmann gave his full description of both sexes of the buffalo grass there had been no mention of pistillate spikelets. Though in Bulbilis and Calanthera the type species is indicated and a previously published description is referred to, that description is so inadequate, compared to the detailed study published by Engelmann, that they may well be rejected in favor of Buchloe.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1971, 2nd ed.;  

See Hitchcock, 1971, below.

Literature Cited:
- Anderson, Kling, and A. E. Aldous, 1937.  

An article on monoecious Buffalo Grass by Anderson & Aldous (1937) is behind a paywall I have been unable to penetrate.

Literature Cited:
- Gernert, W. B., 1937.  

An article by Gernert (1937) appears to address the height of pistillate spikes relative to harvesting them, but is behind a paywall I have not penetrated.

Literature Cited:
- Hensel, R. L., 1938.  

Hensel (1938) wrote about perfect-flowered buffalo grass which might be interesting to read were it not, alas, behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Spurlock, Clay, 1940.  

Spurlock (1940) surveys monoecious and dioecious grasses in America, finding 17 genera and 54 species of monoecious, and 13 genera and 23 species of dioecious grasses of the Western Hemisphere, of which Buffalo Grass is one of the latter. Note is made of the controversy about the degree of dioecism seen in Buffalo Grass.

Literature Cited:
- Burr, Richard D., 1951.  

Burr (1951) wrote about his observations in variations of sex along stolons of

Literature Cited:
- Rickett, H. W., and F. A. Stafleu, 1959.  

In a review of conserved names, Rickett and Stafleu (1959) note that conservation of the name “Buchloë” was superfluous.
† 308. Buchloë Engelmann, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 1 432. 1859 quadrim. 1. T.: B. dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann (Sesleria dactyloides) Nuttall).  
Note: Conservation superfluous: Calanthera Nuttall ex W. J. Hooker, Journ, Bot. Kew Misc. 8: 18 (1856), Bulbilis Rafinesque, Am. Mon. Mag. Crit. Rev. 4: 190. (1819), and Lasiostegia Ruprecht ex Betham, Pl. Hartw. 347 (1857), are all nomina nuda.

The meaning of the dagger (†) is unclear. All names with daggers were subjects of a superfluous conservation. However, not all with superfluous conservation were marked with a dagger.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1971.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1935;  

115. BÚCHLOË Engelm. (Bulbilis Raf.)
Plants dioecious or monecious. … Type species, Buchloë dactyloides. Name contracted from Greek boubalos, buffalo, and chloë, grass, a Greek rendering of the common name, “buffalo grass.”
1. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass. … The sod houses of the early settlers were made mostly from the sod of this grass. In 1941 it was planted at Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers, N. Y., and is proving to be an excellent cover for exposed dry banks.

Literature Cited:
- Bai, T. J., 1990.  

Abstract : Seventy-five stands with different compositions of blue grama (B. gracilis) and buffalograss (B. dactyloides) were sampled in 1987. Multiple regression and principal component analysis techniques were used to investigate the relationship between blue grama and buffalograss composition and soil characteristics. Blue grama was often more abundant on sandy soil, while buffalograss was found on clay soil. Blue grama was also found on clay soils when lime content was high. The essential factor underlying sand, clay and lime content of soil was interpreted as water stress. Relative crowding coeff. calculated for blue grama and buffalograss showing that both species had greater height and produced more vegetation when found intermingled than when growing in monoculture.

Literature Cited:
- Quinn, James A., 1991.  

Quinn (1991) examined multiple hypotheses for dioecy in Buffalo Grass and found support only for “out-crossing” as an advantage afforded by dioecy.
Abstract. Buchloe dactyloides is a perennial dioecious grass in which male and female inflorescences are so strikingly dimorphic that they were originally assigned to different genera. The objective of this paper is to present the results of tests for sex-specific vegetative characters, ecological differences, and sexual niche-partitioning, combining them with prior information on the reproductive biology of Buchloe for an evaluation of the key factors leading to the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. Field and greenhouse data were collected from Oklahoma and Kansas populations on vegetative characters, allocation to reproduction, and relative growth and competitive success along resource gradients. Except for greater susceptibility to leaf rust by males, there were no significant differences between males and females in vegetative characters, total biomass, or reproductive effort. Field studies of spatial distributions of males and females failed to show any relation to soil, topography, or soil moisture. In a 45-month greenhouse experiment starting at the seedling stage, the relative growth and competitive success of randomly paired individuals showed no evidence for differential competitive success or for niche-partitioning of males and females. The "outcrossing advantage" and subsequent sexual specialization of the female inflorescence appear to be the major factors underlying this dimorphic system.

Literature Cited:
- Huff, David R., and Lin Wu, 1992.  

Abstract. Variations of sex inconstancy were examined for vegetative and seed samples from eight natural populations of buffalograss located along two east-west transects crossing the shortgrass prairies of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. Each of the eight populations was found to contain inconstant (monoecious) sex forms. Sex form distributions ranged from the Guymon vegetative sample, having no inconstant sex forms, to the Chillicothe seed sample in which the frequency of inconstant sex forms was nearly 70%. Frequencies of inconstant sex forms were generally higher for seed samples than for vegetative samples. Male to female sex ratio of constant (dioecious) sex forms generally did not differ from 1:1 expectations. Inconstant sex forms were more common among peripheral populations where buffalograss vegetation coverage was sparse than for more central populations having a higher concentration of buffalograss vegetation. Quantitative measures of sex inconstancy from artificial crosses were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with the additive linear model of general combining ability, suggesting that sex determination in buffalograss has high heritability. The possible selection forces affecting the frequency of monoecious sex forms among natural populations are discussed.

Literature Cited:
- Columbus, J. Travis, 1999.  

An expanded circumscription of Bouteloua (Graminae: Chloridoideae): New Combinations and Names

Literature Cited:
- Columbus, J. Travis, Michael S. Kinney, Maria Elena Siqueiros Delgado, and J. Mark Porter, 2000.  

Phylogenetics of Bouteloua and Relatives (Granineae: Chloridoideae): Cladistic Parsimony Analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer (nrDNA) and trnL-F (cpDNA) Sequences.

Literature Cited:
- Peterson, Paul M., and Konstatin Romaschenko, 2015.  

Phylogeny and subgeneric classification of Bouteloua with a new species, B. herrera-arrietae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Cynodonteae: Boutelouinae) … Buchloe is reduced to a section of Bouteloua.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Calamovilfa longifolia;  

Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn. “Prairie Sandreed”

 

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1840.  

Hooker,____, v. 2, p. 241
VI. Arundinaceae. Kth.
19. CALAMAGROSTIS. Adans.
5. C. longifolia ; laevissima,foliis anguste linearibus longissime acuminatissimis, panicula erecta stricta subspicata, glumae valvis inaequalibus perianthium acutum muticum superantibus, villis perianthio brevioribus.
Hab. Saskatchawan. Drummond. — A species remarkable for the great length of its leaves, exceeding the culm, tapering into a long, slender apex, and for the pale, very smooth, glossy flowers. The base of the culm send out creeping shoots.

Literature Cited:
- Hackel, Eduard, 1890.  

Hackel (1890) ... translated by F. Lamson-Scribner and Effie A. Southworth
138. (141) Ammophila Host. (Psamma Beauv.) Panicles usually narrow and spike-like. Flowering glume and palea chartaceous, somewhat indurated, awnless; spikelets comparatively large. ...
Obs. — Very nearly related to Ammophila are two N. American species, Calamagrostis brevipilis Gray and C. longifolia Hook., with the loose panicle of Calamagrostis, but the chartaceous flowering glumes of Ammophila, distinct from both genera by the one-nerved flowering glumes ; they may best be considered a separate genus, Calamovilfa (Gray as a sect. of Calamagrostis). (Hackel in MS.)
[138a. Calamovilfa. Empty glumes unequal ; flowering glumes one-nerved ; rachilla not prolonged.

Species two, in N. America (C. brevipilis of the Atlantic coast, and C. longifolia of the western interior). These species are referred to Ammophila in B. & H. Gen Pl., vol. III, p. 1153.]

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Danthonia spicata;  

Danthonia spicata (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. “Poverty Oatgrass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, Johann Jacob, and Josef August Schultes, 1817-1830.  

Roemer & Schultes (1817, v. 2, p. 690) — essentially the 9th edition of Linnaeus Species Plantarum — placed Avena spicata L. in Danthonia DC.

Thanks to P. de Beavois on p. 18 of the Preface to volume 1:

Original Text
Illm. Palisot de Beauvois, experientissimum Botanicum, qui nec torridissimam Africam, nec Americam borealem ignotam sibi esse voluit.

Publication of D. spicata from volume 2, page 690:

Original Text
2 * D. spicata P. de Beauv.; spicato paniculata, calyce flosculis sex longiore , corollae valvulâ exteriore apice aristatâ furcatâque. Avena spicata Sp. Pl. p. 119. Willd. Spec. I. p. 453. Avena glumosa, foliis subsetaceis collo vaginarum villoso ; paniculâ parvâ subspicatâ pauciflorâ ; calyce spiculam sexfloram superante, valvâ florum exteriore ex apice bicorni aristatâ. Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer. I. p. 72. Pers. Syn. I. p. 101. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. I. p. 86.
„Gramen angustum; folia linearia; spica composita e spiculiis 3-4, remotis erectis, spiculae subpedunculatae, singulis calyx diphyllus sublatus aequalis ; flosculi sex sessiles erecti, laciniae glumae corollinae exterioris setaceae, arista articulata longotudine spiculae. Facies Festucae decumbentisLinn. Inflorescentiam re vera paniculam esse, nee spicam, aristamque basi spiralem, monuit b. Michaux. A nova Anglia ad Carolinam.
Obs. An huc illa cum? allata Danth. spicaeformis, quae et Avena spicaeformis audit? sed Danthoniam glumosam sine dubio habet P. de Beauv.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus albicans;  

Elymus albicans (Scribn. & J.G.Sm.) Á.Löve. “Montana Wild Rye”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus canadensis;  

Elymus canadensis L. “Canadian Wildrye”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus elymoides;  

Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey “Squirreltail”

 

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Thomas Nuttall collected a grass on arid plains of the Missouri that he described as Ægilops hystrix (Nuttall, 1818, v. 1, p. 85).
Original Text Comments
117. ÆGILOPS. L.  
Calix, lateral, 2-valved, mostly 3-flowered, valves coriaceous, broad, with many awns; awns rigid and divergent. Corolla 2 valved, outer valve terminated by 2 or three awns. — Flowers spiked, intermediate masculine; lateral, hermaphrodite, sessile.  
Small grasses, allied to Elymus, valves of the calix remarkably rigid and truncate, deeply divided into many flat and long scabrous awns; valves of the corolla also simularly divided and awned.  
Species. 1. Æ. * Hystrix. Spike squarrose, with very long recurved and divergent awns: calix smooth, generally 4-parted to the base: segments mostly bifid, unequally 2-awned; spikelet about 4 flowered, the 2 masculine or neuter pedicellate, and intermediate; dorsal valve of the corolla terminated by about 2 or 3 unequal awns.  
Considerably allied to Elymus. … [Long description omitted.]  
On the arid plains of the Missouri. A search of SEINet for collections of Elymus elymoides in Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, showed that there are almost no collections of the grass in proximity to the Missouri River. However, there are a few collections of the grass on or near the river from Fort Peck, Montana, and above, or Glendive, Montana, on the Yellowstone River, and above. Graustein (1967, p. 70) notes that Nuttall was very eager to reach the Rocky Mountains (the “Northern Andes” as Nuttall called them), and that a trail that struck almost directly west to the Yellowstone River from Fort Mandan doubtless enticed the naturalist. However, we do not really know how far above Fort Mandan that Nuttall ventured.
Of this genus there are 2 species in the South of Europe, one of them also common to Barbary, and the other to Candia, there are likewise 2 other species peculiar to those places.  

The next genus that Nuttall described was Elymus.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1819.
- Shaw, Robert B., 2008.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Rafinesque's (1819) description of Sitanion elymoides Raf. is not available on Biodoversity Heritage Library, because Part 89 is missing. However, that part is available on the HathiTrust Digital Library.
Original Text Translation
PRODROME PRODROMO
Des nouveaux Genres de Plantes observes in 1817 et 1818 dans l'interior des Etats-Unis d'Amerique; New Genres of Plants Observed in 1817 and 1818 in the Interior of the United States of America
Par C. S. RAFINESQUE, By C. S. RAFINESQUE
Professeur de Botanique et d'Histoire naturelle dans l' Universite de Lexington. Professor of Botany and Natural History at Lexington University.
 
II. PARTIE. MONOCOTYLEES. PART II. MONOCOTYLEDONS.
 
32. SITANION. (Graminee.) Fleurs polygames males en epi. Involucre lateral pentaphylle, multiflore. Glume univalve, convolutee, inegalement bifide et biaristee, contenant 4-5 fleurs, divisees en 2 spicules geminees. Glumelle bivalve, valves inegales, l'exterieure tres-grande, convexe, trifide, 3-aristee; ariste mediane tres-longue; valve interieure concavem bifide, mutique. 3 etamines. 2 styles. Fleur terminale communement male a 2 etamines et 2 setules ecailleuses. — Ce genre differe de l'Elymus par linvolucre 5-phylle, glume, glumelles, polygamie, etc. Une espece, S. elymoides. Chaume strie, scabre; feuilles scabres, glauques; epi droit, fleurs laches, involucres et aristes tres-longs, scabres, divariques; glumes lisses, dos uninerve, glumelles scabres sur les bords. — Missouri. 32. SITANION. (Graminee.) Polygamous flowers male in spike. Lateral involucre pentaphyll, multiflora. Glume univalve, convoluted, unevenly bifid and biaristous, containing 4-5 flowers, divided into 2 gemine spicules. Bivalve umbilicus, valves unequal, outer very large, convex, trifid, 3-aristate; very long median awn; inner valve concavem bifid, mutic. 3 stamens. 2 styles. Commonly male terminal flower with 2 stamens and 2 scaly setules. — This genus differs from Elymus by 5-phylinvolucre, glume, lemma, polygamy, etc. One species, S. elymoides . Thatch streak, scabrous; leaves scabrous, glaucous; spike straight, flowers loose, involucral and arist very long, scabrous, divaric; glumes smooth, back uninerve, scabrous glumes on margins. — Missouri.
 

The next taxon Rafinesque described was Critesion Raf. a generic name still used as a segregate of Hordeum by Weber & Wittmann (2012) and Shaw (2008).

Literature Cited:
- Anonymous, n.d..
- Swezey, Goodwin D., 1891.  

Swezey (1891) described Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey in his Nebraska Flowering Plants.
Original Text
...
I have endeavored in every case to give a plant the oldest available specific name it has borne, believing that this is the only rule which can lead ultimately to a settled nomenclature. In some cases this may lead to less euphonius combinations as in the case of Elymus elymoides; and here too these is more justification for the name E. Sitanion since this species constituted Rafinesque's entire genus Sitanion when it bore the name S. elymoides. Yet if it is an Elymus and it its original specific name was elymoides, then it should, as it seems to me, bear the name Elymus elymoides, (Raf.), euphony or no euphony. In this case and in that of Petalostemon compactus, (Sprengl.), I have not been able to learn who, if any one, has used this conbination of generic and specific names before and have accordingly left blank the name following the original author.
Elymus elymoides, (Raf.) — — (E. Sitanion, Schultes.) Lewellen.

So while Swezey did not know who first used Elymus elymoides, it turns out it was him!

An anonymous review says the following about this publication.

Original Text
Nebraska Flowering Plants. Goodwin D. Swezey. (Doane College, Natural History Studies No. 1, Pamph. 8vo. pp. 16. Crete, 1891.
This is a list of Nebraska localities for flowering plants in the herbarium of Doane College, based mainly on collections made by Prof. Swezey in a tour through the western part of the State, and by some of his students; 553 species and varieties are enumerated, of which 76 are here first definitely recorded as occurring within the area. The nomenclature is based on the stability of the oldest specific name, ‘believing that this is the only rule which can lead ultimately to a settled nomenclature.’ Two binomials are here first proposed: Petalostemon compactus (Spreng.) (P. macrostachyus, Torr.) and Elymus elymoides (Raf.), (E. Sitanion, Schultes). The original author is cited in parenthesis. The list is an important supplement to Mr. Webber's Flora.
N. L. B.

I suspect that “N. L. B.” is Nathaniel Lord Britton.

Literature Cited:
- Small, Jared G., 1899.  

Sitanion hystrix was published by Jared G. Small in a series of Studies on American Grasses published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Small places all of Nuttall's Ægilops, excluding others of Linnaeus, in Sitanion, and adds quite a few specific names one might recognize.

1. Sitanion jubatum J. G. Smith, sp. nov. (=Elymus multisetus (J.G.Sm.) Burtt Davy)

2. Sitanion villosum J. G. Smith, sp. nov. (=Elymus multisetus (J.G.Sm.) Burtt Davy)

3. Sitanion multisetum J. G. Smith, sp. nov. (=Elymus multisetus (J.G.Sm.) Burtt Davy)

4. Sitanion polyantherix J. G. Smith, new name. Polyantherix hystrix nees, in Ann. Nat. Hist. 1: 284 (1838), not Ægilops hystrix Nutt. (=Elymus multisetus (J.G.Sm.) Burtt Davy)

etc.

Yikes!!! It's a mess. (Sitanion hystrix J.G.Sm., Bull. Div. Agrostol. U.S.D.A. 18: 15, pl. 2 (1899). https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/35499501#page/366)

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, and John Dalton Hooker, 1873.
- Hackel, Eduard, 1890.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Small, Jared G., 1899.  

Original Text Comments
INTRODUCTION The text of the Introduction was written by Lamson-Scribner.
...  
Nuttall,1 who first described the species of this genus, referred it to the European Ægilops and named his plant Ægilops hystrix His description was carefully drawn up and his species can be readily recognized. A year later, Rafinesque2 published his genus Sitanion, based upon a single species, which he named Sitanion elymoides. It has been found impossible to determine with certainty which of the species enumerated in the present paper was the one named by Rafinesque; it certainly was not, however, the grass described by Nuttall.  
Our leading authorities, Bentham and Hooker,3 Hackel,4 and Baillon,5 have all reduced Sitanion to a section of Elymus. The articulate rachis, readily breaking up at maturity, abd the usually bifid or many parted and awned empty glumes are well-defined characters, distinguishing the wpecies from Elymus, and justifying their separation as a distinct genus. To be sure there are species so closely connecting Elymus with Sitanion that it is difficult to determine to which genus they ought to be referred, but the same is true in the case of Elymus and Agropyron; there are intermediates which may with equal propriety be placed either in the one genus or the other.  


1 Genera North American Plants, 1: 86. 1818
2 Journ. Phys., 89: 103. 1819.
3 Genera Plantarum 3: p. 1207.
4 Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 2: part 2, p. 88.
5 Histoire des Plantes, Monographie des Graminées, 258.
 
....  

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
- Small, Jared G., 1899.

Other articles:
• Interstate 80:   at Wamsutter;

Locations: La Veta. Villa Grove. Wamsutter.  

Original Text Comments
12. SITANION HYSTRIX (Nutt.) J. G. Smith, new combination. (Ægilops hystrix Nutt. Gen. N. Am. Pl., 1: 86, 1818.) Pl. II.  
Culms 1 to 3 dm. high, slender, erect or ascending, scabrous above, clothed at the base with papery leaf-sheaths. Innovations very leafy, one third to two-thirds the length of the culms. Sheaths striate, strigose-pubescent, open at the throat, closely envoloping the internodes. Ligule almost obsolete. Blades narrowly linear, flat ot at length involute, strigose-pubescent throughout, prominently 9-nerved, scabrous along the margins, erect or ascending; those of the innovations 7 to 12 cm. long, 1 to 2 mm. wide; culm leaves about as long, 2 to 4 mm. wide. Spike 5 to 7 cm. long, erect or subflexuous, exserted, or its basal portion inclosed in the uppermost leaf-sheath, closely flowered. Spikelets 3- to 4-flowered, complessed. Empty glumes bifid, from bear the base and unequally 2-awned; the strongly scabrous, glaucous, divergent awns, 3 to 4 cm. long. Flowering glume 7 to 8 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, minutely pubescent, 3-awned, the miffle awn rather slender, recurved, about 3 cm. long. Palea as long as or longer than the flowering glume, scabrous, tipped with two slender awns, 2 to 3 mm. long. Internodes of the rachis glaucous, linear, not at all dilated above, about 5 mm. long.  
A common, worthless bunch grass on shale hills and among the sagebrush on the high plains from western Colorado to eastern Washington.  
SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Wyoming: P. A. Rydberg, No. 2028, Wamsuter, July 24, 1895; C. L. Shear, No. 280½, Wamsutter, June 24, 1895; No. 283, Green River, June 25, 1895; Thomas A. Williams, No. 2437, dry rocky hillsides, Evanston, July 10, 1897; No. 2379, dry sagebrsh hills, Green River, July 9, 1897; Aven Nelson, No. 3058, Green River Hills, May 31, 1897; No. 3669, Wamsutter, July 10, 1897; No. 3784, North Vermilion Creek, July 20, 1897.  
Washington: C. V. Piper, No. 2579, on sagebrish land, Ellensburg, July 9, 1897. A. B. Leckenby, Walla Walla, July 12, 1898.  
Colorado: John Wolfe, No. 623, 1873; C. Thomas, 1869; and F. E. Clements, No. 60, Walsenburg, July 10, 1896.

John Wolfe, No. 623, 1873. NY1655258, Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. Locality, Denver, Colorado. Gift from Wesleyan Univ. Deposited NY in 1981. See Brittonia 34(4). 1982. NY1673562, Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. Locality, Denver, Colorado. YU111158. Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army. Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. Locality, Denver, Colorado. Sheffield Scientific School. Daniel C. Eaton Collection.

C. Thomas, 1869, collection not found online.

F. E. Clements, No. 60, Walsenburg, July 10, 1896.This collection was not found online. However, two other collections of the taxon were found collected later in the same year, one at La Vela (sic), Huerfano County, and one at Villa Grove, Saguache County.

There are in the herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy of Science two of Nuttall's specimens of Sitanion. One of these, labeled “Chretomeris trichoides, R. Mts. Platte,” is exactly identical with No. 3784, A. Nelson, and No. 283, C. L. Shear. both collected in the Red Desert of Wyoming. The other, labeled “Elymus difformis, R. Mts. Platte,” in nearly identical with No. 2028, Rydberg, from Wamsutter, Wyo. If these specimens are those from which Nuttall's description of Ægilops hystrix was drawn. and they agree better with his description than any specimen from the “arid plains of the Missouri” so far examined, then there was undoubtedly a mistake made in referrinf the habitat of this to that locality. I doubt that the two Nuttall specimens of Sitanion in the herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy of Science are the specimens from which Nuttall described Ægilops hystrix. It has to do with timing. The specimens location is “R. Mts. Platte” Yet when Nuttall (1818) published Æ. hystrix he had not yet been to the Rocky Mountains along the Platte River. The earliest specimens from that region would have been the Wyeth specimens from 1833, a date long after Nuttall published Æ. hystrix.
I am assured by Dr. E. L. Greene that it is highly improbable that Rafinesque drew his description of S. elymoides from Nuttall's plant, and it is certain that Rafinesque's description (Journ. Phys. 89: 1819) differs in important particulars from that of Ægilops hystrix, Nuttall. I am, however, unable definitely to identify any Sitanion with which I am familiar as the true S. elymoides, Raf. The locality, “Missouri,” of 1819, was then applied to what now constitutes several large States in which a dozen of more separate species occur. Rafinesque apparently left no type, and the original description is too fragmentary to enable one to more than guess at the identity of the plant which he described.  

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2ed.) treated this grass as Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J. G. Smith

Literature Cited:
- Wingate, Janet L., 1994.  

Wingate (1994) does not accept infraspecific names in E. elymoides.

Literature Cited:
- Shaw, Robert B., 2008.  

Shaw (2008) accepts subsp. brevifolius and therefore subsp. elymoides.

Literature Cited:
- Mason-Gamer, Roberta J., Melissa M. Burns, and Marianna Naum, 2010.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  allotetraploid;  

Mason-Gamer, et al. (2010) …

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not accept infraspecific names in E. elymoides.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) does not accept infraspecific names in E. elymoides.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus glaucus;  

Elymus glaucus Buckley. “Blue Wild Rye”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus trachycaulus;  

Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners. “Slender Wheatgrass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Link, Heinrich Friedrich, 1827-1833.  

Link (1833, v. 2., p. 189) published Triticum trachycaulum grown at the Berlin garden from seeds sent by Dr. Richardson. Richardson is mentioned several times as having send seeds to Link, and Link named one species after him, Stipa richardson (=Achnatherum richardsonii)
Original Text
28. Tr. trachycaulum. * Folia plana rigidiuscula striata scaberrima. Spica longiuscula , spiculae 5—7 florae. Valvae septemnerviae acutatae. Valvula ext. aristato-acutata. — Semina ex itinere in Americam borealem occidentalem attulit clar. Dr. Richardson nobisque dedit. ♃. T. Gramen ad 4 pedes in Horto allum. Caulis superne pilis brevibus rigidis asperrimus. Vaginae scabrae striatae, ligula vix ulla sed auricula ad oram vaginae; lamina ped. circiter longa sulcata asperrima 3 lin. lata. Spica ad ped. longa ; spiculae 8 liu. longae ; valvae valvulis parum breviores, valvulae exter. laeves superne in nervis aristaque asperne, arista lin. longa.

Literature Cited:
- Shinners, Lloyd H., 1854.  

Shinners (1954, p. 28) published Elymus trachycaulus either from a manuscript by Gould, or knowing Gould was intending to publish it.
Original Text
Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould, ined. Triticum trachycaulum Link, Enum. Pl. Hort. Reg. Berol. Altera 2: 189. 1833. Elymus pauciflorus (Schweinitz) Gould, 1947; not Lamarck, 1791. Known in Texas from the Panhandle. The orthography follows that of Link, using second declension endings instead of the more usual third declension form — caulis.

Frank W.Gould (1913-1981) was an American agrostologist who earned his PhD from University of California at Berkeley, and served most of his career at the S. M. Tracy Herbarium at Texas A & M University. He was the author of 80 definitive treatments on grasses, four grass manuals, and the well known textbook Grass Systematics.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elymus virginicus L.;  

Elymus virginicus L. “Virginia Wildrye”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eragrostis pectinacea;  

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud. “Tufted Lovegrass”

There is disagreement whether to list authorship of this name as “(Michx.) Nees ex Steud.” or simply as “(Michx.) Nees.”

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Michaux (1803) published the grass as Poa pectinacea as found in fields of Illinois. It might be interesting to determine the relationship between the Illinois of today, and the Illinois of Michaux's time.

Literature Cited:
- Nees von Esenbeck, Christia Gottfried Daniel, 1841.  

It appears to me that Nees (1841, p. 374) in his Flora of Southern Africa mentions a new name in passing wondering whether his Eragrostis homomalla N. ab E. could be distinguished from E. pectinaceam Michx. In the process Nees assumed that Michaux's Poa pectinaceum was in fact Eragrostis pectinacea.
Original Text
... Differt ab omnibus cognitis huius affinitatis ramis paniculae alterius lateris patentibus quin etiam refractis, alterius contra erectis aut adpressis, quo charactere accedente facilius iam distinguitur as Er. pectinacea Michx., veree distincta specie, neque cum Er. pilosa coniungenda, cui ramuli paniculae rigidiores quidem sunt, at vero longius a basi divisi, et axillae praeterea pilosi.
Adnot. An huius loci Er. verticillata Link. Hort. Ber. I. p. 189. (excl. syn.) an potius ad Er. pectinaceam spectans ?
This is a long way from validly publishing a name, at least according to current standards, yet some authorities give Nees authorship.

Literature Cited:
- Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb, 1855.  

The first time Eragrostis pectinacea appears in print as a nominated name was in Steudel (1855, v. 1, p. 272) in the group of north American species (Species Americae septentrionalis.)
Original Text
132. E. PECTINACEA. Michx. (Fl. Am. I. 69. sub: Poa.) ... [Latin diagnosis omitted] ... P. pilosa Muhlbrg. [Circle with dot – probably means plant is an annual.] Am. sptr.
Steudel does in a way acknowledge Michaux's basionym of Poa pectinacea.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Achnatherum hymenoides;  

Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth. “Indian Rice Grass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, sup., p. 728) was the first to publish a name, using Stipa membranacea stating that he saw the grass in Bradbury's herbarium. However, that name was illegitimate because it was previously used by Linnaeus (1753) for a grass growing in “Hifpania” (Spain).
  Roemer & Schultes (1817, vol. 2, p. 339) published the first valid name for this grass. Their description is identical to that of Pursh (1814), so I think it is safe to assume that the type of Bradbury was used.
Original Text Translation and Comments
29. S. hymenoides ; foliis convoluto-filiformibus glabris, paniculâ laxâ, pedicellis flexuosis, calycibus membranaceis trivervibus longe acuminatis, corollis calyce brevioribus sericeo-villosis, villis corollam superantibus, aristâ nudâ rectâ calyce paulo longiore. S. membranacea Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. II p. 728. 29. S(tipa) hymenoides, the leaves twisted-filiform, glabrous, the panicle loose, the pedicels flexuouse, calyx 3-nerved gradually acuminate, membranous, corolla shorter than calyx sericeous-villous, awn nude [glabrous?] straight, slightly longer than calyx.
Altitudo 18 pollicum: spicae ovales, pilis longis sericeis tectae. Ad littora fluvii Missouri.   About 18 inches tall; heads ovate, long silky hairs when young. On the shores of the Missouri river.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, p. 40) ...
Original Text Translation and Comments
63. * ERIOCOMA. † (Silk-grass.)  
Calix 2-valved, 1-flowered; valves gibbous and coarctate above, longer than the corolla, both 3-nerved and cuspidate. Corolla 2-valved, roundish; valves coriaceous, vested with a silky wool, the outer valve terminated by a short triquetrous deciduous awn. Anthers bearded. Seed large, somewhat spherical. triquetrous = having three corners or salient angles or edges specifically
Flowers dichotomously paniculate, peduncles flexuose, capillary, and clavulate. Leaves very long, involute and subulate, nodes of the culm distant, entirely sheathed.  
Stipa membranacea. Pursh, vol. ii. in Supplement. p. 729 nom. illeg.
1. Cuspidata, C.  
Description. Root perennial; culm 2 to 3 feet high, simple; panicle spreading, dichotomous, flowers by pairs, peduncles capillary flexuosa, clavulate at the summit. Leaves very long, filiform and convolute, a little asperate on the margin, (often more than a foot in length); vagina half a foot, entirely sheathing the stem and the panicle before evolution; ligula entire, conspicuous. Calix 2-valved, 1-flowered, valves membranaceous, about twice the lendth of the corolla, ventricose and gibbous, above the corolla contracted; both 3-nerves, the lateral nerves only about one third the length of the glume, the central nerve ending in a cusp or short awn margined by the glume at its base, nerves a little pubescent. Corolla 2-valved, short, nearly oval, in fruit almost spherical, valves coriaceous, vested with an exserted silky villus, extending beyond the corolla, the dorsal valve terminated by a triquetrous pungent deciduous awn scarcely the length of the calix, at first perfectly erect, afterwards a little bent; Stamina 3, scarcely exserted beyond the valves of the corolla; anthers small, brown, bifid at both extremities, above terminated by small pubescent tufts. Style 1. Stigmas 2, short, hirsutely villous. Ovarium sheathed by a 3-leaved perisporium(or nectary). Seed nearly spherical.  
This genus is nery nearly allied to Oryzopsis, but at the same time sufficiently distinct both in habit and character; having a culm with remarkable long sheathing and almost filiform subulate leaves, a dichotomous spreading panicle, a ventricose, coarctate, awned calix twice the length of the corolla, which last is furnished with a deciduous awn, and a long silky villus.  
Habitat. On the grassy plains of the Missouri, from the Arikaree village to the Northern Andes? Flowers in June and July.  

† From εξιον, wool, and χομη, a head of hair. A grass producing a fastigiate tuft of silky hair, upon the glume of the corolla.

I may not have the Greek characters correct, some of them were very hard to see in the BHL image.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1912.  

Rydberg (1912, p. 102) formed the new combination of Eriocoma hymenoides (R. & S.) Rydb., as strictly a nomenclatural correction.

Literature Cited:
- Peterson, Paul M., Konstantin Romaschenko, Robert J. Soreng, and Jesus Valdés Reyna, 2019.  

Peterson, et al., 2019, reorganized a lot of Stipeae, but primarily broke up Achnatherum, placing the New World members in Eriocoma, and retaining Achnatherum as a strictly Euraisian genus.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Achnatherum robustum;  

Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth. “Sleepygrass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., 1890.

Locations: Chinati Mountains.  

John Coulter (1890, p. 56) first published robusta as a variety of Stipa viridula (=Nassella viridula). Coulter gave Vasey authorship of the name, though it does not appear Vasey ever published it himself. Vasey could have identified the grass and written the manuscript from which Coulter published the name. However, in that case, one would expect the author to be “Vasey ex Coulter.”
Original Text
714. Stipa viridula Trin., var. robusta Vasey, n. var. Culms densesly tufted, 12 to 18dm high, stout, leafy : lower sheaths loose and broad, longer than the internodes; blades flat and wide or involute above, often 6dm long, scabrous: panicle dense and large, erect, 25 to 40cm long: empty glumes 10mm long, three to five nerved, callus short, densely hairy. — Chenate Mountains (Presidio county). Ranges from Colorado to Mexico.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Achnatherum scribneri;  

Achnatherum scribneri (Vasey) Barkworth “Scribner Needle Grass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Vasey, George, 1884.

Locations: Santa Fe.  

George Vasey (1884, p. 125) described Scribner Needle Grass from a collection made near Santa Fe, New Mexico. He doesn't say who made the collection or when. However, there are two vouchers in SEINet with type-status; one with an image at NY and labeled a co-type, and a record at MO labeled an isotype.
Original Text
New Grasses.
By George Vasey
Stipa Scribneri. — Culms 2-3 ft. high, stout, erect; lower leaves half as long as the culm, smooth, flat below, becoming involute at the long acuminate point; upper sheath enclosing the base of the panicle, which is narrow, erect, and 6-8 inches long, the branches in twos or threes and appressed; outer glumes unequal, lower one 6-7 lines, upper about 5 lines long, both 3-nerved, acuminate; flowering glume 3-5 lines long, hairy, hairs longer above, and at the apex forming a white crown a line or more long; awn rather slender, 8-9 lines long, not hairy; stipe short, very acute, pubescent; palet less than a line long, obtuse and adherent to the grain.
Differs from S. viridula particularly in the unequal glumes, the hairy crowned flowering-glumes, the more slender awn, and the very short palet.
Collected on dry hill-sides at Sante Fe, New Mexico.
At the time Vasey (1884) named the grass for him, Frank Scribner was the botanist for the Northern Transcontinental Survey. In May 1885 he was appointed an assistant in the USDA Division of Botany, and in 1894 became the leader of the new USDA Division of Agrostology.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Glyceria striata;  

Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. “Striate Manna Grass”

 

Literature Cited:
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pirre Antoine de Monet de, 1791.  

Lamarck (1791, 1(1), p. 183) published Poa striata from grasses collected in Virginia and Carolina.
Original Text
984. POA ftriata.
P. panicula diffufa capillari, fpiculis glabris fubquinqueflorus, corollis exquifite ftriatis.
E Virginia, Carol. Cal. brevis. F. glabra

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, Albert Spear, 1928.  

Hitchcock (1928, p. 157) published Glyseria striata without explanation or comment.
Original Text
Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc.

Poa striata Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1:183. 1791.
Poa nervata Willd. Sp. Pl. 1:389. 1797.
Glyceria nervata Trin. Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. Math. Phys. Nat. 1:365. 1830.
Panicularia nervata Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1:783. 1891.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hesperostipa comata;  

Hesperostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth. “Needle and Thread”

 

Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Credit probably goes to Andre Michaux (1803) for first recognizing H. comata who noted the grass lives “ … in the rocky mountains from the Hudson to Canada.” Unfortunately, Michaux applied Stipa juncea to this grass, a name that Linnaeus had already applied to a grass occurring in Switzerland and France.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814) also applied S. juncea to a Lewis & Clark collection made July 8, 1806, made “ … Valleys of the Missouri in the Rocky Mountains.”

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) also applied S. juncea to his collections on the grassy plains of the Missouri.

Literature Cited:
- Trinius, Carl Bernhard, and F. J. Ruprecht, 1842.  

Trinius and Ruprecht (1842, p. 45) ...
Original Text
51. Stipa comata n. Paniculae pl. min. implexo-contractae radiis subternis, aliis fere a basi — , aliis superius floriferis; glumis subulatis, subaequalibus, valvula inferiore 5 lineali undique brevepilosa subduplo longioribus; arista subpersistente, torlili, plicata et varie inflexa, subsexpollicari; anthcris barbatis.
Stipa juncea Nuttall (non L.) Gener. 1. (1818) p. 58? ad ripas Missouri et in Virginia abundans itinerantibus molestissima. «Arista laevis, gracilis, vix contorta, semipedalis. »
Stipa capillata Hooker! Fl. Bor. Amer. 2. (1840) p. 237.
Carlton House Fort ad fl. Saskatchawan (Drumond) ; ad ripas et in planitie fl. Columbia prope «Missouri Portage» (Douglas).
Simillima Stipae capillatae, sed flosculo undique et ad apicem usque barbatulo, setulis aristarum hinc inde longioribus, denique antheris distincte barbatis diversa. Reliqua ut in St. capillata; specimen suppetens pedale.

Stipa juncea Nuttall (1818), which he described as a variety of Stipa juncea L., is an illegitimate name. The name was unavailable, having been previously used by Linnaeus for a grass found in Switzerland and France.

Literature Cited:
- Barkworth, Mary E., 1993.  

Barkworth (1993) described Hesperostipa as a North American endemic that is distinct from the Eurasian Stipa s. s. and more closely allied to the South American genera of Piptochaetium and Nassella.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hordeum brachyantherum;  

Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski. “Meadow Barley”

The name was published in 1936 in Sergei Nevski, a Russian botanist who worked at the Main Botanical Garden in Leningrad. Most collections before that time were originally determined Hordeum nodosum L.

Most plants are tetraploid, though there is a diploid in California. A hexaploid has also been found.

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hordeum jubatum;  

Hordeum jubatum L. “Foxtail Barley”

 

 

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hordeum pusillum;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1453, Hordeum pusillum  

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley.

 

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 1, p. 87) ...
Nuttall's Text My interpretation
119. HORDEUM. L. (Barley)  
Calyces lateral, 2-valved, mostly 1-flowered, aggregted by threes, so as to resemble a setaceous 6-leaved involucrum; the central flower sessile, the lateral ones stipitate, usually sterile. Corolla 2-valved, acute; exterior valve awned.  
Very nearly allied both by habit and character to the preceding genus. Flowers spiked, imbricated mostly in 2 rows; calycine involucrum setaceous, 6 leaved, division approaching by pairs. In the H. hexastichon, the flowers are imbricated in 6 ranks, because all the flowers are hermaphrodite; probably a mere effect of cultivation. [The preceding genus was ElymusEd.]
Species. 1. H. vulgare. Cultivated … 2. * pusillum Lateral masculine or nertral flowers awnless, acute; four internal calicina glumes, coriaceous and dilated, those of the hermaphrodite sublanceolate; internal valve of the lateral masculine flower, subsemi-ovate. [The description of H. vulgare is skipped. – Ed.]
Culm 4 to 6 inches, decumbent, or somewhat genoculate at the base. Leaves rather glaucous, a little pubescent on the under surface, striate, about one and a half inches long, and almost obtuse; uppermost sheath tumid and very smooth, embracing the spike. Spike linear; about one and a half inches long. Glumes by threes, distichally imbricated. Lateral imperfect flowers awnless, acute; central sessile flower awned, the awn almost exactly the length of that of the subtending calix; awns scabrous. Calix smooth, nerveless, exterior valve in the outer flowers setaceous from its base,