Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
History of Botanic Exploration and Publication
Useful Publications
Discussion - Native Plants
Discussion - Non-Native Plants
Literature Cited
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.





Literature Cited:
- Colwell, Robert K., 2008.
- Savard, Jean-Pierre L., Philippe Clergeau, and Gwenaelle Mennechez, 2000.  

What is biodiversity?





1 — Introduction

2 — Geography

3 — History of Botanic Exploration

  • 310yyyymmxxnameseq

4 — Useful Publications

  • 411 — Floras
    • 4112017w — "411" & publication year & author.
  • 412 — Botanical but not a flora.

5 — Methods

6 — Results

  • 61 — Collections Found
  • 62 — Collections Made

63 — Discussion

  • 631 — Rare Plants
  • 632 — Notable Native Plants
    • 6321 -- Ferns, if any.
    • 6322 -- Gymnosperms, if any.
    • 6323 -- Dicots
      • 6323280Erinaugra -- "6323" & family & genus & species & subspecies or variety
    • 6324 -- Monocots
  • 633 — Notable Non-Native Plants
  • 633n — Noxious Weeds
    • 63402 — Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape.
      • 63404020Agrcri -- "63404" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6342 — Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape
      • 6342106Alyaly -- "6342" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6343 — Non-Native Sunflowers in the Golden Landscape
    • 6349 — Other Families
  • 637— Distribution of Natives
    • 6371 — Global
    • 6372 — Circumpolar
      • 63720510088Stelon — Stellaria longipes Goldie
    • 6373 — Eastern North America
    • 6374 — northern prairie
    • 6375 — Texas
    • 6376 — Rocky Mountains
    • 6377 — Cordillera
    • 6378 — southern Cordillera
      • 63780510250Giloph — Gilia ophthalmoides

7 — Conclusion

8 — Acknowledgements

  • 90 — Ecological Systems of Colorado
  • 91 — GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora
  • 92 — How the Flora is Built
  • 93 — Source Data
    • 931 — Types from the Golden Area
    • 932 — Namesakes of the Golden Area
    • 933 — Notes on All Taxa, Regardless of Nativity.
      • 9330300 — Notes on Ferns and Allies.
      • 9330400 — Notes on Gymnosperms.
      • 9330510 — Notes on Dicots.
      • 9330520 — Notes on Monocots.
    • 934 — Studies of Prairie or Foothill Ecosystems
    • 935 — Restoration, and Effects of Attempts Thereof
    • 936 — Recreation in Foothill and Prairie Ecosystems
    • 937 — Notes on Non-Native Species
      • 937 0520 — Notes on Non-Native Monocots -- Do not use, place with the 933s.
  • 94 — Keys
  • 95 — Schemas
  • 96 — Vegetation Descriptions
  • 97 — Reminders
  • 98 — Mystery Locations



Ecological Systems of Colorado

  The Colorado Natural Heritage Program page on Ecological Systems of Colorado is found at: .

Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Don, Ralph H. Crawford, and David L. Tart, 2009.
- Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2008.
- Jennings, Michael D., Don Faber-Langendoen, Orie L. Loucks, Robert K. Peet,m and David Roberts, 2009.  

  Comparison of published vegetation types.
CNHP, 2005O'Shea-Stone, 2002Kilburn & White, 1992Zeise, 1976
    Lichen-rock type. Lichen stand types. Areas of bare rock from steep lava cliffs to the conical peaks on the mesa surface.
  • Short-grass grassland. Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Alyssum parviflorum, and Opuntia sp., Echinocereus viridiflorus, Escobaria missouriensis, Escobaria vivipara var. vivipara. Also Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), and Yucca glauca. Some short shrubs of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. graveolens, Prunus virginiana (Syn: Padus v.), Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata. Celtis reticulata at edge of mesa. Traditionally dominated by Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides, but now dominated by Bromus tectorum.
Grassland type. Bromus tectorum and Alyssum simplex (Syn: A. minus. Occasional Achnatherum scribneri (Syn: Stipa s.) and Andropogon gerardii. Mixed-grass stand types. Dominated by Bromus tectorum and Agropyron sp. (Elymus sp. ?), with Buchloe dactyloides, and Alyssum alyssoides, Eriogonum umbellatum Torr., Heterotheca villosa, Opuntia compressa, Yucca glauca, and Ericameria nauseosa (Syn: Chrysothamnus nauseosus). West, south, and east exposures.
  Mixed-grass grassland. Stipa comata, Pascopyrum smithii, Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Aristida purpurea, and Nassella viridula, with a large number of forbs. Mesa slopes and toe areas of STM.
RM Aspen Forest and Woodland - - -
RM Cliff, Canyon and Massive Bedrock - - -
RM Dry-Mesic and Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest and Woodland - - -
SRM Pinyon-Juniper Woodland - - -
SRM Ponderosa Pine Woodland - - -
Rocky Mountain Lower Montane - Foothill Shrubland.
  • Cercocarpus montanus Shrubland Alliance
    • Series determination requires more data collection.
Upland shrubland. Cercoparpus montanus, with sparse cover of Bromus tectorum intermixed with Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), Yucca glauca, and many cacti.

Ravine shrubland. Skunkbush, chokecherry and Prunus americana, in dense thickets. Few plains cottonwoods and Salix amygdaloides

Shrubland type

  • Mixed shrub community. Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum, Prunus americana, and Prunus virginiana. Understory of Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum), Eriogonum umbellatum, Alyssum alyssoides, etc.
Mixed shrub stand types. Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum Dougl., Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Prunus virginiana L., Prunus americana Marsh. Acer glabrum in dense patches. Mostly north exposures.
    Shrubland type.

  • Mountain mahogany community. Cercocarpus montanus with an understory of Alyssum alysoides, Bromus tectorum, Agropyron cristatum (Syn: A. desertorum), Eriogonum umbellatum, etc.
Pure shrub stand types. Cercocarpus montanus, with Bromus tectorum, Alyssum alyssoides, and Eriogonum umbellatum.
    Grassland-shrub type. Common foothills species: Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Prunus americana, Rhus trilobata, and Ribes cereum. Grasses are Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum). Also Cercoparpus montanus, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius (Syn: S. oreophilus), Prunus virginiana melanocarpa, Rosa arkansana, Physocarpus monogynus, and Ribes aureum. Shrub cover within grassland matrix is significant, but less than 50%. Shrub-grass stand types. Shrubs of Crataegus succulenta (Syn: C. erythropoda), Rosa sp., Rhus trilobata, Prunus virginiana, Prunus americana, Celtus reticulata, and Ribes cereum, with Agropyron sp. (Syn: Elymus sp. ?), Bromus tectorum, Achnatherum hymenoides (Syn: Oryzopsis h., and Alyssum alyssoides. Patches of shrubs in mixed grass-forb areas.
NA Arid West Emergent Marsh - - -
  Wetlands. Cottonwoods and willows, with Carex spp., and Juncus spp., and a variety of grasses and forbs. Patches of Typha spp.. Hydrology alteration.   Riparian (streamside) stand types. Salix exigua, Populus sargentii, Eleocharis macrostachya, Scirpus lacustris L., and Mentha spicata L.
    Woodland type.

  • Mountain maple community. Dense community of small Acer glabrum just below cliffs or in ravines with a dense understory of mixed shrub. North and east slopes.
  • Cottonwood woodland community. Scattered cottonwoods (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera (Syn: P. sargentii), and P. angustifolia) along permanent and intermittent streams. In Big Ravine, Acer negundo, Salix exigua, and S. amygdaloides also occur. Other shrubs also form a dense understory.
  • Juniper Savannah community. Juniperus scopulorum with an understory of typical grassland.
Woodland stand types. Juniperus scopulorum, with Bromus tectorum.
WGP (Western Great Plains) Cliff, Outcrop, and Shale Barrens - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Closed Depression Wetland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Foothill and Piedmont Grassland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Riparian Woodland, Shrubland and Herbaceous - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Shortgrass Prairie - - -


  1. [R3C3] Stipa comata grassland of 30-60 acres near western rim of mountain, may be partly due to effects of the 1988 fire.


Recognized Ecological Systems



Ecological Systems Recognized by the Colorado Natural Heritage System


Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  

Ecological systems are dynamic assemblages or complexes of plant and/or animal communities that 1) occur together on the landscape; 2) are tied together by similar ecological processes, underlying abiotic environmental factors or gradients; and 3) form a readily identifiable unit on the ground. These systems provide a coarser level unit than plant associations and alliances as defined under the International Vegetation Classification standard, and are more easily identified on the ground.

The descriptions and summarized viability guidelines presented here are intended to serve as a tool for conservation and management planning by providing a context for conservation and management (i.e., what systems do we have in Colorado), and by providing easy access to ranking and evaluation criteria for key ecological attributes of each system (i.e., what is the condition of our systems).

System descriptions and viability guidelines are based on materials compiled by NatureServe or developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Funding for the development of these documents was provided in part by the Bureau of Land Management, The Nature Conservancy, and the USDA Forest Service (CNHP, 2005).

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  



Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)


Literature Cited:
- Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague, 2011.  

The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was a mapping and assessment of biodiversity for the five-state region encompassing Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The area comprises approximately 150 million hectares (560,000 square miles) representing 1/5 the coterminous United States. The primary objective of the project was to use a coordinated approach to create detailed, seamless maps of the land cover, habitat for native terrestrial vertebrate species, land stewardship, and management status for the Southwest region. This information was analyzed to identify animal species habitats and natural land cover types that are underrepresented on land managed for their long term conservation. SWReGAP was a multi-institutional effort with scientists based in all five southwest states.


USNVC -- United States National Vegetation Classification
  The U.S. National Vegetation Classification is supported by a formal partnership between the federal agencies, the Ecological Society of America (ESA), and NatureServe, working through the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee. Primary signators include the U.S. Forest Service (which chairs the subcommittee), ESA, NatureServe, and the U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Systems (USGS/CSS). Together we are committed to supporting the implementation and maintenance of the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) Standard (FGDC 2008).
  The overall objective of the Vegetation and Information Standards is to support the use of a consistent national vegetation classification system (NVCS) to produce uniform statistics in vegetation resources from vegetation cover data at the national level. It is important that, as agencies map or inventory vegetated Earth cover, they collect enough data accurately and precisely to translate it for national reporting, aggregation, and comparisons. Adoption of the Vegetation Classification and Information Standards in subsequent development and application of vegetation mapping schemes will facilitate the compilation of regional and national summaries. In turn, the consistent collection of such information will eventually support the detailed, quantitative, geo-referenced basis for vegetation cover modeling, mapping, and analysis at the field level.




Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Dom, Todd Keeler-Wolf, Del Meidinger, Dave Tart, Bruce Hoagland, Carmen Josse, Gonzalo Navarro, Serguei Ponomarenko, Jean-Peirre Saucier, Alan Weakley, and Patrick Comer, 2014.



GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora




How the Flora is Built




Source Data




Literature Cited:
- Hufford, Larry, Michelle M. McMahon, Anna M. Sherwood, Gail Reeves, and Mark W, Chase, 2003.  

Names recognized by Harrington (1954) Names recognized by Snow (2009) Names recognized by Weber and Wittmann (2012) Names recognized by Ackerfield (2015) Names recognized by FNANM Mentzelia (s.l.) represented by collections in Jefferson County, Colorado
Section Bartonia
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
(Syn: M. speciosa Osterhout., Nuttallia multiflora (Nutt.) Greene, N. speciosa (Osterh.) Greene, N. sinuata Rydb.)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray var. multiflora Nuttallia multiflora (Nuttall) Greene
(Incl: N. sinuata, N. speciosa)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray M. multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill
Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterhout
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) T. & G.
(Syn: Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene)
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & Gray
Section Trachyphytum
Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl ex Hook. Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray Acrolasia albicaulis (Douglas) Rydberg Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray
(Syn: M. montana (Davidson) Davidson)
M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray
Not recognized Mentzelia montana (Davids.) Davids. Not recognized M. montana (Davidson) Davidson M. montana (Davidson) Davidsona
Mentzelia dispersa Wats. Mentzelia dispersa S. Watsonb Acrolasia dispersa (S. Watson) Davidson Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson M. dispersa S. Wats. M. dispersa S. Wats.
Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Denver, CO.: Sage Books., 1954. Snow, Neil. 2009. Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region (Version 3). 316 p. Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope. 4th Edition. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2012. Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. The Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+. New York and Oxford. Published on the Internet; (accessed 2013 through 2019) Source: Southwest Environmental Information Network, SEINet. 2014. http// Accessed on September 04, 2014.


  1. bMentzelia dispersa S. Watson. Snow (2009) follows Dorn (2001) in not recognizing varieties in our region.
  2. aMentzelia montana (Davidson) Davidson is represented by two collections made by George E. Osterhout with Ira W. Clokey, Osterhout's #3095 (RM95508) and #5741 (RM162001). The collections were made 22 June 1918 and the locality is Morrison, Jefferson County, Colorado.



Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

“Towards a Species Level Phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA”

Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

Authors for Symphoricarpos in FNANM are: Applequist, Wendy L./wendy.applequist at and Bell, Charles D./valerianaceae1969 at Caprifoliaceae will be contained in Volume 18, which, as of this date, 3 August 2014, is under production.



Botanical Explorers



Thomas Nuttall


1810-1811 Missouri River


1815-1816 The Carolinas


1816-1817 Ohio River to South Carolina


1818-1820 Arkansas




Names of Historical Reports


The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
… full name of publication … URL: … if available …

Literature Cited:
- Plukenet, Leonard, 1696.  

One of several pre-Linnaean botanical texts.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Pluk. Alm. Plukenet, Leonard. 1696. Almagestum botanicum. Londini : Sumptibus auctoris 1696 URL:

Cited by Lamarck (1783) as a source for Arabis reptans (=Draba reptans).


Literature Cited:
- Dillenius, Johan Jacob, 1732.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum ericoides;  

Dillenius, 1732 Hortus Elthamensis

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Dill. elt.
Hortus Elthamensis, seu Plantarum rariorum, quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit ... Jacobus Sherard ... Guilielmi ... frater delineationes et descriptiones URL:
Dillenius was born at Darmstadt and was educated at the University of Giessen, earlier the family name had been changed from Dillen to Dillenius. In 1721, at the instance of the botanist William Sherard, he moved to England. In 1734 Dillenius was appointed Sherardian professor of botany at Oxford, in accordance with the will of Sherard, who at his death in 1728 left the university £3000 for the endowment of the chair, as well as his library and herbarium, all on the condition that Dillenius should be appointed the first professor.

In 1732 he published Hortus Elthamensis, a catalogue of the rare plants growing at Eltham, London, in the collection of Sherard's younger brother, James (1666—1738), who, after making a fortune as an apothecary, devoted himself to gardening and music. For this work Dillenius himself executed 324 plates; it was described by Linnaeus, who spent a month with him at Oxford in 1736, and afterwards dedicated his Critica Botanica to him, as opus botanicum quo absolutius mundus non vidit, "a botanical work of which the world has not seen one more authoritative". Further, Linnaeus would later name a genus of tropical tree Dillenia in his honor. In the section on Symphyotrichum ericoides refers to the work of Paul Herman, Prodromus of Dutch Flowers, perhaps published posthumously, as follows:

Ab Aftere Novae Angliaw Linariae folio, Chamaemeli floribus, Hermannus Par. Bat. p. 95. …
This appears to refer to:
D. Pauli Hermanni Florae Batavae flores, Ejusdem Paradisi Batavi Prodromus; & tendem post idsius obitum Paradisus ipsa :
That I found in: Joannis Raii (John Ray) … 1704 … Historiae plantarum: tomus tertius … : accessit Historia Stirpium ins. Luzonis & reliquarum Philippinarum a R. P. Gee. Jos. Camello … S. J. conscripta : item D. Jos. Pitton Tournefort … Grollarium institutionum rei herbariae


Literature Cited:
- Gronovius, Jan Frederik, and John Clayton, 1738-1743.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Celtis occidentalis, Linnaeus, 1753;  Notes on Symphyotrichum ericoides;  

Gronovius, 1738, Flora Virginica

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gron. Virg.
Flora Virginica, exhibens plantas URL:

Jan Frederik Gronovius (also seen as Johann Frederik and Johannes Fredericus) (10 February 1690 in Leiden – 10 July 1762 in Leiden) was a Dutch botanist notable as a patron of Linnaeus.

John Clayton, a plant collector in Virginia sent him many specimens, as well as manuscript descriptions, in the 1730s. Without Clayton's knowledge, Gronovius used the material in his Flora Virginica (1739–43, 2nd ed. 1762).

He was the son of Jakob Gronovius and grandson of Johann Friedrich Gronovius, both classical scholars. In 1719, he married Margaretha Christina Trigland, who died in 1726, and Johanna Susanna Alensoon in 1729. His son Laurens Theodoor Gronovius (1730–1777) was also a botanist.


Literature Cited:
- Van Royen, Adrianus, 1740.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Symphyotrichum ericoides;  

Royen, 1740, Flora Leydensus Prodromus

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Roy. lugdb.
Flora Leydensus Prodromus

Florae leydensis prodromus :exhibens plantas quae in Horto academico Lugduno-Batavo aluntur.


Adriaan van Royen (11 November 1704 in Leiden – 28 February 1779 in Leiden) was a Dutch botanist. He was a professor at Leiden University and is associated with Carl Linnaeus.

He is best known for his work on flora of Southeast Asia. Adriaan van Royen formed a close relationship with Linnaeus, who had visited the Leiden Botanic Garden during a stay in Leiden between 1737 and 1738.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1728.

He died in Leiden in 1779.


Literature Cited:
- Gmelin, Johan Georg, 1747-1769.  

Gmelin, 1747-1769, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gmel. Sibir.
Gmelin, Johan Georg. 1747-1769. Flora Sibirica sive Historia Plantarum Siberiae. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences. URL:


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium carolinianum, Walter, 1788;  

Walter, 1788, Flora Caroliniana

Thomas Walter (1740-1789) was a British-born American botanist. He is best known for his book Flora Caroliniana (1788), an early yet fairly complete catalog of the flowering plants of South Carolina.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fl. Carol.
Flora caroliniana : secundum systema vegetabilium perillustris Linnaei digesta; characteres essentiales naturalesve et differentias veras exhibens; cum emendationibus numerosis: descriptionum antea evulgatarum: adumbrationes stirpium plus mille continens: necnon, generibus novis non paucis, speciebus plurimis novisq. ornata URL:


Literature Cited:
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel van, 1791.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris, Schreber, 1791;  

Schreber, 1789-1791, Publication Details

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a]
Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. (Ed. 8[a]). URL: … if available …


Literature Cited:
- Gaertner, Joseph, 1788-1807.  

Gaertner, 1791, Publication Details

Joseph Gaertner (1732 – 1791) was a German botanist, best known for his work on seeds, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1788-1792).

He was born in Calw, and studied in Göttingen under Albrecht von Haller. He was primarily a naturalist, but also worked at physics and zoology. He travelled extensively to visit other naturalists. He was professor of anatomy in Tübingen in 1760, and was appointed professor of botany at St Petersburg in 1768, but returned to Calw in 1770. Much of his productive work involved hybridization of plants and expression of traits in progeny.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fruct. Sem.
De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum: accedunt seminum centuriae quinque priores cum tabulis Aeneis LXXIX. URL:

Gaertner (1791) appears here because of his publication of Troximon. Today we treat Troximon as a synonym of Krigia Schreb. and the published names in Troximon have been dispersed primarily to Agoseris with one to Krigia and two to Nothocalais. Krigia biflora (Walter) S. F. Blake “Two-Flower Dwarf Dandelion” is found in Colorado, including one collection near Deckers in southwest Jefferson County. Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene “Prairie False Dandelion” is common around Golden s.l.


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Greene, Edward L., 1889.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus crassicarpus, Nuttall, 1813;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Nuttall, 1813;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Fraser, 1813;  Notes on Escobaria vivipara, Fraser, 1813;  Oenothera cespitosa, Fraser, 1813;  Ratibida columnifera, Fraser, 1813;  

Fraser's Catalogue, 1813

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana
Fraser's Cat.
Fraser catal.
Catalogue of New and Interesting Plants Collected in Upper Louisiana and Principally on the River Missouri, North America, for Sale at Messrs. Fraser's Nursery for Curious American Plants, Sloane, Square, King's Road, Chelsea, [London 1813] A reprint is available at URL:

Remarks the International Plant Names Index (accessed 16 August 2020): Originally distributed by Messrs. Fraser’s Nursery for Curious American Plants and was referred to as Frasers’ catalogues. Reprinted in: Pittonia. 2: 114-119. 1890. Although Nuttall is not cited as the author, he has been generally accepted as the author (see St. Louis Code Art. 46 Ex. 26). Regarding the precise date of publ.: a reference to this Cat. Is made in Bot. Mag. Ad t. 1574. 1 Aug 1813. For several names in the supplement and addenda et corrigenda portions, Pursh (Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 727-751. Dec 1813) referred to Fraser's Catalogue, e.g, pp. 728, 729, 750. For the validly and invalidly published names in this Catalogue, see: J. L. Reveal, Rhodora 70: 25-54. 1968.

  • Amorpha canescens Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [1] (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Amorpha nana Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 5 (1813).
  • Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 6 [unpaged] (1813).
  • Cactus viviparus Nutt. (= Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 22 (1813). .
  • Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [unpaged] (1813).
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 45 (1813).
  • Malva coccinea Nutt. (=Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 51 (1813).
  • Oenothera albicaulis Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 54 (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 53 (1813).
  • Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 75 (1813).
  • Yucca glauca Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 89 (1813).

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibiba columnifera, Reveal, 1968;  

Multiple authors have considered the names published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, the author of the names, and the legitimacy of the names. One recent such paper was Reveal (1968) “On the Names in Fraser's 1813 Calalogue.” Original copies of Fraser's Catalogue are quite rare, leading Greene (1890) to republish. Reveal acknowledges that Greene essentially accurately reprinted the catalogue. One change that Greene acknowledges was the addition “[ By T. Nuttall. ]” to the title page, which he says Nuttall wrote in ink on the original.

Possibly among other taxa, the legitimacy of the names in Fraser's Catalogue is important for our Priairie Coneflower Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, A, D. D. Keck, and B. Maguire, 1956.
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Reveal, James L., 1968.
- Shinners, Lloyd H., 1955.
- Shinners, Lloyd H., 1956.  

Reveal (1968) thought the author must have been Nuttall, referring to several other papers on the question.

… The interested reader on this subject is invited to refer to the series of arguments presented by Shinners (1949, 1955, 1956) for Nuttall not being the author and the Catalogue as an invalid source of publication; Graustein's (1956) contentions that Nuttall was the author but that he considered the species not validly published because of an agreement with his sponsor, Benjamin Smith Barton of Philadelphia, not to publish any new species without Barton's consent; and Cronquist, Keck, and Maguire (1956) who believe that Nuttall was the author and that the Catalogue is a valid place of publication.

It has been common knowledge that Nuttall was at least associated with the names found in the Catalogue. Pennell (1936) and Graustein (1967) point out that he was in England and associated with the Fraser Brothers' Nursery at the time of publication. From Nuttall's two subsequent publications (1817, 1818) which followed shortly after the Catalogue, we know that he considered at least some of the names as his own. Several of the early authors attributed the names in the Catalogue to Nuttall, and they certainly could have asked Nuttall if they had any doubt as who the author was. Pennell (1936) gives the impression that Nuttall was a rather shy and inhibited person. It would seem out of character for a man of such temperament to assume responsibility for the names in Fraser's Catalogue if he was not in any way responsible for them. It is inconceivable to me that someone else could have assigned names to Nuttall's own collection without Nuttall stating this fact later. If Nuttall was not associated with the entities, why should he later accept some of them as his unless he actually had given the names to the Fraser Brothers, helped someone who was employed by them to prepare the Catalogue, or perhaps have written the text himself. It should be noted here, however, that I do not say that Nuttall was the author of the paper, although Greene (1890) suggests this after seeing the copy of the Catalogue in Philadephia. What I do contend is that Nuttall is the author of the names in the paper, and thus, as provided by the International Code (1966), the species should be cited as "Nutt. In Fras."

Shinners (1956) goes to great length to show that several of the names in Fraser's Catalogue were not claimed by Nuttall in his later publications, and while this is true, I suspect that it was for reasons other than those given by Shinners. Some species were found to have been adequately described between 1813 and 1818 with names acceptable to Nuttall, but for those that were not, he used his own names that he had published in the Fraser's Catalogue. Nuttall occasionally cited only "Frasers Catalogue" and did not give himself credit for the name. Shinners uses this argument to show that Nuttall was not the author. The species with which I am most familiar that was published in the Catalogue is Eriogonum flavum. The name is credited to “Fras. Catal. 1813” and not starred as a new species in Nuttall's 1818 book, The Genera of North American Plants, and for this reason, Shinners suggested that Nuttall did not consider this ispecies as his. Nothing is further from the truth. In a detailed paper on this species in particular, and the genus Eriogonum in general, which Nuttall published in 1817, he makes a point of stating that he published the name E. flavum in Eraser's Catalogue. The reason why Nuttall simply stated “Fras. Catal. 1813.” instead of “T. N. in Fras. Catal. 1813.,” as he sometimes did, was probably to save space. To say that Nuttall was not the author of Fraser's Catalogue I believe is on more tenuous bases than to say that he was indeed the sole author. As no one else has come along to claim authorship of the species published in the list, this, I believe, proves the point that only Nuttall could have given the names to his own collection.

The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1966) states in Article 34 that "A name is not validly published … when it is not accepted by the author who published it …" As Nuttall did not specifically reject the names in the Catalogue, they must be considered as published. The arguments put forth by Graustein (1956) are immaterial. She states that under the terms of a contract, Nuttall's journals and observations became the exclusive property of Barton, and Nuttall was not supposed to do anything else but what was specifically stated in the con- tract. Thus, Graustein believes that Nuttall could not legally publish any new species in Fraser's Catalogue, for if he did, he would be breaking the terms of the contract. How- ever, as McKelvey (1955) has pointed out, Nuttall's mere presence with the Overland Astorians as they ascended the Missouri River was breaking his contract with Barton, as was the shipping of his plants to England instead of Philadelphia. Certainly one more step in the breaking of the contract by publishing his findings would not be totally surprising.
Reveal (1968) then goes on to review each name published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, rendering an opinion about their validity.


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus communis depressa, Pursh, 1814;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Pursh, 1814;  Agoseris glauca, Pursh, 1816;  Ratibida columnifera, Pursh, 1814;  Pseudoroegneria spicata, Pursh, 1814;  

Pursh, 1814-1816, Publication Details

Pursh (1814-16) is an often cited reference for taxa found in Golden s.l.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh, Frederick. 1814. Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, A Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America. 2 vols. London: White, Cochrane, and Co., 1814. URL:

There are forty-four taxa named by Pursh that are known to occur in Golden s.l..

  • Juniperus communis var. depressa Pursh. Common juniper
  • Calligonum canescens Pursh (=Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.)
  • Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf.. Leafy Wild Parsley
  • Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf.. Pale Goat-Chicory, as Troximon glaucum Pursh
  • Arnica fulgens Pursh. Shining Leopardbane
  • Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt.. Arrow-Leaf Balsamroot
  • Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt.. Hoar False Tansy-Aster
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. Dwarf Mountain Fleabane
  • Gaillardia aristata Pursh. Great Blanket-Flower
  • Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. Curly-Cup Gumweed
  • Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby. Kindlingweed
  • Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners. Hairy False Golden-Aster
  • Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook.. Rush Skeleton-Plant
  • Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene. Wavy-Leaf Prairie-Dandelion
  • Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartman. Lacy Sleepy Daisy
  • Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC.. Prairie Bluebells
  • Phacelia heterophylla Pursh. Variable-Leaf Scorpion-Weed
  • Cleome serrulata Pursh. Rocky Mountain Beeplant
  • Euphorbia marginata Pursh. Snow-on-the-Mountain
  • Amorpha canescens Pursh. Leadplant ???
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh. American Licorice
  • Lupinus argenteus Pursh. Silver-Stem Lupine
  • Oxytropis lambertii Pursh. Stemless Locoweed
  • Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh) J. Grimes. Silver-Leaf Indian-Breadroot
  • Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydb.. Lemon scurfpea
  • Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb.. Slimflower scurfpea
  • Ribes aureum Pursh. Golden Currant
  • Linum lewisii Pursh. Prairie Flax
  • Mentzelia decapetala (Pursh ex Sims) Urb. & Gilg ex Gilg. Gumbo-Lily
  • Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray. Goodmother
  • Claytonia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Springbeauty
  • Lewisia rediviva var. rediviva Pursh. Bitter root
  • Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl. Narrow-Leaf Four-O'clock
  • Oenothera albicaulis Pursh. White-Stem Evening-Primrose
  • Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh. Great Plains Indian-Paintbrush
  • Mimulus lewisii Pursh. Great Purple Monkey-Flower
  • Ipomopsis aggregata (Pursh) V. Grant. Scarlet Skyrocket
  • Rumex venosus Pursh. Veiny Dock
  • Androsace occidentalis Pursh. Western Rock-Jasmine
  • Clematis hirsutissima Pursh. Sugarbowls
  • Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh. Alkali Buttercup
  • Geum triflorum Pursh. Old-Man's-Whiskers
  • Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Figwort
  • Viola nuttallii Pursh. Yellow Prairie Violet
  • Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve. Bluebunch-Wheat Grass

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.  

Rafinesque (1818) had the following to say in his review of Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis.

Original Text
We have abundant proofs that [Pursh] has introduced many new species, not discovered by, nor belonging tohimself, and without the leave of the owners. Mr. Bradbury, for instance, has loudly complained to us, against him, for having so many of his new plants collected in the Missouri, without his permission, which he meant to publish them himself ; but the blame, if any, appears to lay with those friends who put the plants into the hands of Mr> Pursh, since the author of a general Flora is perfectly at liberty to avail himself of all the materials which come to his knowledge, and ought rather to be blamed for omitting them than otherwise.
It is advisable therefor for the discoverers of new plants to publish them speedily themselves, or keep them out of sight, and buried, as misers do their gold.
Many new plants are stated by Mr. P. to grow on the Mississippi and Missouri, without reference to their discoverers, and as he never was there himself, it is to be presumed they were collected by Mess. Lewis or Nuttall, and probably the latter ; the circumstance from which they were derived is illiberal and disingenuous.
After all, let no one suppose that we despise the labours of Mr. P : far from it. Few can value them more than we do ; we shal at all times be happy to give credit to any botanist for his real personal exertions : for such, and for the compilation of his Flora, Mr. Pursh does really deserve our thanks, notwithstanding so many errors and omissions. We therefore with him complete success in his future labours, and particularly in the completion of a Flora Canadensis, which we understand he has lately undertaken on the spot.

C. S. R.

Literature Cited:
- Robin, C. C. (Charles-Ce´sar), 1817.  

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Ludov. Florula Ludoviciana ; or, A Flora of the State of Louisiana URL:


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Delphinium carolinianum virescens, Nuttall, 1919;  Notes on Erysimum asperum, Nuttall, 1818;  Amelanchier alnifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Glycyrrhiza lepidota, Nuttall, 1818;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Nuttall, 1818;  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1818;  Collomia linearis, Nuttall, 1818;  Dracocephalum, Nuttall, 1818;  Solanum triflorum, Nuttall, 1818;  Orthocarpus luteus, Nuttall, 181;  Ambrosia tomentosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Notes on Artemisia ludoviciana;  Cirsium undulatum, Nuttall, 1818;  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Notes on Erigeron pumilis;  Notes on Erigeron pumilus, Nuttall, 1818;  Notes on Erigeron pumilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Ratibida columnifera, Nuttall, 1818;  Senecio integerrimis, Nuttall, 1818;  Solidago speciosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Bouteloua gracilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Elymus elymoides, Nuttall, 1818;  Notes on Hordeum pusillum;  Schedonnardus paniculatus, Nuttall, 1818;  

Nuttall, 1818, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gen. Am.
Nuttall, Thomas. 1818. The Genera of North American Plants and a catalogue of the species to the year 1817. 2 Vols.. Philadelphia: 1818.

Types published by Nuttall in this volume that are found in Golden s.l.

  • Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. (Calligonum canescens Pursh)
  • Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt.
  • Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver Wormwood.
  • Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Wavy Leaved Thistle, as Cnicus undulatus Nutt.
  • Erigeron pumilis Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Iva xanthiifolia Nutt. Carelessweed, =Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fesen.
  • Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Columbia Ragwort.
  • Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Goldenrod.
  • Collomia linearis Nutt. Tiny Trumpet.
  • Solanum triflorum Nutt. Cutleaf Nightshade.
  • Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. “Yellow Owls Clover.”
  • Delphinium virescens Nutt. (=Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R. E. Brooks)
  • Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. (=Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus) Buffalo Grass
  • Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley, on the plains of the Missouri.
  • Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. False Buffalograss.
  • Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. Tumblegrass, as Lepturus paniculatus.

    Nuttall types published elsewhere.

  • Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb., published in Fraser (1813) as Malva coccinea.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. Tufted Evening Primrose, published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue.
  • Monarda pectinata Nutt. “Plains Beebalm”, published in 1848, Plants Collected by Gambel.
  • Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry,” published in 1834, Flora of Arkansas
  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory,” published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes.” published in 1841.
  • Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Golden Tickseed, published in Arkansa report, 1821.
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower. Published in 1841.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye. Published in 1841.
  • Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. (Syn: Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt.) “Upright Prairie Coneflower.” Published in Fraser (1813) Catalogue, with the name attributed to Nuttall.
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a.
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. Ex A. Gray. Star Lily, published by Gray (1848).
  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn, published in Nuttall (1834) account of his trip to the Arkansa Territory.
  • Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. Mountain Muhly, published as Calycodon montanus by Nuttall in his 1848 account of the collections by Gambel.


Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibida columnifera, Rafinesque, 1818;  

American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Rafinesque, 1817-1818

One of Rafinesque's several publication series.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. Vols. 1-4, 1817-18 [1819] Available through Google Books.


Literature Cited:
- Elliott, Stephen, 1821-1824.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia, Elliott, 1823;  

Elliott, 1821-1824, Publication Details

Elliott (1821-1824) published his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia
Sketch Bot. S. Carolina
Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia
Elliott's Botany 
A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia. Elliott, Stephen, 1771-1830. Hoff, John, , printer. Charleston, S.C. :J.R. Schenck,1821-24. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coreopsis tinctoria, Nuttall, 1821;  

Nuttall, 1821, Publication Details

Nuttall (1821) describes his nearly disastrous exploration of the Arkansas River in 1818-1820.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2: (1821). A Description of some new species of Plants, recently introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia, from the Arkansa territory. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 2: URL:


Literature Cited:
- Roemer, Johann Jacob, and Josef August Schultes, 1817-1830.
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.  

Sprengel, 1826, Publication Details.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Syst. Veg., ed. 16 Systema vegetabilium [Caroli Linnaei ... ]. Editio decima sexta. Gottingae URL:

Although purporting to be 16th edition Linnaeus' Systema vegetabilium, this work must be attributed to Sprengel. In fact this should count as the 17th edition, as the real 16th edition that of Roemer & Schultes.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   1827;  Eriogonum umbellatum;  Acer glabrum;  

Torrey, 1828, Rocky Mountain Plants of Dr. Edwin P. James.

Torrey's final account of plants collected by Edwin James in 1820.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York ii. (1828)
Some account of a Collection of Plants made during a journey to and from the Rocky Mountains in the summer of 1820, by Edwin P. James, M. D. Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. URL:


Rafinesque, 1833, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Atlantic J
Atlantic Journal, and Friend of Knowledge. Philadelphia, PA.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana, Nuttall, 1834;  Phlox longifolia, Nuttall, 1834;  Notes on Crepis occidentalis;  Notes on Solidago missouriensis, Nuttall, 1834;  Maianthemum racemosum amplexicaule, Nuttall, 1834a;  

Nuttall, 1834a, Wyeth Expedition

Nuttall (1834a) described plants brought back by Nathaniel Wyeth from his expedition to the Oregon Territory.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: pp (1834). Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII. A Catalogue of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Valleys of the Rocky Mountain or Northern Andes, towards the sources of the Columbia River, by Mr. Nathaniel B. Wyeth, and described by T. Nuttall Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA

Read February 18, 1834.

New names of plants found in Colorado that were published in this paper.
  • Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox.”
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard.
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod.


Nuttall, 1834b, Flora of the Territory of Arkansas

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 5: 145 (1835). Article VI. Collections towards a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas. By Thomas Nuttall. Read before the American Philosophical Society April 4, 1834. URL:

  • Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry.”
  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn.


Literature Cited:
- Fresenius, Georg, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Fresnius, 1836;
Full Size ImageFootnotes from Index Seminum in which Cyclachaena is proposed  

Fresenius, 1836, Publication Details

Johann Baptist Georg (George) Wolfgang Fresenius (1808-1866) was a German physician and botanist, known for his work in the field of phycology. He was a native of Frankfurt am Main.

He studied medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg, Würzburg and Giessen, earning his doctorate at the latter institution in 1829. Afterwards he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he worked as a general practitioner of medicine while maintaining an active interest in botany.

As a student in Heidelberg and afterwards, he studied botany with his friend George Engelmann (1809-1884), who later became a renowned German-American botanist. From 1831 Fresenius was curator of the Senckenberg herbarium and a teacher at the Senckenberg Research Institute (Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg). With his student Anton de Bary (1831–1888), he conducted microscopic investigations of algae and fungi. He died in Frankfurt on 1 December 1866 at the age of 58.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Index Sem. (Frankfort/M) Index Seminum. Frankfort am Main. Universita¨t Frankfurt am Main. Botanischer Garten. URL:

In the online publication, the various parts are mixed up as to the date order.

Full Size Image
Page 1 from Index Seminum Frankfort/Am Main


Literature Cited:
- Lawson, Peter & Son, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pinus ponderosa, Lawson, 1836;  

Lawson, 1836, Agriculturist's Manual

Published in Edinburgh; see Linzer Biol. Beitr. 28: 1048. 1996

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Agric. Man.
The Agriculturalist's manual : being a familiar description of the agricultural plants cultivated in Europe, including practical observations respecting those suited to the climate of Great Britain, and forming a report of Lawson's Agricultural Museum in Edinburgh URL:

Names in this publication:

  • Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson. “Ponderosa Pine”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana, Torr. & A. Gray, 1838;  Delphinium carolinianum virescens, Torrey & A. Gray, 1838;  Rorippa sinuata, Torrey & Gray, 1838;  Holodiscus dumosus, Torr. & A. Gray;  Vicia ludoviciana, Torr. & A. Gray, 1838;  

Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, Flora of North America

Torrey & A. Gray (1838-1943) in two volumes …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fl. N. Amer.
A flora of North America :containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system URL:
Names published in this volume:
  • Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. ex Torr & A. Gray


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  Troximon glaucum, Nuttall, 1841;  Agoseris parviflora, Nuttall, 1841;  Franseria discolor, Nuttall, 1841;  Antennaria parvifolia, Nuttall, 1841;  Crepis occidentalis, Nuttall, 1814;  Notes on Helianthus pumilus;  Notes on Heterotheca foliosa, Nuttall, 1841;  Notes on Packera plattensis, Nuttall, 1841;  Solidago nana, Nuttall, 1841;  

Nuttall, 1841, Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands

In 1834, Nuttall resigned his post and set off west again on an expedition led by Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, this time accompanied by the naturalist John Kirk Townsend. They travelled through Kansas, Wyoming, and Utah, and then down the Snake River to the Columbia. Nuttall then sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Hawaiian Islands in December. He returned in the spring of 1835 and spent the next year botanizing in the Pacific Northwest, an area already covered by David Douglas. On the Pacific coast, Nuttall heard of the ship Alert leaving San Diego in May 1836, bound for Boston.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 7 (1841).
Descriptions of new Species and Genera of Plants in the natural Order of the Compositae, collected in a Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands and Upper California, during the Years 1834 and 1835. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting useful Knowledge. Series 2, Volume 7. Philadelphia. URL:

Nuttall types published in this volume:

  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr., published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. Small-Leaf Pussytoes.
  • Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. Tasselflower Brickellbush.
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye.
  • Psilochenia occidentalis Nutt. (Syn: Crepis occidentalis Nutt.)
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod.

No mention is made of any Salix.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Salix exigua;  

Nuttall, 1842-1849, North American Sylva

Nuttall extended Michaux's three-volume North American Sylva, with three additional volumes, containing all the forest trees discovered in the Rocky Mountains, the territory of Oregon, down to the shores of the Pacific and into the confines of California, as well as in various parts of the United States.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
    N. Amer. Sylv. [Nuttall]
The North American Sylva; or, A description of the forest trees of the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, considered particularly with respect to their use in the arts, and their introduction into commerce; to which is added a description of the most useful of the European trees … Tr. from the French of F. Andrew Michaux …, The. Philadelphia URL:


Vols. 1-3 (issued as vols. 4-6 of a 6-volume series), 1842-1849
1(1): 1-56. med 1842
1(2): 57-136. Jul-Dec 1842
2: 1-123. 1846
3: 1-148. 1849.


With Illustrated by 122 finely colored plates. By Thomas Nuttall … The whole forming six volumes, and comprising 278 plates --Note on t.-p.

Names first published in these volumes:

  • Salix exigua Nutt.


Literature Cited:
- Fremont, John C., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum, Frémont 1845;  

Fremont, 1845, Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Frémont Rep.
Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842 and to Oregon and North California in the years 1843-'44. URL:

The Catalogue of Plants for Frémont's 1842 expedition starts on page 75. The Polygonaceae is listed on page 96, those listed being Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt., E. caespitosum Nutt., E. umbellatum Torr., E. fremontii n. sp. (=E. brevicaule Nutt.), and E. annuum Nutt.

The descriptions of plants for Frémont's 1843-'44 expedition begins on page 311. The Eriogonum described include E. inflatum Torr. and Frém., E. reniforme Torr. and Frém., and E. cordalum Torr. and Frém. (=E. cordatum Torr & Frém., and is impossible to place unequivocally, per FNANM.)

No mention is made of E. alatum though Frémont and Torrey were aware of it.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca, Dietrich, 1847;  Agoseris parviflora, Dietrich, 1847;  

Dietrich, 1847, Publication Details

David Nathaniel Friedrich Dietrich (1800 – 1888) was German botanist and gardener. In 1828 Dietrich worked as a botanical gardener in Jena. In 1836 he received his doctorate at the University of Jena, and later served as a curator at the botanical garden in Jena. Dietrich wrote pamphlets on poisonous plants, mosses, and forest flora and fauna of Germany as well as several botanical encyclopedias. His five-volume, 1839-1852 Synopsis Plantarum, cited here, included about 80,000 species and 524 genera. The five-volume Flora of Germany published from 1833 to 1864 contains 1150 colored panels. The two-volume Forst Flora and the 476 booklets of the comprehensive Flora Universalis are his most famous work (Wikipedia, 2020).

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Syn. Pl.
Synopsis Plantarum seu enumeratio systematica plantarum…. 4. Issued in five volumes: Vol. 1, Jul 1839, Vol. 2, 1-20 Dec 1840, Vol. 3, late Dec 1842, Vol. 4, early Jan 1847, Vol. 5, Apr 1852 URL:


Literature Cited:
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saskatoon Serviceberry;  

Roemer, 1847, Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr.

Max Joseph Roemer (1791–1849) was a German botanist who worked in Weimar. He served as a Landrichter (country judge) in the Bavarian town of Aub, afterwards working as a private scientist in Würzburg. He is the taxonomic authority of the genera Heteromeles, Pyracantha and Erythrocarpus as well as of numerous plant species.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fam. Nat. Syn. Monogr.
Familiarum naturalium regni vegetabilis synopses monographicae; seu, Enumeratio omnium plantarum hucusque detectarum secundum ordines naturales, genera et species digestarum, additis diagnosibus, synonymis, novarumque vel minus cognitarum descriptionibus.

Monographic synopsis of the families of plants; or, An enumeration of all the natural orders of plants according to those that hitherto have been detected, the genera and species in four parts, with the addition of diagnoses, synonyms, and descriptions of new or less known species.

Fascicle 1-2:
Fascicle 3-4:


Literature Cited:
- Emory, William H., 1848.  

Emory, 1848, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Emory's Rep.
Emory, Notes milit. Reconn. 1848
Emory, William H. 1848. Notes of a military reconnaissance, from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California, including parts of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila rivers. Washington: Wendell and Van Benthuysen, printers, 1848.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heliomeris multiflora;  Gray, 1849, publication details;  Notes on Quercus gambelii;  Notes on Eucycla, Nuttall, 1848;  Notes on Eriogonum effusum;  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1847;  Ipomopsis spicata, Nuttall, 1848;  Monarda pectinata, Nuttall, 1848;  

Nuttall, 1848, Plants collected by William Gambel

This paper describes collected by William Gambel in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, between June and September, 1841, and in February-July, 1842, in California. Nuttall also used the paper to describe additional plants he collected on his 1834 trip to Oregon Territory. The publication appears in two forms.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Nutt. Pl. Gamb. in Proceedings, Acad, Philad. vol. 4.
Descriptions of Plants collected by William Gambel, M. D., in the Rocky Mountains and Upper California. URL:
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Nutt. Pl. Gamb. In Jour, Acad, Philad. N. ser. 1
Art. XIII. — Descriptions of Plants collected by William Gambel, M. D., in the Rocky Mountains and Upper California. URL:

A related publication would be Gray's (1849) Planta Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.

Names published in this volume that Gambel collected:

  • Quercus gambelli Nutt. “Gambel's Oak.”

Names published int his volume that Nuttall collected:

  • Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat.”
  • Eucycla Nutt., now treated as a subgroup of Eriogonum Michaux.

No mention is made of any willows.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Abronia fragrans, Hooker, 1853;  

Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany, 1849-1857

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. Hooker's journal of botany and Kew Garden miscellany. URL:

Names published here:

  • Vol. 5, Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook.


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  Holodiscus dumosus, Gray, 1849;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Gray, 1849;  Mentzelia multiflora, Gray, 1849;  Gray, 1849;  Brickellia californica, Gray, 1849;  Notes on Erigeron tracyi, Gray, 1849;  Packera fendleri, Gray, 1849;
• Field Notes:  Gray, A., 1849;  

Gray, 1849, Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae

This publication describes some of the plants collected by Augustus Fendler in the vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, October 1846 to August 1847. It ends with the phrase “To be continued,” though it was not.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gray, Pl. Fendl.
Mem. Am. Acad. 4
Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae; An Account of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Augustus Fendler; with Descriptions of the New Species, Critical Remarks, and Characters of other undescribed or little known Plants from surrounding Regions. Memoirs of the American Academy. IV(I):1-116. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum, Gray, 1852;  Notes on Oenothera brachycarpa;  

Gray, 1852-1853, Plantæ Wrightianæ

Gray (1852-1853) account of plants collected by Charles Wright.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Plantæ Wrightianæ


Plantae Wrightianae: Texano — Neo – Mexicanae: an account of a collection of plants made by Charles Wright in an Expedition from Texas to New Mexico, in the Summer and Autumn of 1849, with Critical Notices and Characters of Other New or Interesting Plants from Adjacent Regions, &c. by Asa Gray, M. D., Fisher Professor of Natural History in Harvard University. URL:

Mr. Charles Wright, who has for several years past devoted much attention to the botany of Texas, returned to Galveston from the North in the spring of 1849, and proceeded to San Antonio, purposing to avail himself of the opportunity afforded by the movement of a body of United States troops from this place across the country to El Paso, in Southern New Mexico, to investigate the natural history, and especially the botany, of this hitherto untrodden region. A recommendation from the War Department, that all proper facilities should be furnished to Mr. Wright, in furtherance of his arduous and entirely scientific undertaking, procured for him only the free transportation of his paper for preserving specimens, and of the collections he was enabled to make. This favor he owes to the kindness of Captain French, the quartermaster of the expedition, to whom and to Major Henry and Major Van Horn, Mr. Wright desires to express his thanks. The train left the frontier settlement of Castroville about the first of June, and reached El Paso early in September. The remainder of that month was devoted to making collections in the vicinity of that interesting station. Finding that much time would necessarily be lost in passing the long winter in New Mexico, Mr. Wright retraced his steps, and accompanied his rich collections back to Texas by the return train, leaving El Paso in October, and reaching San Antonio late in November. In returning he was enabled to add to his collection some species which had escaped notice during the outward journey, or which were not then in season, as well as largely to increase his collection of seeds, and of living Cactaceous plants. Specimens of the latter have been placed in the hands of Dr. Engelmann, of St. Louis, for examination. The seeds have been divided between the Botanic Garden of Harvard University, under my charge, and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, under the direction of Sir Wm. Hooker.
A full set of the plants here enumerated or described is retained in my own herbarium ; another becomes the property of the Smithsonian Institution, which has efficiently patronized this exploration. It will there form, with similar sets of the collections of Fendler and Lindheimer, made in New Mexico and Texas, the nucleus of an important and authentic North American herbarium, destined to be enriched, I trust, by continued accessions, especially from our newly-acquired ter- ritories, until it shall comprise representatives of our whole flora, and specimens of all the vegetable products of our wide country.
Another set of these plants will be found in the herbarium of John A. Lowell, Esq., of Boston, who has liberally patronized Mr. Wright's scientific explorations. The others, eight or nine in number, are about to be issued to the subscribers who have applied for them.
The numbers prefixed to the names are those under which the specimens are distributed. Those marked with a †, in place of a number, were collected in single specimens, or at least not in sufficient quantity for distribution.
The whole will give a good idea of the vegetation, and consequently of the climate, general character, and capabilities, of the region traversed. I append, from time to time, notices or characters of plants gathered by other collectors in adjacent regions, especially by Dr. Wislizenus in the valley of the Rio Grande and in Chihuahua, and by the indefatigable Dr. Gregg * in the same district and in the northern provinces of Mexico, — chiefly from materials obligingly furnished by Dr. Engelmann.
Orders or genera elaborated by Dr. Engelmann, Dr. Torrey, Mr. Bentham, or others, have the name of the author preflxed.
A proper account of the topography and physical character of the region traversed by the United States troops in their march from Texas to New Mexico will doubtless be officially published, before the printing of this memoir is com- pleted. It is therefore unnecessary for me to attempt to compile any such account from Mr. Wright's disjoined and necessarily imperfect memoranda.
Harvard University, Cambridge, May, 1850.
* Tidings of the lamented death of this most assiduous collector, in California, have just been received.


Literature Cited:
- Sitgreaves, L., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum, Sitgreaves, 1853;

Locations: Zuni River.  

Sitgreaves, 1853, Expedition Down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers

Sitgreaves, 1953 …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Sitgr., Rep. Exped. Zuni & Colorado Rivers

L. Sitgreaves, Rep. Exped. Zuni Colorado Rivers

Report of an expedition down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers, by Captain L. Sitgreaves, Corps Topographical Engineers. URL:

Report on the Natural History of the country passed over by the exploring expedition under the command of Brevet Captain L. Sitgreaves, U. S. Topographical Engineers, during the year 1851. By S. W. Woodhouse, M.D., Surgeon and Naturalist to the Expedition. … pae 31

Mr. Wright, an enterprising botanist, has passed over this route several times, and the plants have been described by Doctors Torrey and Gray, many of which have been already published by them in the Smithsonian Contributions, under the title, “Plantae Wrightianae.”

Zoology. Mammals and Birds, by S. W. Woodhouse, M. D. Reptiles, by Edward Hallowell, M. D. Fishes, by Prof. S. F. Baird and Charles Girard. … page 41

Botany. by Professor John Torrey. … page 153

For Eriogonum alatum, the citation is “(Torr., l. c.;)” Two entries up, i.e., that for Eriogonum orthocladon, the citation is “(Torr. mss., in D. C. Prodr. ined.:)” which I think means “I, Torrey, described this in a manuscript I gave to DeCandolle for his use in his Prodromo.”


Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

Marcy, 1854, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Explor. Red River Louisiana
Marcy, Randolph B., 1854. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson, Public Printer, 1854. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Beckwith, Lt. E. G., 1855.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & Gray, 1855. Pac. R. R. Rep.;  

Pacific Railroad Reports, Beckwith

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Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Pac. R. R. Report
Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean URL:

Volume II, first article gives a narrative of the Gunnison expedition, and describes the death of the Captain.

October 25.—Captain Gunnison, with Mr. R. H. Kern, Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, and Mr. Wm. Potter, (guide,) with John Bellows, and a corporal and six men from the escort, left camp at a late hour this morning to explore the vicinity of Sevier lake, supposed to be distant some fifteen or eighteen miles. From Captain Gunnison’s journal I extract the description of the country and operations of the party during the day, written after they had encamped for the night: “I came down the river southwest for nine miles, and then, bearing more west for two miles, concluded to encamp, as the water below might prove too salt. The route was through heavy artemisia for five miles, when we came upon more open plains to the nine-mile point, where we met with sloughs alive with geese, ducks, brant, pelicans, and gulls. A few hawks were careering in the high wind, and the black-eared and black-tailed rabbits were very numerous in the large artemisia.
“The mountains wore all day their white night mantle of snow, and we had squalls from the north, with snow falling on the high mountains on all sides of us. Towards sunset it brightened up a little, and our hunters brought in four ducks of as many different varieties.”
The remainder of the surveying party left under my charge, with the escort under Captain Morris, crossed the river at an excellent ford at the point of our encampment, immediately after the departure of Captain Gunnison, and, agreeably to his request, proceeded up the river in a northeast direction, encamping at a late hour on the river bottom where it is unusually wide. The river at this point makes a long bend in the plain to the south, passing through drifting sand-hills partially covered with artemisia. We had passed southward to avoid these hills in crossing from Cedar spring to the river, and to-day we passed to the west of the largest of them, yet our route was very heavy and the labor severe on our animals. The day, too, was cold and blustering, with occasional slight squalls of snow in the plains, while in the mountains it fell during the greater part of the day. Those of us who were mounted halted frequently—the wagons coming on very slowly—and built fires of sage, which being resinous burnt very freely, with a large flame for the moment, giving out abundant heat. With the setting sun the wind went down, and the night was clear and cold; and at a late hour the pure mountain snows reflected beautifully the clear light of the waning moon, while all around was quietness and repose. The gap by which the Sevier river passes the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains is called a canon; but at this distance—six miles directly in front of us to the northeast—it appears like anything but a canon passage, although the river may wind from side to side, striking against the foot of the mountains, preventing an easy passage for wagons in its natural state. A large Indian trail, however, passes directly up the river into it. This range of mountains, as seen from our present and last camps, seems to terminate a few miles to the north, leaving a broad, open passage of several miles between it and the succeeding range to the west, in which the waters of the Sevier and Great Salt lakes are divided only by gentle slopes. Distance, 14.27 miles.
October 26.—The morning was clear and cold, and Mount Nebo, seen through the Sevier river gap, with its pure mantle of snow, half enveloped in floating misty clouds, mildly reflecting the rays of the rising sun, presented one of the most beautiful mountain scenes I have ever witnessed. Our animals were kept out to graze until a late hour. At 11 o’clock, however, a party was despatched to ascertain the practicability of the passage around the mountain and thence north to the Great Salt lake ; and, without moving camp again , until the return of Captain Gunnison, it was intended to examine the passage of the Sevier river the following day. But the first party had scarcely proceeded a hundred yards from camp, when it was met by a man, weak and exhausted, reeling breathless into camp, barely able to communicate, by a few broken sentences, as he sank into a seat, the painful intelligence that Captain Gunnison’s party had been surprised in their camp by a large party of Indians, and, he thought, all but himself massacred. Orders were instantly given by Captain Morris, and promptly obeyed by all the men remaining with him of his escort, to replenish their ammunition ; and having brought up and saddled their horses, in thirty minutes they were moving rapidly towards the scene of that fatal disaster, hoping to rescue all who might yet survive and perform the last mournful duties of humanity to those who were known to have fallen.
The man who first reached camp was the corporal of the escort, who had made his escape on his horse, and had ridden him until he could go no further, leaving him at our camp of the previous day, whence he ran on foot fourteen miles—twenty-five in all—arriving, without arms, in the condition I have described. Another of the escort reached camp on horseback, before Capiain Morris’ departure; and two others were met by him in the course of the afternoon, making their way towards camp. The horses of Dr. Schiel, who had accompanied Captain Morris, and of his sergeant and several of his men, gave out during their rapid march, and their riders were left straggling behind; but eventually all arrived safely in camp—-the sergeant and some of the men, from their own folly, in a poor plight.
Before Captain Morris’ departure the train animals were driven in, with the intention at first of removing the train to a more secure place, with the two young gentlemen, Homans and Snyder, and the teamster force, some of whom were unarmed, to guard it. But it was subsequently determined to break up the camp altogether, and move towards a convenient point, where Captain Morris and myself could meet on the following or succeeding day, and take such measures for future operations as circumstances might require, with better means within our reach than we could command at any other point.
Crossing the river at the camp, we took the shortest line to escape from the sand, which proved far heavier than that of the previous day, but it was 7.44 miles in a southeast course, beyond a border of small cedars a mile wide, among which the sand was so drifted that it was only by innumerable windings and contortions of teams and wagons, that we at last escaped from it and reached the plain of grass a mile or two wide, which here lies on the gradual slope of the mountain. Here we encamped. In crossing the sand-hills numerous fresh Indian tracks were seen, notwithstanding the prevalence of a high wind; but the night passed quietly, and at sunrise we travelled southward along the base of the mountain, hoping to escape a continuation of the sand of the previous day, in which we were only partially successful, however, as it continued heavy for ten miles. We then passed a spur of the mountain and changed our course from south to southeast, and struck the trail we had made in going from Cedar spring to the Sevier river, six miles from the spring, at which we found a large camp of Mormons, on their way to settle at Parawan, near Little Salt lake. Here we encamped and turned our animals out to graze on the hills; the 20.93 miles of to-day being the severest day’s labor performed by them, although the day was cool, during the whole course of our long summer journeyings. The last of our animals were not out of harness when Captain Morris arrived, confirming our worst fears for the fate of our late comrades.
Captain Gunnison had encamped early in the afternoon, while the wind and storm were yet fresh, and doubtless feeling the security which men come to indulge after passing long periods of time surrounded by savages without actually encountering them. The abundant grass and fuel of a little nook in the river bottom, sheltered by the high second bank of the river on one side, and thick willows, distant scarcely thirty yards, on two of the others, with the river in front, offered a tempting place of comfort and utility, which was perhaps accepted without even a thought of danger. It was known to the party that a band of Indians was near them, for we had seen their fires daily since entering the valley; but an unusual feeling of security against them was felt, as Captain Gunnison had learned that a recent quarrel, resulting in several deaths, which they had had with emigrants, had terminated, and that notwithstanding this difficulty they had remained at peace with the neighboring settlers, which had been confirmed and guarantied for the future in a “talk” held with some of the Indians of this band, by an agent of the governor of the Territory, during our stay near Fillmore. This information, Captain Gunnison told me before leaving, relieved him from any apprehension he might otherwise have felt regarding this band, and was the reason for his haying asked for so small an escort to accompany him, which he as well as his guide, an experienced citizen of the Territory, deemed sufficient.
The usual precaution of a camp guard had been taken, each of the party (including the commander) in turn having performed that duty during the night. At the break of day all arose and at once engaged in the usual duties of a camp preparatory to an early start, to reach that day the most distant point of exploration fur the present season. The sun had not yet risen, most of the party being at breakfast, when the surrounding quietness and silence of this vast plain was broken by the discharge of a volley of rifles and a shower of arrows through that devoted camp, mingled with the savage yells of a large band of Pah-Utah Indians almost in the midst of the camp; for, under cover of the thick bushes, they had approached undiscovered to within twenty-five yards of the camp-fires. The surprise was complete. At the first discharge, the call to “ seize your arms” had little effect. All was confusion. Captain Gunnison, stepping from his tent, called to his savage murderers that he was their friend; but this had no effect. They rushed into camp, and only those escaped who succeeded in mounting on horseback, and even then they were pursued for many miles. The horse of one fell near camp, tumbling his rider under a bush, where he lay for six or seven hours, while the Indians were passing him on every side, until finally he could no longer hear them near him or in the camp, when he left, and was met soon afterwards by Capt. Morris’ party, which reached the fatal spot just before night. Two Indians were seen a mile or two from camp by Lieutenant Baker and Mr. Potter, brother of the guide, but they were not able to come up with them before night enabled them to escape. The bodies of the slain were not all found at dark, and hope still lingered as a bright fire was built to assure any survivor of safety. But the long weary night, rendered hideous by the howling of wolves, wore away, as this little band of armed men, barely larger than that which had already been sacrificed, lay near the fatal spot, and day dawned only to discover the mutilated remains of their recent comrades, none of them being scalped—a barbarity which some of the tribes on this part of the continent seldom indulge. Borne of their arms were, however, cut off at the elbows, and their entrails cut open; and, the wolves having had access to them during the day and to those exposed during the night, their bodies were in such a condition that it was not deemed possible to bring them away—not even that of Captain Gunnison, who had fallen pierced with fifteen arrows.
The statement which has from time to time appeared (or been copied) in various newspapers of the country since the occurrence of these sad events, charging the Mormons or Mormon authorities with instigating the Indians to, if not actually aiding them in, the murder of Captain Gunnison and his associates, is, I believe, not only entirely false, but there is no accidental circumstance connected with it affording the slightest foundation for such a charge.


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1855.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Beckwith, 1855. Pac. R. R. Rep.;  Notes on Suckleya suckleyana;  Torrey & Gray, 1855;  

Pacific Railroad Reports, Botany, Torrey & Gray

The following is an intentionally empty table …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Pac. R. R. Report
Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean URL:

Volume II, about in the middle, in the Report on the Botany of the Expedition. Part II of that report covers the Botany of the expedition led by Gunnison.

PART II. Plants collected by Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, under the direction of Captain J. W. Gunnison, U. S. Army, in charge of explorations for a railroad from Fort Leavenworth, by the way of the Kansas and Arkansas rivers, to Bent's Fort; thence by the Huerfano river and Sangre de Crista Pass to the valley of San Luis; thence west from that valley to Grand and Green rivers; thence into the Great Basin, Utah, to the vicinity of the Sevier or Nicollet lake. The collection was commenced at Westport, in Missouri, in June, 1853, and fnished late in October.


Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, Georg, and John M. Bigelow, 1856.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Notes on Opuntia cymochila, Engelmann & Bigelow, 1856;   Notes on Opuntia tortispina, Engelmann & Bigelow, 1856;  

Pacific Railroad Reports, Whipple, Botany, Cactaceae, Engelmann & Bigelow

George Engelmann and John M. Bigelow described to Cactaceae from the Whipple expedition.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
    Descr. Cact. [G. Engelmann & J. Bigelow] iv. 42 (1856)
No. 3, Description of the Cactaceae.
Report of the Botany of the Expedition, Volume 5.
Route Near the Thirty-fifth Parallel, Exploted by Lieutenant A. W. Whipple, Topographical Engineers, in 1853 and 1854.
Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean

Two names of interest that were first described in this report are Opuntia tortispina and O. cymochila.


Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum, DeCandolle, 1857;  

DeCandolle, 1824-1874, Prodromo

Multi-volume …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

D. C. Prodr. ined.
Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, sive, Enumeratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarium, juxta methodi naturalis, normas digesta
URL, Vol. 14:


Literature Cited:
- Parry, Charles C., 1862.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Parry, 1861;  Notes on Castilleja integra, Parry, 1862;  

Parry, 1862, Physiographical Sketch of [a] Portion of the Rocky Mountain Range

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Physiographical sketch of that portion of the Rocky Mountain Range :at the head waters of South Clear Creek and east of Middle Park: with an enumeration of the plants collected in this district in the summer months of 1861 URL:


Literature Cited:
- Hayden, F. V., 1870.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Cryptantha virgata, Porter, 1870;  

Hayden, F. V., 1870, Wyoming

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Hayden Report
Hayden's Rep.
Preliminary report of the United States Geological Survey of Wyoming : and portions of contiguous territories, (being a second annual report of progress)

Part V.—Catalogue of Plants, by Thomas C. Porter

URL: .

This catalogue embraces the plants collected in Wyoming Territory, by Dr. F. V. Hayden, during the geological survey of 1870 — at Camp Carlin, from July 25 to 30, on the route from Fort D. A. Russell, via Fort Fetterman, Sweetwater, South Pass, Wind Eiver Mountains, and Green River, to Fort Bridger, from August 1 to September 13 ; in the Uinta Mountains, south of Henry's Fork of Green River, in the latter half of September, and on Henry's Fork, in the month of October. To these are added his collection in the North Park, Colorado Territory, August, 1868, and another, made by Mr. B. H. Smith, in the region around the city of Denver, during the summer of 1869.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Amaranthus blitoides, Watson, 1879;  Notes on Calochortus gunnisonii;  

Watson, 1871, Botany, United States Geological Explorations on the Fortieth Parallel

Sereno Watson was the botanist and wrote the Botany volume, with assistance from D. C. Eaton and others.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Botany [Fortieth Parallel]
United States Geological Expolration [sic] of the Fortieth Parallel. Botany. Washington, DC URL:


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Porter & Coulter, 1874;  Notes on Jamesia americana, Porter & Coulter, 1874;  

Porter & Coulter, 1874, Synopsis of the flora of Colorado

John M. Coulter was expedition botanist on Hayden's 1873 Expedition to Colorado.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Synopsis of the flora of Colorado

The work is based chiefly on collections made, in 1861 and succeeding years, by Dr. C. C. Parry, whose indefatigable labors have added so much to our knowledge of the flora of the region; in 1862 by Messrs. Hall and Harbour; in 1867, by Dr. W. A. Bell, of Manitou Springs; in 1868, by Dr. F. V. Hayden; in 1869, by B. H. Smith, Esq., of Denver; in 1871, by Dr. George Smith and W. M. Canby, Esq.; in 1871 and 1873, by Messrs. Meehan and Hooper; in 1872, by J. H. Redfield, Esq.; in 1872 and 1873, by T. S. Brandegee, Esq., of Canon City, Rev. E. L. Greene, of Pueblo, and T. C. Porter; and in 1873, by J. M. Coulter.


Literature Cited:
- Wheeler, George M., 1878.  

Wheeler, 1878, Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian

The Wheeler Survey was a survey of a portion of the United States lying west of the 100th meridian. It comprised multiple expeditions, and was supervised by First Lieutenant (later Captain) George Montague Wheeler.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Wheeler's Rep.
Wheeler report
Wheeler survey
Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian

Title Variants:

Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Explorations and surveys.
Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Geographical Surveys West of 100th Meridian
Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
Report upon explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.
Report upon geographical and geological explorations and surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.
Report upon United States Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
United States Geographical and Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian
United States Geographical Surveys West of 100th Meridian
United States Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian

URL: ttps://
URL of Vol. 6:


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Pinus ponderosa, Watson, 1880;  

Brewer, et al., 1889 , Botany, California.

Botany report form the Geological Survey of California.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Bot. California [W. H. Brewer]
Geological Survey of California. J. D. Whitney, State Geologist. Botany. Cambridge, MA URL:


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coulter, 1885;  

Coulter, 1885, Botany of the Rocky Mountain Region

Coulter (1885) ...

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Manual of the botany (Phaenogamia and Pteridophyta) of the Rocky mountain region, from New Mexico to the British boundary


Literature Cited:
- Sargent, Charles Sprague., 1897.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Juniperus scopulorum, Sargent 1897;  

Sargent, 1888-1897, Garden & Forest

Garden & Forest was edited by Charles S. Sargent, who was the Director of the Arnold Arboretum and Professor of Agriculture in Harvard College, etc.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gard. & Forest
Garden and Forest; a Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and Forestry
Vols. 1-10, 1888-1897

Names published in this publication:

  • Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. “Rocky Mountain Juniper”


Literature Cited:
- Heller, A. A., 1898.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Holodiscus dumosus, Heller, 1898;  

Heller, 1898, Catalogue of North American Plants North of Mexico

Amos Arthur Heller (March 21, 1867 – May 19, 1944) was an American botanist. Heller was born in Danville, Pennsylvania. In 1892, Heller received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Franklin & Marshall College. In 1897, he received a Master's degree in Botany from Franklin & Marshall College. From 1896 to 1898, Heller was a professor of Botany at the University of Minnesota. From 1898 to 1899, Heller worked on the Vanderbilt Expedition to Puerto Rico under the auspices of the New York Botanical Garden. Starting in 1905, Heller was a professor of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, California. After moving to California, Heller and his wife, Emily Gertrude Heller, founded the botanical journal Muhlenbergia and Heller continued to edit that journal until 1915.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Cat. N. Amer. Pl.
Catalogue of North American Plants North of Mexico, Exclusive of the Lower Cryptograms URL:


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1906.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rydberg, 1906;
• Field Notes:  Erigeron eximius, Greene, 1898;  

Rydberg, 1906, Flora of Colorado

Rydberg (1906) …

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Flora of Colorado

Some systematic collection was done by Professor James Cassidy, Professor of Botany (1881-1889), in the intervals of his many duties, up to the time of his death in 1889. His successor, Professor C. S. Crandall, gave much time to the work, especially after the establishment of the experimental grass station in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This afforded occasion and opportunity for trips in search of promising species of native grasses. Subsequent collections, especially of forest products and grasses for the World's Fair in 1893, gave rise to further collecting trips to various parts of the State. Enthusiastic aid was given by Mr. J. H. Cowan, an energetic and promising student, who became Professor of Horticulture and Botany upon the resignation of Professor Crandall, but whose promising career was terminated by death before he had entered upon the active duties of the position.

The author has also consulted the various publications on the flora of Colorado. The most important of these are :

T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter, Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado; J.M. Coulter, Manual of the Botany of the Rocky Mountain Region; T. S. Brandegee, Flora of South-western Colorado; Alice Eastwood, Flora of Denver and Vicinity; John Torrey's report on E. James' collection in Long's Expedition; Asa Gray's reports on the collections of C. C. Parry, E. Hall and Harbour ; Professor E. L. Greene's various publications in Pittonia, Plantae Bakerianae and Leaflets and the publications of Professors T. S. Brandegee, Aven Nelson and M. E. Jones, Mr. G. E. Osterhout and Miss Alice Eastwood in the Botanical Gazette, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Zoe, Erythea and the Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences.


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1917.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rydberg, 1917;  

Rydberg, 1917. Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains

Rydberg (1917) ...

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains : Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia
Accepts both Erigeron superbus Greene and E. eximius Greene, places them in different sections, and distinguishes between Sections IX. Macranthi and X. Glabelli on the basis of reduced upper stem leaves and leaves 3-nerved or not. Title Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, and British Columbia Title Variants Abbreviated: Fl. Rocky Mts

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1922.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rydberg, 1922;  

Rydberg (1922) ...

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, and British Columbia

Rydberg's (1922) 2nd edition made no changes to our Colorado Chrysothamnus or Ericameria.


Literature Cited:
- Turland, N. J., et al., 2018.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Suckleya suckleyana;  

Turland, et al., 2018, ICBN

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
… full name of publication … URL: … if available …

Cite this Code as: Turland, N. J., Wiersema, J. H., Barrie, F. R., Greuter, W., Hawksworth, D. L., Herendeen, P. S., Knapp, S., Kusber, W.-H., Li, D.-Z., Marhold, K., May, T. W., McNeill, J., Monro, A. M., Prado, J., Price, M. J. & Smith, G. F. (eds.) 2018: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten: Koeltz Botanical Books. DOI

Previous versions of the Code.

Year of publicationInformal name
1867Laws of botanical nomenclature
1883Laws of botanical nomenclature, ed. 2
1906Vienna Rules
1912Brussels Rules
1935Cambridge Rules
1950Amsterdam Code
1952Stockholm Code
1956Paris Code
1961Montreal Code
1966Edinburgh Code
1972Seattle Code
1978Leningrad Code
1983Sydney Code
1988Berlin Code
1994Tokyo Code
2000St Louis Code
2006Vienna Code
2012Melbourne Code
2018Shenzhen Code (current)



Types from the Golden Area



Namesakes of the Golden Area




General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erythranthe guttata;  

Erythranthe guttata (Fisch. ex DC.) G.L. Nesom “Seep Monkeyflower”

(Syn: Mimulus guttatus DC.)


Equisetum L. “Horse Tail”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine;  

Notes on Equisetum hyemale L. ssp. affine “Tall Scouring Rush”


Literature Cited:
- Calder, James A., and Roy L. Taylor, 1965.  

The publication of ssp. affine by Calder & Taylor (1965) was just a nomenclatural change without comment.

Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & Taylor, comb. nov.
E. robustum var. affine Engelm., Am. Jour. Sci. 46: 88. 1844.
E. hyemale var. affine A. A. Eaton, Fern. Bull. 11: 111. 1903.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Equisetum laevigatum;  

Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun “Smooth Horsetail”


Literature Cited:
- Braun, Alexander, and George Engelmann, 1844.  

George Engelmann translated Alexander Braun's (1844) monograph of North American Species of Equisetum, making some additions.


Literature Cited:
- Windham, Michael D., 1987.  

Argyrochosma, Windham, 1987

Original Text
Argyrochosma (J. Smith) Windham, stat. nov. — Notholaena sect. Argyrochosma J. Smith, J. Bot. (Hooker) 4:50. 1841. — Lectotype (chosen by Christensen, 1906, Ind. Fil., p. XL); Pteris nivea Poir. [Argyrochosma nivea (Poir.) Windham].
... [Diagnosis omitted.] ...
Distribution. — A strictly American genus of approximately 20 species occupying rupestral or (rarely) terrestrial habitats from near sea level to an elevation of 4200 m in the Andes. Ranging from Missouri, Wyoming, and California to Chile (including the Juan Fernandez Islands), Argentina and the highlands of southeastern Brazil. There is a large geographic gap between the North and South American elements of the genus (only A. incana is found in Central America and the West Indies), with the greatest diversity of species occurring in the highlands of central and northern Mexico.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Argyrochosma fendleri;  

Argyrochosma fendleri (Kunze) Windham “Fendler's False Cloak Fern”


Literature Cited:
- Kunze, Gustav, 1851.  

First collected by A. Fendler 1847 in New Mexico, his No. 1017, described by Kunze from a specimen apparently deposited in the General Herbarium of Berlin ( The quality of the scan presents difficulty for one unfamiliar with German to transcribe

Literature Cited:
- Windham, Michael D., 1987.  

Original Text
4) Argyrochosma fendleri (Kunze) Windham, comb. nov. — Notholaena fendleri Kunze, Farnkr. 2:87, t. 136. 1851. — Pellaea fendleri (Kunze) Prantl


Literature Cited:
- Fee, A. L. A., 1852.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cheilanthes feei;  

Cheilanthes feei T. Moore “Slender Lipfern”

First described as Myriopteris gracilis by Fee (1852) citing habitat on rocks around Hillsboro, in North America.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Selaginella densa;  

Notes on Selaginella densa Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Spikemoss”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Selaginella underwoodii;  

Selaginella underwoodii Hieron “Underwood's Spikemoss”

Described from specimens collected by Fendler, in 1847, in the mountains near Santa Fe.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cystopteris fragilis;  

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. “Brittle Bladderfern”

The fern was first described by Linnaeus (1753) as Polypodium fragile from habitats described as the cooler hills of Europe. Cystopteris was proposed by Bernhardi in 1805, who placed C. fragilis therein. This was done in German which, I confess, I have not tried to translate.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Woodsia oregana ssp. cathcartiana;  

Woodsia oregana D.C. Eaton ssp. cathcartiana (B.L. Rob.) Windham “Rocky Mountain Woodsia”


Literature Cited:
- Robinson, B. L., 1908.  

Robinson (1908, v. 10, n. 110, p. 30) published ...

Original Text
Woodsia Cathcartiana, n. sp. W. scopulinae affnis et simillima, sed minute glanduloso-puberula nee hispidula; frondibus 2-3 dm. altis obscure viridibus firmiusculis lanceolatis 25-55 mm. latis bipinnatifidis; pinnis oblongis, inferioribus distantibus, lobis sinubus modice latis separatis oblongis denticulatis; soris submarginalibus ; indusio obscuro eo W. scopulinae simile. — W. scopulina D. C. Eaton apud Gray, Man. ed. 6, 691 (1890), non D. C. Eaton, Can. Nat. ii. 90 (1865). — Nearly related and very similar to W. scopulina, but minutely glandular-puberulent, not hispidulous; fronds 2-3 dm. high, dull green, rather firm in texture, lanceolate, 25-55 mm. wide, bipinnatifid; pinnae oblong, the lower distant; lobes oblong, denticulate, separated by rather wide sinuses; sori snbmarginal; indusium obscure, similar to that of W. scopulina. — Taylor's Falls of the St. Croix River, Minnesota, 1874, Miss Ellen Cathcart (type, in hb. Gray); also on rocks, Lower Falls of the Menomine River, Michigan, 31 August, 1892, C. F. Wheeler. This species was sent to Dr. Gray soon after its original collection. It was referred by him to Prof. Eaton, who evidently was somewhat puzzled by it. He reported it as belonging to his W. scopulina remarking, however, upon its peculiar glandular puberulence. Much additional material of the real W. scopulina, a species frequent from the Rocky Mountains westward, is now at hand and the constancy of the distinctions pointed out above is such as to warrant the publication of the plant of Minnesota and Michigan as a separate species.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Azolla mexicana;  

Azolla mexicana C. Presl “Mexican Mosquito Fern”


Literature Cited:
- Presl, Karl B., 1845.  

Carl Presl (1845, ser. 5, part 3, p. 580) barely noted the presenence of a new species of Azolla. Some sources give the page number as 150. Others note that the publication on p. 580 is as isonym. I did note see anything on page 150 that looked like publication of a name in Azolla

Original Text English Translation
— Nova Azollae species est: Azolla mexicana; fronde pinnata, foliolis imbricatis laevibus subrotundis coloratis, radicibus capillaribus. Habitat in Mexico, ubi legit clar. Schiede. Affinis videtur A. portoricensi, differt foliolis margine non hyalinis. A new species of Azolla is: Azolla mexicana; fronds pinnate, subrotund overlapping leaflets smooth colored capillary roots. Lives in Mexico, where it is described by Schiede. It seems related to A. portoricensis; the edge of the leaves are not hyaline.


Notes on Juniperus L. “Juniper”

We have five species of Juniperus in Colorado, although our authors do not agree on which ones we have, or the nomenclature to be applied.

We definitely have something in section Juniperus, that is the circumpolar Juniperus communis but whether we apply the circumpolar ssp. alpina (Weber & Wittmann, 2012) or the North American variety depressa (Ackerfield, 2022) is apparently still up for debate.

In section Sabina one clade with smooth leaf margins includes our common Rocky Mountain Juniper, J. scopulorum, and the occasionally found garden escapee, J. virginiana. Another clade with sawtooth margins includes both J. monosperma and J. osteosperma, the former occurring in Platte Canyon in Jefferson County.

Literature Cited:
- Mao, Kangshan, Gang Hao, Lianquan Liu, Robert P. Adams, and Richard I. Milne., 2010.  

Mao, et al. (2010) placed both J. scopulorum and J. virginiana in Clade III of section Sabina, though not immediately adjacent to each other. These are the smooth-leaved American species plus the Eurasian J. sabina and a couple of others. J. monosperma and J. osteosperma are Clade II, though at some distance from each other. This clade is described as the serrate-leaved junipers of North America. Section Sabina probably originated in Asia. The presence of an American var. depressa within J. communis represents a recent diversification event.

Literature Cited:
- Adams, Robert P., and Andrea E. Schwarzbach, 2013.  

Adams & Schwarzbach (2013) suggest that migration of J. sabina and others across the Bering Land Bridge (17.6-5.5.mya) gave rise to the current, cold climate, western hemisphere species such as J. scopulorum, whereas the serrate, semi-arid junipers, such as J. osteosperma migrated from the eastern to the western hemisphere via the North American Land Bridge ca. 47-30.3 mya.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Juniperus comminis depressa;  

Juniperus communis var. depressa “Common Juniper”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (1814, vol. II, p. 646) described our common juniper from plants he had seen in New York and Maine.

710. JUNIPERUS. Gen. pl. 1552.
communis 1. J. foliis ternis patentibus mucronatis bacca longioribus Willd. sp. pl. 4. p. 853.
erecta. α. J. ramis erectis.
depressa. β J. ramis depressis.
  α. About rocks, near the falls of rivers, in Canada and the western part of New York. β. in New York, and particularly in the province of Maine, in rocky or gravelly situations. ♄ May. v. v. The Common Juniper may probably have been originally brought from Europe ; but the variety β., or probably a distinct species, seems to be really an original native ; it does not grow above a foot or two high, and one single root will cover sometimes a space of from fifteen to twenty feet in diameter.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Juniperus scopulorum;  

Juniperus scopulorum “Rocky Mountain Juniper”

The Rocky Mountain Juniper — Juniperus scopulorum Sargent — is found in all the hilly areas around Golden s.l. It was originally treated as J. virginiana L. or the Red Cedar. C. S. Sargent (1897) recognized J. scopulorum as a separate species. The Rocky Mountain Juniper is found as far east of South Dakota and Nebraska, where it is known to hybridize with its eastern relative J. virginiana in zones of contact in the Missouri River basin. To the west, J. scopulorum is known to occur in Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, though not California. Hybrids of J. scopulorum and J. osteosperma are known from from Walnut Canyon [Arizona?] north into Utah and east to Mesa Verde.

Literature Cited:
- Sargent, Charles Sprague., 1897.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sargent, 1888-1897, Garden & Forest, publication details.;  

Original Text
Juniperus Virginiana has usually been considered to cross the continent to the shores of Puget Sound and Vancouver Island, and to be pretty widely distributed through the interior Rocky Mountain region from the northern border of the United States to northern New Mexico and Arizona.
After having seen, however, a good deal of this western tree during the past two seasons, I am inclined to believe that the so-called western Red Cedar as in grows in Wyoming, Montana and Colorado, at least, and perhaps everywhere, will have to be considered another species, and should this supposition prove correct on further investigation, I should propose the name of Juniperus scopulorum for it.
The habit of the Rocky Mountain tree, as may be seen in our illustration near the Mammoth Hot Springs in the Ywllowstone National Park, where this Juniper is very common, and the only arborescent, and where it grows on gravelly slopes at elevations of six or seven thousand feet with Pinus flexilis.
It has the slender branchlets and opposite leaves in pairs of the eastern tree, but the fruit is larger, and does not ripen until the second year, while that of our Red Cedar ripens during its first autumn.
The branches are stouter and covered with more scaly bark, and the bark of the trunk, which is often forked near the ground is unlike that of the eastern tree, which separates into thin narrow scales fringed on the margins, but, like that of some other western Junipers, divides into irregular, narrow, connected flat ridges, which break up on the surface more or less freely into persistent shreddy scales.
The wood has the same fragance as that of the eastern tree, although it is rather less powerful, and the color is a duller red.
The habit and the character of the bark may be due, perhaps, to differences of soil and climate, which might also affect the color of the wood, and the only really tangible character by which the western tree can be separated from the eastern is the biennial fruit.
The fact, moreover, is significant that unless the eastern and western trees come together in north-western Nebraska, the meeting place of the eastern and western floras, they are separated by a continuous belt of country through the middle of the continent several hundred miles wide; and moreover, with the exception of Juniperus communis, which encircles the northern hemisphere, and the White Spruce, which crosses this continent far northward and reaches the Pacific coast within the Arctic Circle, no coniferous tree grows in both eastern and western North America.
But before the question of the distribution of the Red Cedar can be satisfactorily determined more observations should be made on the time of ripening of the fruit, expecially in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Arizona, in the valley of the Columbia River and on Vancouver Island, for it is, of course, possible, although hardly probable, that the proposed Juniperus scopulorum may be confined to the northern Rocky Mountains and that Juniperus Virginiana really reaches the southern part of that range and even the Pacific coast.

According to Sargent (1897) the only character to distiguish J. scopulorum from J. virginiana is the biennial development of the fruit. FNANM, key by Robert P. Adams, distinguish the two by the extent of which the scalelike leaves overlap, by not more than 1/5 for J. scopulorum, and by the shapes of exfoliating bark, in addition to development of the fruit. J. scopulorum is distinguished from J. osteosperma by the leaf margin entire for the former, whereas leaf margin denticulate for the latter. Ackerfield's (2015) Flora of Colorado follows the same scheme, but does not accept J. virginiana occurring in Colorado, though the author has found it as a garden escapee.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Juniperus virginiana;  

Notes on Juniperus virginiana L. “Eastern Redcedar”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pinus ponderosa;  

Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson. “Ponderosa Pine”


Literature Cited:
- Lawson, Peter & Son, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lawson, 1836, publication details;  

Lawson & Lawson (1836) described the ponderosa pine from plants they were growing in pots at their Agricultural Museum near Edinburgh, Scotland. Material to grow the plants (seeds?) was obtained through David Douglas from his second and most successful trip to the American Pacific Northwest.

Original Text
XXV. PINUS PONDEROSA — Heavy Wooded Pine.
From not possessing the advantage of deriving information from any previous description of this species, and having only young trees in the Museum to refer to, an oppostunity has not been afforded of giving any details regarding its flowers, cones, &c. It is hoped, however, the following will be sufficient to enable those less acquainted with the general appearance of this seemingly valuable and highly interesting tree to distinguish it from others of the three-leaved pines. In its habit of growth P/. ponderosa seems to surpass all others of the genus for strength and luxuriance, the branches are few, regularly verticillated, horisontal, and seem incluned to assume a pendulous or drooping habit as the three becomes older ; central or top-shoot often more than an inch in diameter, and or proportional length ; buds large and free from resin ; leaves thickly set, nine inches to a foot or fourteen inches in length, thick rigid, and nearly straight, rounded on the exterior, and having a longitudinal prominent rib, together with minute channels on the interior side ; smooth, with very indistinctly serrated margins ; sheaths short, of a dull blackish colour, and lacerated or torn at their extremities ; timber said to be so ponderous as almost to sink in water. Introduced by Mr Douglas from the west coast of North American in 1828.
Such of the above remarks as cannot be supposed to apply to small plants in pots, are derived from a specimen, perhaps the finest in Scotland, growing in the Caledonian Horticultural Society's Gardens, Inverleith Row. Judging from its rapid growth and hardiness, this seems to be one of the most valuable species which has yet been introduced, particularly should the wood, when grown in this country, be found to possess the valuable qualities which have been ascribed to it.

Literature Cited:
- Brewer, W. H., Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray, 1880.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brewer, 1880, publication details;  

Our Rocky Mountain variety scopulorum was proposed by George Engelmann, writing in his section about Tribe III, the Abietineae in Volume II, Watson's completion of the Botany report of the California Geological Survey. Engelmann included variety scopulorum that is not known from California and other comments about conifers in the western United States in what was perhaps intended to provide regional treatment to the family.

Original Text Comments
Tribe III. ABIETINEAE (By Dr. George Engelmann.) Engelmann's tribe Abietineae contained Abies, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga, Picea, and Pinus, and thus contains taxa in our current family Pinaceae.
11. PINUS, Tourn. ; Link. Pine.  
8. P. ponderosa, Dougl. One of the largest pines known (200 to 300 feet high and 12 to 15 feet in diameter), with very think red=brown bark, deeply furrowed and split in large plates : leaves on stout branchlets in the axils of strongly fringed somewhat presistent bracts, 5 to 9 or even 11 inches long ; the thin sheaths at first 9 or 10 (later 3) lines long : male flowers cylindric, flexuous, 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, crowded into a short head ; involucre of 10 or 12 bracts ; anthers with a large semicircular scarcely dentate crest : cones oval, 3 or 4 (rarely 5) inches long, 1 1/2 to 2 inches thick, of a rich brown color, sessile or subsessile, spreading or slightly recurved, often 3 to 5 together ; umbo high, with a stout straight or incurved prickle : seeds dark brown, 4 lines long ; wing 10 to 12 lines long, widest above the middle : cotyledons 6 to 9. — Loud. Arbor. iv. 2243 ; Newberry, 1. c. 36, t. 4 ; Parlat. 1. c. 395 ; Engelm. Wheeler's Rep. vi. 261. P. Benthamiana, Hartw. Journ. Hort. Soc. ii. 189. P. Beardsleyi and Craigana, Murr. Edinb. New Phil. Journ. i. 286.  
Var. Jeffreyi. A tree 100 to 200 feet high, with a more rounded top, more finely cleft and darker bark, and paler leaves 4 to 9 inches long : male flowers 1 1/4 inches long : cones larger, 5 to 12 inches long, lighter brown, on short peduncles, fewer in a cluster, with thinner apophyses, and slender prickles hooked backward : seeds 4 to 7 lines long ; wings 12 or 13 lines long : cotyledons 7 to 11. — P. Jeffreyl, Murr. l. c. xi. 224, t. 8, 9 ; Parlat. l. c. 393. I have included the Jeffrey pine here because that is the dominant pine on the east side of the Sierra Nevada, for example, at Sagehen Meadow.
Var. scopulorum. A smaller tree (80 to 100 feet high) : leaves 3 to 6 inches long, often in pairs : male flowers an inch long : cones smaller, 2 or 3 (rarely 4) inches long, grayish brown, with stout prickles : seeds 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lines long, the wings 9 to 12 lines : cotyledons 6 to 9. — P. ponderosa of the Rocky Mountain floras.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca;  

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco. “Douglas Fir”


Literature Cited:
- Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, Esq., F.R.S, F.S.A, 1802.  

The first publication of “Douglas fir” was as the “Nootka fir” from a specimen that Lambert saw in Banks' herbarium.

Banks was a member of the landed gentry who who inherited extensive family estates. Banks was educated at Eton College and at Oxford University where he developed a keen interest in natural history. He made his name as a naturalist on voyages first to Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada in 1766 and subsequently on Captain Cook’s Endeavour voyage during 1768-1771. He was a friend and advisor to King George III and pivotal in the early development of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lambert is best known for his work A description of the genus Pinus, issued in several parts 1803–1824, a sumptuously illustrated folio volume detailing all of the conifers then known. A second folio edition was produced between 1828 and 1837, and a third, smaller (octavo) edition in 1832. Individual books even of the same edition are often very different from one another, which causes problems when the illustrations have been used as types to fix the application of names.

Lambert was also the host of Frederick Pursh while the latter worked on his Flora of North America.

Original Text Comments
TAB. 33.  
Pinus taxifolia, foliis solitariis planis integerrimis, strobilis oblongis, antheris inflato-didymis.

Habitat ad Americae borealis oras occidentales.

Pinus taxifolia, leaves in a single plane, entire, cone oblong, anthers inflated in two lobes.

Lives on the western coast of North America.

Habitus P. canadensis, at folia angustiosa et paululum longiora, integerrima. Amenta mascula ovata, subsessilia, multiflora ; antheris inflato-didymis, cristâ reflexâ, minimâ. P. canadensis is a synonym of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

The figure was taken from a specimen in the Banksian herbarium, brought home by Mr. Menzies, by whom it was discovered on the North-west coast of America, and who has favoured me with the following particulars respecting this species.

In general habit this tree resembles P. canadensis, and attains considerable height and size. The leaves are also very like those of the species just mentioned, but narrower, and their edges are entire, whereas the others are visibly serrated. The inflorescentia is much larger than in P. canadensis and there are more antherae. As for the Cones, I can give no account of them, those which were brought by Mr. Menzies having been unfortunately mislaid. That gentleman however, informs me that they differ in their form from the cones of P. canadensis, and that they are longer.

Explanation of the figure is omitted.  

Literature Cited:
- Mayr, Heinrich, 1890.  

The epithet “glauca” was first proposed by Mayr (1890).

Original Text Translation and Comments.
Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. glauca, Colorado Douglasia ist ausgezeichnet durch eine auffallende, hellweissliche Farbung der Nadeln; doch zeigen nur die einjahrigen Nadel, diese schone Bereiftheit; an den zwei- und mehrjahrigen Trieben verschwindet wiederum die weissliche Farbe, weshalb eigentlich nur jungen Exemplaren besondere Schonheit verliehen ist; auch andere solche glauca- Varietaten und -Arten, wie Pinus pungens, zeigen dieses Verhalten. Colorado Douglasia is characterized by a striking, bright white color of the needles; but only the one-year-old needles show this beautiful frostiness; the whitish color disappears on the biennial and perennial shoots, which is why only young specimens are particularly beautiful; other such glauca varieties and species, such as Pinus pungens, also show this behavior.
Die glauca - Douglasia ist in Colorado, New-Mexico und Arizona (Santa Rita) heimisch. Auch der Zapfen zeigt einige Verschiedenheiten ; er is namlich kleiner und armer an Schuppen als die westliche Form (Tafel VI); die kleinfruchtige Douglasia van Montana bildet hierin die Verbindung zwischen der glauca und der typischen Douglasia. In trockenem un im Winter kalterem Klima erwachsen hat sich diese Varittat im Osten der Union als frosthart, das heisst wohl in den allermeisten Fallen als trockenhart, wenn man so sagen kann, erwiesen. Sie is in ihrer Heimat wie uberall, wo sie kultivert wird (auch im deutschen Walde) langsanwuchsig (verglichen mit der typischen Form), eine unangenehme Eigenschaft, die ihre sonstigen Vorzuge wieder aufhebt; auch als Nutzholz soll sie weit hinter der Kustenform zuruckstehen. The glauca - Douglasia is native to Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona (Santa Rita). The cone also shows some differences; it is namely smaller and poorer in scales than the western form (Plate VI); the small-fruited Douglasia from Montana forms the link between the glauca and the typical Douglasia. Grown up in dry climates and colder climates in winter, this variety has proven to be frost-hardy in the east of the Union, that is to say, in most cases, dry-hardy, if you can say that. In her homeland, as everywhere where she is cultivated (also in the German forest), she is long-growing (compared to the typical shape), an unpleasant quality that cancels out her other advantages; Even as timber, it should lag far behind the coastal shape.

Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britton ex Sudw., in U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. For., Bull. No. 14, 46 (1897); et in U. S. Dept. Agric., Div. For., Bull. No. 14, 46 (1897) Bull. No. 17, 24 (1898), in adnot.; Rehder apud Sprague & M. L. Green in Kew Bull. 1938, 80.

I have been unable to find a copy of Division of Forestry, No. 14 in any online form.

Literature Cited:
- Editors of Wikipedia, 2021.
- Franco, João do Amaral, 1950.
- Heywood, Vernon, 2009.  

Joao do Amaral Franco (1921-2009) was a professor of botany at the Instituto Superior de Agronomia from 1950 until his retirement in 1991. At the beginning of the 1950s, he started his duties as a teacher, maintaining constant research on conifers, which resulted in the publication of several notes and the proposal of several taxonomic arrangements in that group. Over time his research interests broadened, establishing contact with European researchers, with emphasis on those based at the Royal Botanical Garden in Kew and at the Natural History Museum in London, institutions where he worked.

Original Text Translation and Comments
Cedrus libanensis
and Pseudotsuga menziesii
a by
( Olisiponis Instituti Superioris Agronoraiae Assistente )
João do Amaral Franco
(Higher Institute of Agronomy at the Technical University of Lisbon)
Recebido em 14 de Janeiro de 1950. Received 14 January 1950.
Discussion of Cedrus libanensis Mirb. omitted.  
Pseudotsuga Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, nov. comb. Pseudotsuga Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pinus taxifolia Lamb., Descript. Gen. Pinus ed. 1, 1: 51, t. 33 (1803) ; non Salisb. (1796).
Abies taxifolia (Lamb.) Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. VI : 523 (1804) ; non Du TOUR (1803).
Abies Menziesii Mirb. in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) XIII: 63, 70 (1825) «Menziezii».
Abies Douglasii Hort, ex Loud., Hort. Brit. ed. 1: 388 (1830) ; nom. nud.
Pinus Douglasii Sabine ex D. Don in Lamb., Descript. Gen. Pinus ed. 3, II: 1 p., 1 t. (1832).
Abies mucronata Raf., Atl. Journ. I: 120 (Autumnus 1832).
Abies Douglasii (Lamb.) Lindl, in Penny Cycl. 1: 32 (1833).
Picea Douglasii (Lindl.) Link in Linnaea XV : 524 ( 1841) «Douglassi ».
Tsuga Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 1: 192 (1855).
Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 2 : 256 (1867).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt., in N. Y. Acad. Sei. Trans. VIII : 74 (1889) comb, illegit.
Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. ap. Holz., U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Botany, Contrib. U. S. Natl. Herbarium 3: 266 (1895).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia ( Poir. ) Britt. ex Sudw., U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Forestry Bull. 14: 46 (1897).
Abietia Douglasii (Lindl.) Kent in Veitch, Man. Conif. ed. 2: 476 (1900).
Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Rehd. ap. Sprague et Green in Kew Bull. Misc. Inform. 1938 (2) : 80 (23-III-1938) comb, superfl.
In hodiernum haec species novissime Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudw. vocabitur.

Pinus taxifolia Lamb. (1803) hujus speciei primum nomen est sed ante art. 61 Nomenclaturae Botanicae Regularum (1935) legitimum non est ob vetustiorem homonymum Pinum taxifoliam Salisb. (1796) Abietis balsameae (L.) Mill, synonymum. Ob earn causam Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt. (1889) legitima combinatio non est.

POIRET (1804) Abietem taxifoliam (Lamb.) Poir. hanc speciem nominavit. Ut combinatio nova Abies taxifolia (Lamb.) Poir. nomen legitimum non est sed ut nomen novum Abies taxifolia Poir. ante art. 69 licet. SPRAGUE et GREEN (1938) nominem Abietem taxifoliam Poir. in Indice Kewense non perscriptum a cl. REHDER ex occasione inventum dicent. Notandum est quod HENRY in ELWES et HENRY, Trees Great Brit. & Irel. IV : 814 (1909) ut Pseudotsugae Douglasii (Lindl.) Carr. synonymum nominem « Abies taxifolia Poiret, in Lamarck, Dict. vi. 523 (1804)» refert. SPRAGUE et GREEN ad REHDER novam combinationem imputaverunt et sie hanc speciem nominaverunt : « Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Rehd. » Autem LITTLE in Amer. Journ. Bot. XXXI (9): 594 (1944) demonstravit hanc combinationem novam non esse quoniam SUDWORTH (1897) ad BRITTON jam imputavit.

Novissime duo nova nomina in Indice Kewense non perscripta reperimus quae hujus speciei nomenclaturam omnino mutant.

Re ipsa Du TOUR in Nouv. DiCt. Hist. Nat. XX (1803) in articulo «SAPIN» generem Abietem recognoscet et ut prima species (op. cit. 114) describet:

«SAPIN COMMUN, SAPIN ARGENTÉ, SAPIN BLANC, SAPIN A FEUILLES D'IF, Pinus picea Linn.; Abies alba Mill.; Abies taxifolia Mus., très-grand arbre don’t la tige est droite et nue jusqu'à son sommet, et don’t les branches sont parallèles à l'horizon; sa tête forme une pyramide. Son bois, tendre et résineux, est revêtu d'une écorce blanchâtre, sèche et friable. Ses feuilles sont étroites, assez longues, échancrées à leur extrémité et blanchâtres en dessous ; ses fleurs mâles disposées en grappes axillaires, et ses cônes rougeâtres,… Ce bel arbre habite les hautes montagnes et les pays élevés où il forme de vastes forêts ; il est très-commun en Suisse, en Allemagne, dans les environs de Strasbourg…»
“COMMON FIR, SILVER FIR, WHITE FIR, YF-LEAF FIR, Pinus picea Linn .; Abies alba Mill .; Abies taxifolia Mus., A very tall tree with the stem straight and bare to the top, and the branches parallel to the horizon; his head forms a pyramid. Its wood, soft and resinous, is covered with a whitish bark, dry and crumbly. Its leaves are narrow, fairly long, indented at their end and whitish below; its male flowers arranged in axillary clusters, and its reddish cones,… This beautiful tree inhabits high mountains and high countries where it forms vast forests; it is very common in Switzerland, in Germany, in the surroundings of Strasbourg… ”
In exemplo supra nomen Abies taxifolia vestustior quam Abies taxifolia Poir. et alia specie assignatum liquet.

In Du TOUR articulo Mus. verisimiliter Musaei abbreviatio est, in hoc casu Lutetiae Musaei Historiae Naturalis.

Adversum synonymiam etiam nunc cognitam expectanda erat, casu non legitimae fuissent combinationes supra Pinum taxifoliam Lamb, vel Abietem taxifoliam Poir. fundatae, inter Pinum Douglasii Sabine ex D. Don (1832) et Abietem mucronatam Raf. (1832) vetustatis electio. Autem hoc supervacuum agnovimus quia MIRBEL (1825: 63) explanat :

« Les bords du Tachoutché-Tessé, lequel coule à l'ouest des Rocheuses, sont garnis des mêmes arbres que les bords de l'Oungigah. Cette riche végétation se porte dans la Nouvelle--Hanovre jusqu'aux plages de l'Océan Pacifique, par 52° 20' de latitude, vis-à-vis l'île Nootka, où le naturaliste Menziez, compagnon de Vancouver, découvrit un Abies, que Lambert a nommé taxifolia, et que j'appellerai Menziezii pour le distinguer de l'Abies taxifolia du Jardin du Roi, qui a pour lui l'antériorité. »
Idem auctor (1825: 70) in enumeratione generis Abietis specierum sequentem offert :  
« 11. Menziezii. Mirb. Nootka. Nouvelle-Géorgie taxifolia. Lamb, non Desf. (lat. 51° à. …)»
Notandum est quod MIRBEL (1825) europaeam speciem ut Abies taxifolia Desf. refert.  
Tali modo Abies Menziezii Mirb. primum legitimum nomen est et hinc novam combinationem Pseudotsugam Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco proponimus. Haec species in honorem ARCHIBALD MENZIES qui eam anno 1797 in Nootka sinu detexit nominata est et ideo epithetum a Menziezii ad Menziesii emendamus.  
Notandum est quod multis Coniferarum operibus nomen Abies Menziesii (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl. (1833) supra Pinum Menziesii Dougl. ex D. Don (1832) fundatum et Piceae sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. synonymum reperitur. Tamen Abies Menziesii (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl, ut posterior detrimentum afferre Abiete Menziesii Mirb. non potest.  
Pseudotsugae Menziesii (Mirb.) Franco specimen typicum sub nomine Pini taxifoliae Lamb, et ab ARCHIBALD MENZIES lecto in Herbario Musei Historiae Naturalis Londinensis servatur ubi aestate priore cum cl. J. RAMSBOTTOM permissu eum vidimus.  
Diversas varietates formasque continet inter quas :  
α — Var. viridis (Schwer.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. viridis Schwer, in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XVI : 257 (1907).

for. densa (Slavin) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga taxifolia for. densa Slavin in Chittenden, Conif. Cultiv. 137 (1932).

for. dumosa (Carr.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii [var.] dumosa Carr., Tr. Conif. ed. 2: 258 (1867).

β — Var. caesia (Schwer.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. caesia Schwer, in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XI : 86 (1902).

γ — Var. glauca (Mayr) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. glauca Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 307 (1890).

P. glauca (Mayr) Mayr in Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. XI : 86 (1902).

P. taxifolia var. glauca (Mayr) Schneid, in Silva-Tarouca, Uns. Freiland-Nadelholz. 269 (1913).

for. pumila (Beissn.) Franco, nov. comb.

Pseudotsuga Douglasii var. pumila Beissn., Handb. Nadelholzk. ed. 2: 110 (1909).

P. taxifolia var. pumila (Beissn.) M. L. Green in Kew Bull. Misc. Inform. 1938 (2): 85 (23-III-1938)


Literature Cited:
- Little, Elbert L., 1952.  

Little (1952, p. 181) rejects Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and accepts the Rocky Mountain variety as P. taxifolia var. glauca (Beissn.) Sudw.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.  

Harrington (1954) accepts Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudworth, U. S. D. A. For Div. Bull. 14:46. 1897

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) continues to accepts Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudworth, U. S. D. A. For Div. Bull. 14:46. 1897

Literature Cited:
- Lipscomb, Barney, 1993.  

Typically, the varieties of P. menziesii are distinguished geographically. But what of those that might be planted? If one encounters an itinerant Douglas fir around Denver, is it more likely the local variety glauca, or an import from the Northwest? Flora of North America (Lipscomb, 1993) distinguishes the varieties as follows:

Original Text
1 Bracts straight, appressed; seed cones 6-10 cm; leaves yellowish green; Pacific Coast region. 2a var. menziesii
+ Bracts spreading, often reflexed; seed cones 4-7 cm; leaves bluish green to dark green or gray-green; Rocky Mountain region. 2b var. glauca

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1502, 12 Jul 2016;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1502, Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca  

My collection no. 1502, 13-Jul-2016, made on the northwest slope of North Table Mountain looks to be variety glauca.


There are two Douglas firs planted in my neighborhood. Are they the local variety? Or, the non-native variety?


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Acer platanoides;  

Acer platanoides L. “Norway Maple”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Acer saccharinum;  

Acer saccharinum L. “Silver Maple”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Populus;  

Populus L. “Poplar”


Literature Cited:
- Stettler, R. F., H. D. Bradshaw, Jr., P. E. Heilman, and T. M. Hinckley, editors, 1996.  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Populus alba;  

Populus alba L. “White Cottonwood”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Populus angustifolia;  

Populus angustifolia E. James “Narrowleaf Cottonwood”


Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.  

James (1822, v. 1, p. 497) ... entry for July 4, 1820, while encamped on the South Platte River near Brighton.

Several valuable plants were here collected, and among others a large suffruticose species of Lupine. The long leaved cotton-wood* of Lewis and Clark, which is according to their suggestion, a species of populus, is here of very common occurrence. It is found intermixed with the common cotton-wood, resembling it in size and general aspect. Its leaves are long and narrow, its trunk smoother, and its branches more slender and flexile, than those of the Populus angulata. Some of its fruit was fortunately still remaining, affording us an opportunity to be entirely satisfied of its relation to this genus.

* Populus angustifolia, J.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera;  

Populus deltoides Marshall ssp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw. “Plains Cottonwood”

(Syn: Populus sargentii Dode)

Literature Cited:
- Marshall, Humphry, 1785.  

Marshall (1785, p. 106) ...

1. Populus deltoide. White Poplar, or Cotton Tree of Carolina.
(Bartram's Catalogue.)
This becomes a tall tree, with a large erect trunk, covered with a white, fmoothifh bark, refembling that of the Afpen tree. The leaves are large, generally nearly triangular, toothed or indented with fharp and deep ferratures, of a fhining full green on their upper furface, but fomewhat lighter or hoary underneath; ftanding upon long flender footftalks, and generally reftlefs or in motion. The timber is white, firm, and elaftic, principally ufed for fence rails. It grows naturally upon rich low lands, on the banks of large rivers in Carolina and Florida.

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.  

Aiton (1789, v. 3, p. 406) ...

8. P. foliis fubcordatis glabris bafi glandulofis : ferraturis cartilagineis hamatis pilofiufculis ; nervis patulis, petiolis compleffis, ramis teretibus.
  Canadian Poplar Tree.
  Nat. of Canada.
  Introd. about 1772, by John Hope, M. D.
  Fl. May. H. ♄

Literature Cited:
- Eckenwalder, James E., 1977.  

Eckenwalder (1977, v. 58, n. 3, p. 93-208) ...

Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera (W. Aiton) Eckenwalder, stat. nov.
Populus monilifera W. Aiton, Hortus Kewensis 3: 406. 1789. Type: (Canada) cult. Kew Gardens, W. Aiton (holotype, BM!).
Populus deltoides var. occidentalis Rydberg, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1:115. 1900.
Populus sargentii Dode, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Autun 18: 198. 1905.
Populus deltoides var. monilifera (W. Aiton) A. Henry, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3. 56: 2. fig. 4. 1914.
Populus texana Sargent, Bot. Gaz. (Crawfordsville) 67: 211, 212. 1919.
Most modern discussion of P. deltoides has revolved around the distinctness of the cottonwoods of the Great Plains region from their eastern counterparts (Fowells, 1965). The contrasts of foliar and bud characteristics usually advanced to distinguish a western species (P. sargentii) or variety (Populus deltoides var. occidentalis) from the eastern cottonwood (Sargent, 1913) really apply solely to the southern cottonwood, P. deltoides subsp. deltoides. The cottonwoods of the Great Lakes and other representatives of the northern cottonwood are, in fact, quite similar to the trees of the plains, and I treat them all as members of a single subspecies. They are similar in their short pedicels, pubescent winter buds, and long-acuminate, deltoid-ovate leaves (Figure 2D), generally with a single pair of basilaminar glands (although these are absent in a few Texas plants). There is a general decline in tooth number southwestward from the northeastern part of its range. This subspecies occurs from the Great Lakes region westward to the Prairie Provinces and south to the Texas panhandle.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

“ ... [like a string of beads, alluding to the racemes of fruits] ...” (Weber & Wittmann, 2012, p. 347).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Populus tremuloides;  

Populus tremuloides Michx. “Quaking Aspen”


Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Michaux (1803, v. 2, p. 243) ...

tremuloides. P. foliis parvulis, suborbiculatis, abrupte acuteque acuminatis, serrulatis, margina pubescentibus.
Hab. in Canada et Noveboraco.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix alba;  

Salix alba L. “White Willow”


Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 1021) ...

29. SALIX foliis lanceolatis acuminatis ferratis utrinque pubefcentibus : ferraturis intimis glandulotis. Hort. cliff. 473. Fl. fusc. 812. Mat. med. 449. Dalib. parif. 297. Roy. lugdb. 83 alba.  
Salix foliis elliptico-lanceolatis ferratis fubtus fericeis , vimine fragili. Hall. helv. 152.  
Salix vulgaris alba arborefcens. Bauh. pin. 473.  
Salix alba. It. fcan. 200.  
Habitat ad pagos & urbes Europae. ♄ She lives in the villages and cities of Europe.
Eft arbor maxima cum Salice fragili. There is a very large tree with the Salice (catkins?) fragile.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix amygdaloides;  

Salix amygdaloides Andersson “Peachleaf Willow”


Literature Cited:
- Andersson, Nils Johan, 1858.  

Andersson, N. J. 1858. Enumeratio Salicum nobis ex America boreali huc usque cognotarum “The Willow Flora known to us from north America” Öfversigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-akademiens forhandlingar “Overview of the Proceedings by the Royal Academy of Sciences” v. 15, p. 114-133

Andersson (1858, v. 15, p. 114) ...

3. S. amygdaloides n. sp. ; triandra; amentis lateralibus pedunculatis, rigidiusculis ; pedunculo foliato; capsulis ovato-conicis, glabris, pedicello nectarium 6:ies superante, stylo subnullo, stigmatibus brevissimis, partitis; foliis late lanceolatis, utrinque glaberrimis, subtus pallidioribus, margine glanduloso-serratis, exstipulatis.
Hab. »Missouri: Fort Pierre (Priuz Neuwied)» Hb. vindob.
Haec species, prae ceteris affinibus, S. amygdaliam nostram latifoliam refert. Folia tamen iis S. pentandrae etiam similia; capsulae longius pedicellatae, squamae mox caducae.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix exigua;  Nuttall, 1842-1849, publication details;  

Salix exigua Nutt. “Coyote Willow”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1842-1849.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.  

The species was described by Nuttall (1842, vol. 1, p. 90) in his extension of Michaux's North American Sylva as being found in the Territory of Oregon without any additional information about collector, location, date, &c. At the time Oregon extended from central Wyoming to the Pacific coast.

Original Text Comments
Salix exigua. Foliis linearibus utrinque acutis subintegerrimus sericeis, stipulus nullis, amentis scrotinis elongatis, capsulis lanceolatis sessilibus, demum nudiusculis.  
This species is also a native of the Territory of Oregon, and grew with the preceding, which it strongly resembles: it is, however, a smaller species; the serrulations are mostly wanting, though very minute ones are sometimes seen: the capsules are smaller and not pedicellated. The male plant I have not seen. The branches are reddish brown and smooth. The preceding was River Willow Salix fluviatilis that is now treated as a synonym of Salix melanopsis Nutt.

It is a little curious that Nuttall mentions no willows in either his report of his residency in Oregon (Nuttall, 1840) or in his descriptions of plants collected by William Gambel (Nuttall, 1848).

Literature Cited:
- Argus, George W., 2010.  

The treatment of Salix in FNANM, written by Geoge Argus, treats S. exigua with one variety hindsiana, which is not known to occur in Colorado. Argus (2010) treats S. interior at the rank of species saying:

Sometimes Salix interior is treated as a subspecies of S. exigua (R. D. Dorn 1998). Salix exigua and S. interior hybridize and apparently intergrade in the western Great Plains; because the area of overlap is relatively small and distinctiveness of the two taxa is not compromised by hybridization and introgression, it is best to treat them as separate species.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not accept any varieties of S. exigua, treating S. interior at the rank of species.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) treats S. interior Rowlee as S. exigua var. interior (Rowlee) Cronquist.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix irrorata;  

Salix irrorata Andersson “Dewystem Willow”


Literature Cited:
- Andersson, Nils Johan, 1858.  

Andersson (1858, v. 15, p. 117) ...

14. S. (daphnoides) irrorata n. sp. amentis sessilibus, perulis maximis primo bracteatis, valde condensatis, masculis brevibus, femineis horizontalibus, elongatis, densifloris; capsulis sessilibus, crasse conicis, glaberrimis, stylo producto, stigmatibus integris; foliis lanceolatis, utrinque viridibus; ramis densissime glauco-irroratis.
Hab. in Mexico nova (Coll. Fendler, n. 812).
Nostrae S. daphnoidi ita est similis, ut nullis notis nisi amentis eximic condensatis et foliis (novellis!) integerrimis utrinque viridibus ab ea distingui possit. Squamae amenti masc. pilis brevibus, aureis vestitae; squamae amenti fem. pilis sat brevibus griseis ciliatae, unde amenta non ut in vera S. daphnoide longe pilosa conspiciuntur.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Betula occidentalis;  

Betula occidentalis Hook. “Water Birch”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Carpinus betulus;  

Carpinus betulus L. “European hornbeam”

There is only one collection of Carpinus betulus L. “European hornbeam” in Colorado, that made near the Coors plant in Golden in 1949.

Linnaeus (1753) described the tree as native to Europe and Canada, though POWO does not show it lives there, nor are there any Canadian collections in SEINet. The tree is native to Germany, and it is possibly planted on the Coors grounds for that reason.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 998) ...

Original Text
Betulus. 1. CARPINUS fquamis ftrobilorum planis. Hort. cliff. 447. Fl. fuec. 786. Roy. lugdb. 79. It. fcan. 46. Dalib. parif; 294.
  Carpinus. Dod. pempt. 841. Cam. epit. 71.
  Oftrya ulmo fimilis, fructu in umbilicis foliaceis. Bauh. pin 427.
  Habitat in Europa, Canada. ♄


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Corylus cornuta;  

Corylus cornuta Marshall “Beaked Hazelnut”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Quercus gambelii;  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2288, Quercus gambelii  

Quercus gambelii Nutt. “Gambel Oak”

Gambel Oak — Quercus gambelii — is found mostly in southern Jefferson County and, until recently, not in Golden. However, the writer found it recently in a canyon in Apex Park. It is also found on Dinosaur Ridge just south of Interstate 70 and therefore just south of the Golden city limits. The Gambel oaks on Eagle Ridge Drive near Kinney Run were planted.

The oak is broadly distributed throughout the American Southwest. For example, the writer has also collected it in the Spring Mountains, Clark County, Nevada, about 45 km. northwest of Las Vegas.

Literature Cited:
- Jercinovic, Gene, n.d..
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Locations: Rio Grande.  

William Gambel (June 1823 – December 13, 1849) was an American naturalist, ornithologist, and botanist from Philadelphia. As a young man he worked closely with the renowned naturalist Thomas Nuttall. At the age of eighteen he traveled overland to California, becoming the first botanist to collect specimens in Santa Fe, New Mexico and parts of California.

In March 1841, at the age of eighteen, Gambel set off on his own for California to collect plants and other specimens for Nuttall. He planned to take a more southerly route than that taken in 1834 by Nuttall and John Kirk Townsend. Upon reaching Independence, Missouri he joined a group of traders and headed for Santa Fe following the Santa Fe Trail. Gambel reached Santa Fe in June and spent the next couple months collecting plants. In September Gambel joined a party heading to California and accompanied them along the Old Spanish Trail, arriving in Mexican Alta California in early November, 1841, becoming the first botanist to enter California overland from the east.

Nuttall (1848) described an oak collected on the Rio Grande by William Gambel.

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
Q. Gambelii. Leaves obovate, shortly petiolate, narrowed below, sinuately lobed, dilated and somewhat 3-lobed at the summit, beneath pubescent, the lobes rather obtuse, the upper ones subdentate ; fruit sessile, small, the cup hemispherical, scales ovate-acute ; the glande ovate and acute, about half immersed in the cup ; the conic summit short.
HAB. On the banks of the Rio del Norte, but not abundant. With the aspect of our northern oaks, but very distinct ; in the leaf approaching a little to L. obtusiloba, but without any near affinity. [The Rio del Norte is now called the Rio Grande. – Ed.]

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

The collections around Golden may be the northernmost occurrences along the Front Range. Gambel oak has been collected in the vicinity of Boulder, though Weber & Wittmann (2012) note that they were planted.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ulmus americana;  

Ulmus americana L. “American Elm”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ulmus parvifolia;  

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. “Chinese Elm”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ulmus pumila;  

Ulmus pumila L. “Siberian Elm”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Celtis occidentalis;  

Celtis occidentalis L. “Western Hackberry”


Literature Cited:
- Gronovius, Jan Frederik, and John Clayton, 1738-1743.
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gron. virg., 1738;  

occidentalis. 3. CELTIS foliis oblique, ovatis ferratis acuminatis.
  Celtis procera, foliis ovato-lanceolatis ferratis fructu pullo. Gron. virg. 195
  Lotus arbor virginiana, fructu rubro. Raj. hift. 1917.
  Habitat in Virginia. ♃
  Folia tenera, ovato-lanceolata, parum pubefcentia; adulta latopovata, acuminata, acumine & bafi integerrima, ceteram ferrata nuda, nervofo-venofa, latere-poftico duplo minore. Maxime affinis primae.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Celtis reticulata;  

Celtis reticulata Torr. “Net-Leaved Hackberry”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, v. 2, p. 247) in his description of plants collected by Dr. Edwin James ...

Original Text
414. Celtis reticulata, folds lato-cordatis, subcoriaceis, subintegerrimis, obtusiusculis, basi inequalibus, supra papilloso-scaberrimis, subtus venis elevatis reticularis, pubescentibus ; pedunculis 1-floris.
Hab. Base of the Rocky Mountains.
Obs. A tall shrub. Branches compressed ; younger ones villous. Leaves about an inch and half long, obtuse, or a little acute, not acuminate, of a firm and almost coriaceous texture; margin with sometimes three or four serratures ; upper surface shining, but very scabrous ; beneath reticulated with prominent veins, pubescent and slightly scabrous ; petioles about three lines long. Fruit globose, solitary, on recurved pedicels one fourth of an inch in length.
This species is very distinct from C. occidentalis β. integrifolia of Nuttall.


Notes on Humulus L. “Hops”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 1028) ...

Original Text Translation and Comments
Lupulus. 1. HUMULUS. Hort. Cliff. 458. Fl. fuec. 818. Mat. med. 458. Dalib. parif. 301. Roy. lugdb. 222.
♀ Lupulus mas. Bauh. pin. 298.
  Lupulus falictarius Fuchf. hift. 124.
♂ Lupulus femina. Bauh. pin. 298. Cam. epit. 954.
Habitat in Europae fepibus & ad radices montium. ♃

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848a.  

Nuttall (1848, p. 23) proposed Humulus americanus in describing some collections by Gambel.

Original Text
H. * Americanus. Leaves 3 to 5-lobed, the upper sometimes entire; inner divisions lanceolate-acuminate, denticulate along the apex ; scales of the cone ovate, acute, the lower ones acuminate.
Hab. Throughout the United States in alluvial situations. I have also most luxuriant specimens from the borders of streams (Ojito de Navajo) in the Rocky Mountains, near the line of New Mexico, collected by Mr. Gambel.

Literature Cited:
- Nelson, Aven, and T. D. A. Cockerell, 1903.  

Nelson & Cockerell (1903, v. 16, p. 45) ...

Original Text
Humulus Lupulus neomexicanus, n. var.
Leaves divided or sometimes parted, the segments varying from broadly lanceolate to nearly linear, acuminate, freely sprinkled with resin particles on the lower face; fruiting bracts ovate-lanceolate, usually acuminate, finely pubescent.

The hop indigenous in New Mexico seems to possess these characters in variance with the usual and more widely distributed form and may probably best stand as a variety. The type of the variety is No. 14, T. D. A. Cockerell, Beulah, N. M. (Canadian Zone) August, 1902. It is also abundant on the Valle Ranch, Pecos, N. M., and was collected by Professor Wooton in the White Mountains of that State (No. 294).

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1917.  

Rydberg (1917) Flora of the Rocky Mountains …

2. HUMULUS L. Hops.
Perennial, twining herbaceous vines. Leaves opposite, 3-7-lobed, serrate. Stipule persistent, free. Staminate flowers in panicled racemes; sepals 5, imbricate; stamens 5; filaments short, erect. Pistillate flowers in ament-like, drooping spikes, 2 together, subtended by a bract; ovary 1-celled. Achenes a little flattened. Embryo spirally coiled.
Leaf-blades 3-7-lobed about half-way to the base, with ovate, acute or short-acuminate lobes: those of the inflorescence 3-lobed or undivided. 1. H. Lupulus.
Leaf-blades 5-7-divided to near the base, with lanceolate, long-acuminate divisions ; those of the inflorescence 5-cleft. 2. H. neomexicanus.
1. H. Lupulus L. A vine 5-10 m. high; leaf-blades cordate in outline, dark green, scabrous above, glabrous beneath except the pubescent veins; lobes coarsely toothed, with ovate teeth; bracts of the pistillate flowers broadly ovate, from obtuse to short acuminate. Common Hops. Rocky banks and copses: N.S. — Ga. — Kans. — Wyo. — Mont.; Eurasia; extensively cultivated. Plain — Submont.
2. H. neomexicanus (A. Nels. & Cockerell) Rydb. A vine 5-10 m. high; leaf-blades light green, minutely scabrous above, nearly glabrous beneath; bracts of the pistillate flowers narrower, lanceolate or ovate, acute or acuminate. H. Lupulus neomexicanus A. Nels. & Cockerell. Wild Hops. Among bushes: Wyo. — Utah — Ariz. — -N.M. Plain — Submont. Jl-Au.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd edition) ...

2 Humulus L. HOP
Perennial twining vines; stems and petioles retrorsely prickly (though weak); leaves opposite, palmately lobed; staminate flowers in loose panicles; pistillate flowers 2 together under a large persistent bract which with the others at maturity forms a large conelike “hop.”
1. Humulus americanus Nutt., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil. ser. 2. 1:181. 1847.
H. lupulus var. neomexicanus Nels. & Ckll.; H. neomexicanus (A. Nels. & Ckll.) Rydb. — Vines 5-10 m. long; leaf blades 3- to 7-divided or parted usually over ½ way to base. with 3 main lobes, the divisions lanceolate or narrow, terminal one narrower at base than at middle, over twice as long as wide, acuminate or narrowly acute, somewhat scabrous above, lower surface usually copiously glandular, lobes of leaves serrate, petiole about as long or shorter than the blades, rough; bracts of pistillate flowers ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate. Our plants have rather variable leaves, some with few obtuse shallow lobes resembling the cultivated species, varying to the typical native form described above. It has been suggested that hybridization may be responsible for this variation. — Usually among bushes. Wyoming to Utah, south to New Mexico and Arizona. Our records scattered over the mountainous part of Colorado at 4000-9000 feet.

Literature Cited:
- Small, Ernest, 1978.  

Small (1978, ____) published H lupulus var. lupuloides. A numerical and nomenclatural analysis of morpho-geographic taxa of Humulus. — behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Small Ernest, 1980.  

The relationships of hop cultivars and wild variants of Humulus lupulus

Literature Cited:
- Löve, Áskell, 1982a.  

Löve (1982, p. ___) published H. lupulus subsp. americanus (Nutt.) Á.Löve & D.Löve. — behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Small, Ernest, 1993+.  

Key in FNANM

1 Leaf blades usually with fewer than 20 hairs per cm on length of midrib, fewer than 25 glands per 10 sq. mm between veins; nodes relatively limited in pubescence, usually fewer than 15 hairs per 0.1 sq. mm at most pubescent portion (excluding angle of petiole with stem). Humulus lupulus var. lupulus
1 Leaf blades usually with more than 20 hairs per cm on length of midrib, more than 25 glands per 10 sq. mm between veins; nodes relatively pubescent, usually more than 15 hairs per 0.1 sq. mm at most pubescent portion (excluding angle of petiole with stem). > 2
2 Leaf blades 10 cm or more usually having at least 5 lobes; smaller blades (ca. 5 cm) usually with more than 3 easily visible veins branching off midrib (excluding proximal branches). Humulus lupulus var. neomexicanus
2 Leaf blades 10 cm or more usually having fewer than 5 lobes; smaller blades (ca. 5 cm) often with no more than 3 easily visible veins branching off midrib (excluding proximal branches). > 3
3 Leaf blades conspicuously pubescent abaxially, more than 100 hairs per cm on length of medial midrib, hairs present between veins. Humulus lupulus var. pubescens
3 Leaf blades not conspicuously pubescent abaxially, usually fewer than 100 hairs per cm on length of medial midrib, hairs usually absent between veins. Humulus lupulus var. lupuloides

Literature Cited:
- Murakami, Atsushi, Branka Javornik, Paige Darby, and Maria Pais, 2006.  

Molecular phylogeny of wild Hops, Humulus lupulus L.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) refer our local “hops” to Humulus lupulus var. neomexicanus Nelson & Cockerell.

HUMULUS L. 1753 [late Latin name of Teutonic origin]. Hops.
One species, H. lupulus var. neomexicanus Nelson & Cockerell [Lupulus, an early generic name.] 20B> This is a distinctly native race of the species, having been found fossilized in the upper Eocene formation at Florissant. Bases of talus slopes. The hops of commerce is a European form. (H. lupulus subsp. americanus apparently refers to an eastern North American race.)

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield, 2015, pp. 263 ...

Twinning vines; leaves, simple, palmately lobed; Pistillate flowers in pairs, each pair subtended by a large, foliaceous bract, these imbricate in short spikes or drooping racemes; fruit an achene enclosed within a persistent bract.
Humulus neomexicanus (A. Nelson & Cockerell) Rydb. New Mexican hop. Vines with scabrous stems; leaves 5-15 cm ;ong, hirsute, with serrate margins; staminate flowers on pedicels 0.5-3.5 mm long, with sepals 1.5-3 mm long; pistillate flowers subtended by ovate, papery (at maturity) bracts 7-20 mm long; achenes 203 mm long smooth. Cool, moist, shaded canyons, rocky outcrops, 4800-8500 ft. June-Aug. E/W.

Literature Cited:
- Tembrock, L. R., J. M. McAteer, & T. M. Gilligan, 2016.  

Tembrock, et al., 2016, p. 19 ...

Key to the Native and Naturalized Species of Humulus
1. Petiole as long as or longer than lamina of leaf; pubescence on the abaxial side of the leaf midrib consisting of stiff spinulose trichomes ... *H. scandens
1. Petiole shorter than lamina of the leaf; pubescence on the abaxial side of leaf veins made up of soft silvery trichomes.
2. Glands on the abaxial leaf surface with fewer than 20 glands per cm2; 15 to 25 hairs per linear cm on the abaxial surface of the leaf midrib; nodes weakly pubescent ... *H. lupulus
2. Glands on abaxial leaf surface greater than 25 glands per cm2; 30 to 50+ hairs per linear cm on the abaxial surface of the leaf midrib; nodes with dense silvery pubescence.
3. Most leaves possess 5 or more lobes; glands on abaxial leaf surface in excess of 30 per cm2 ... H. neomexicanus
3. Most leaves possess 3 lobes or remain unlobed and cordate, rarely leaves of 4 lobes are found; glands on abaxial leaf surface fewer than 30 per cm2.
4. Abaxial surface of leaf midrib with more than 100 hairs per linear cm, these hairs spreading and silvery, abaxial surface of leaf evidently pubescent between veins ... H. pubescens
4. Abaxial surface of leaf midrib with 20 to 75 hairs per linear cm; these hairs closely appressed to the midrib, abaxial surface of leaf sparsely pubescent or glabrous between veins ... H. lupuloides
* Introduced species are indicated with an asterisk.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2022.  

Ackerfield, 2022, pp. 282-283 ...

Twinning vines; leaves, simple, palmately lobed; Pistillate flowers in pairs, each pair subtended by a large, foliaceous bract, these imbricate in short spikes or drooping racemes; fruit an achene enclosed within a persistent bract. (Tembrock et al., 2016)
Humulus neomexicanus (A. Nelson & Cockerell) Rydb. New Mexican hop. [Humulus lupulus L. var. neomexicanus A. Nelson & Cockerell] Vines with scabrous stems; leaves 5-15 cm ;ong, hirsute, with serrate margins; staminate flowers on pedicels 0.5-3.5 mm long, with sepals 1.5-3 mm long; pistillate flowers subtended by ovate, papery (at maturity) bracts 7-20 mm long; achenes 203 mm long smooth. Cool, moist, shaded canyons, rocky outcrops, 4800-8500 ft. June-Aug.

Literature Cited:
- SEINet, 2019+.
Full Size ImageNames applied to Colorado collections Humulus sp.  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Humulus lupulus;  

Humulus lupulus L. “Wild Hops”

See the section above “Notes on Humulus sp.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Humulus neomexicana;  

Humulus neomexicana (A. Nelson & Cockerell) Rydb. “New Mexican Hops”

See the section above “Notes on Humulus sp.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Parietaria pensylvanica;  

Parietaria pensylvanica Willd. “Pennsylvania Pellitory”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis;  

Urtica dioica L. ssp. gracilis (Aiton) Seland. “Stinging Nettle”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Arceuthobium vaginatum var. cryptopodium;  

Arceuthobium vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl var. cryptopodium (Engelm.) Cronquist “Pineland Dwarf Mistletoe”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1850.  

Gray (1850, v. 6, p. 214) includes a long communication from George Engelmann regarding the mistletoes.

“4. A. cryptopodum (n. sp.) : caule ramisque acute quadrangulatis robustis articulis brevioribus ; squamis truncatis in vaginulas cupulatas connatis ; floribus in spicas densas compositas, foemineis ovatis in quavis axilla singulis ; baccis brevissime incluso-pedicellatis erectis. — Santa Fe, only on Pinus brachyptera, A. Fendler, No. 283. — Hooker's A. Oxycedri from the Hudson Bay country appears to belong here : the figure shows at least subsessile, erect fruits ; but the segments of the male flowers are broadly oval, whilte those of the New Mexican plant are lanceolate.” G. Engelmann.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Comandra umbellata ssp. pallida;  

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl. “Pale Bastard Toadflax”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753) first described Comandra umbellata from plants collected in Virginia and Pennsylvania.

Original Text Comments
umbellatum THESIUM floribus umbellatis, foliis oblongis.
Centaurium luteum afcyroides virginianum. Plnk. mant. 43. t. 342. f. 1.
Habitat in Virginiae, Penfylvaniae pafcuis ficcis Kalm.
Radix . Folia alterna, ovali-lanceolata, integerrima. Rami alterni, in fummitate caulis: Umbellulae terminales: involucro tetraphyllo, parvo: Flofculi 5.
“Kalm Petr. Plante canadenfes propediem edendae.” Although, I think his first name was actually “Pehr” and that his name is the source of the genus Kalmia.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) defined a new genus, Comandra, and places the North American Thesium into it. Nuttall also suggests that some of Linnaeus' eastern hemisphere Thesium might belong in Comandra. The genus Thesium L. remains accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, South America and Asia-Temperate.

Original Text Comments
233. *COMANDRA.† Thesium. L. Calix angular, tubular-campanulate, coalescing with an internal 5-toothed, glandulous disk. Petals 5, ovate, ingrafted upon the margin of the calix, persistent. Anthers attached to the petals by a tuft of filaments! Germ 3-seeded, immersed in the glandulous disk. Capsule valveless, 1-seeded, coated by the base of the calix.
Perennial, root ligneous, stem herbaceous; leaves simple, alternate, stipules none; radical gemmaceous scales numerous, persistent; flowers in a corymbulose terminal panicle.
Species. 1. C. umbellata
Thesium umbellatum. Linn. Willd. Sp. Plant.
Stem round and erect, sending out 2 or 3 infertile beanches below the panicle. Leaves approximating, erect, oblong-ovate, obtuse, smooth, reflected in the margin, and reticulately veined. Panicle short, ramuli axillary, corymbulose, corymbs about 5-flowered, with 4 involucrate bractes, uppermost peduncles fewer flowered. Calix uniting with the glandulous and nectariferous germinal disk; disk 5-toothed, obtuse. Petals 5, calycine, often 4 and 6, with the same number of stamina, ovate, acute, persistent, growing to the margin of the calix, white, internally villous (Seen through a lens), before expansion parallel. Stamina seated at the base of the petals, alternating with the dentures of the glandulous disk; filaments subulate, about half the length of the petals; anthers oval, 2-celled, connected at their summits to the petals near their base by a fascicle of yellow filaments — Style terete, simple; stigma round, entire; germ about 3-seeded, ovula pendulous, attached to the apex of a filiform contractile funiculus arising from the base of the capsule. Capsule nearly globular, and angular, 1-seeded, not opening, thin and brittle, not osseus, coated by the base of the calix. Seed round, about the size of a small pea, consisting almost entirely of a large carnose and oily perisperm, embryon inverted, small flat, nearly in the axis of the perisperm; radicle superior, thick and obtuse; cotyledons linear and acute.
Obs. The connecting fibres of the petals, appear to be a separation of a portion of the central vessels, for at that point the petal is greenish and callous, and the central nerves there commencing trichotomously, disappear above the connectile fibres, and the rest of the petal is then white.
This plant has some relation to the preceding, and they both appertain to the Natural Order Santalaceae of R. Brown, approaching at the same time very nearly to the Rhamnei of Jussieu. The genus here proposed may probably include some of the species of Thesium indigenous to the Cape of Good Hope.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.
- Wikipedia contributors, 2020.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Nothocalais cuspidata, Gray, 1884;
• Glossary:  Suffrutex;
• U. S. Highway 95:   in Lapwai;

Locations: Lapwai.  

DeCandolle (1857) proposed C. pallida from a collection in Oregon Territory.

Original Text Comments
3. C. pallida, foliis lividis inferioribus elliptico-oblongis acutis supremis lineari-acuminatis, lobis perigonii erecto-patentibus. Suffrutex Prope Clear Water, Oregon (Rev. Spalding ! Sub nom. Erroneo C. livide Hook. In h. meo et Boiss.). Caules semipedales, sublignosi, striati, erecti, apice solum ramosi. Folia non pellucida, ima squamaeformia, late ovata, 2 lin. Loga ; media 8-10 lin. Longa, 2-3 lin. Lata, mucronata-acuta, summa variabilia, pleraque 1-2 lin. Solum lata et 5-7 lin. Longa, quaedam latiora vel angustiora breviora. Cymae pauciflorae. Bracteae lineari-lanceolatae, 2 lin. Longae. Pedicelli graciles, lineam longi. Flos ut in C. umbellata, sed lobi magis papilloso-velutini praesertum ad marginem et intus. Differt a C. umbellata praecipue foliis angustis elongatis ramorum non florentium. (v. s.) I assume “Rev. Spalding” was Henry H. Spalding who travelled the Oregon Trail in 1836 and established a mission to the Nez Perce at Lapwai near present-day Lewiston, Idaho. Present-day Lapwai is several miles south of the Clearwater River, just up-river from Lewiston.

“The name C. livide Hook. is erroneous.” This refers to the currently named Geocaulon lividum (Richardson) Fernald.

“In my herbarium and that of Bossier.” The type is now at G: Conservatoire & Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Piehl (1965) states there is a photograph of this type at MICH, but I have been unable to find it online.

β. angustifolia, foliis mediis et superioribus omnibus lineari-acutis. Suffrutex In Novo Mexico (Wright ! N. 1783 in h. Boiss.). Folia ima ut in specimine oregonensi. (v. s.)  

Another first collection by Spalding was Nothocalais troximonoides.

Literature Cited:
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.  

Oliphant (1934) published a paper on the botanical labors of the Reverend Henry H. Spalding. Spalding collected for one year and sent one box of dried plants east. He was apparently stimulated to this activity by contact with Charles A. Geyer, a German botanist, who was in Oregon Country in 1843-44. Spalding sent one box in 1846, which was received in Boston in 1848. By the time that Gray's encouragement for Spalding to continue collecting was sent to him in March 13, 1849, a massacre at Waiilatpu had sent Spalding and others fleeing to Lower Oregon ending his botanical career.

I don't know how Spalding's collections ended up in DeCandolle's herbarium, and why it was he and not Asa Gray who published Spalding's Comandra collections.

Literature Cited:
- Piehl, Martin A., 1965.  


Literature Cited:
- Piehl, Martin A., 1965.  

Piehl (1965) wrote a natural history and taxonomy of Comandra. It is almost a monograph, but I don't think we do monographs about single species.

Original Text Comments
The name Comandra is from the Greek Kome (hair) and aner (man), alluding to the hairs superficially attached to the anthers, which actually are not staminal, but develop from the base of the sepals … … The name has frequently been misspelled “Commandra.”  
4. Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Subsp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl, comb. nov.

Comandra pallida A. DC., in DC. Prodr. 14:636-37. 1857
Comandra pallida β angustifolia A. DC., in DC. Prodr 14:637. 1857. Isotypes: New Mexico, in 1851-52, C. Wright 1783 (GH!, NY!).
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. angustifolia (A. DC.) Torr. Rept. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. (Bot.) 2 (Part 1): 185. 1859.
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. pallida (A. DC.) M. E. Jones, Proc. Calif. Acad., Ser. 2, 5:722. 1895.
Comandra linearis Rydb., Fl. Rocky Mts. 818, 1066. 1917. Holotype: Green River, Utah, 19 Aug. 1887, S. M. Tracy and Evans 716 (NY!).

Holotype: Clear Water, Oregon (now Idaho), s.d., Rev. Spalding s.n. (G!; photograph 1454 (MICH)) ; two probable isotypes (GH!). Another specimen labeled “plains — Oregon, May 7,” (GH!) could also be type material.  
… subsp. pallida intergrades with both subsp. californica and subsp. umbellata … is also quite variable, but more of the vaiation appears to be correlated with various habitats … contracts with the other species in that it characteristically sprouts from buds which are at or below the soil surface … the aerial part of the plant dying each season ….  
Selected Specimens Examined. COLORADO. Denver Co.: hilltops, Clear Creek near Denver, Clokey & Bethel 3260 (CAS, GH). Collection date: 8 June 1919, also at RM; Piehl does not cite any specimens from RM.

Literature Cited:
- Der, Joshua P., and Daniel L. Nickrent, 2008.  

Der and Nickrent (2008) … phylogenetic analysis supports a Comandra clade consisting of Comandra and Geocaulon lividum, i.e., the C. livide rejected by DeCandolle. Their work also supports a Thesium clade distinct from a Comandra clade.


Eriogonum Michx. “Hairy Plant”


Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Michaux (1803, Vol. 1, pg. 246) published the first Eriogonum meaning “hairy plant.”

Original Text Comments
  Εριον, lana, Γονυ, genu : planta lanata , geniculata.  
  Caulis herbaceus , dichotomus. Folia terna , verticillata , sessilia , basi subcommata. Flores singulorum fasciculorum e communi involucro subcampanulato erumpentes.  
  Cal. subcampanulatus, 6-partitus : laciniis ovalibus , obtusis ; tribus interioribus paulo majoribus.  
  Stam. 9 : filamenta capillaria , calyce paulo longiora : antheræ breves , ovate.  
  Pist. ovarium 3-quetrum : stylus brevissimus : stigmata 3 , longiora , subfiliformia.  
  Fruct. semem calyce tectum , acute triquetrum , apterum.  
  Obs. Genus inter Polygoneas defectu vaginæ stipularis insolitum.

tab. 24.
E. erectum ; partibus omnibus tomentosis : foliis ternis, cuneato-obovalibus.  
  Obs. Flores candicantes.
Hab. in aridissimis , pinetis Carolinæ et Georgiæ.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, J. L., 2005.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum subgroup Eucycla;  Notes on Eriogonum subgroup Oligogonum;  Notes on Eriogonum subgroup Pterogonum;  

Subgroups of Eriogonum as described by Reveal (2005) in his treatment of the genus in Flora of North America.

  • Eriogonum
  • Oligogonum
  • Ganysma
  • Oregonium
  • Eucycla
  • Micrantha
  • Clastomyelon
  • Pterogonum

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum alatum;  Notes on Eriogonum arcuatum;  Notes on Eriogonum effusum;  Notes on Eriogonum umbellatum;  

Those that have been collected in Golden are found in three of the subgroups:

  • Oligogonum Nutt.
    • E. arcuatum Greene. Baker's Buckwheat.
    • E. umbellatum Torrey. Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat.
  • Eucycla Nutt.
    • E. effusum Nutt. Spreading Buckwheat.
  • Pterogonum H. Gross
    • E. alatum Torrey. Winged Buckwheat.

Two other wild buckwheats that are often of interest are both in subgroup Oligogonum Nutt.:

  • E. flavum Nutt. Golden Buckwheat.
  • E. jamesii Benth. James' Buckwheat.
Both of these are known from Jefferson County though not from Golden s.l.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Eucycla Nutt.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  

Nuttall (1848b, p. 166) published Eucycla as a genus name for wild buckwheats he had collected, probably on his 1834 expedition to Oregon Territory.

Original Text Comments
Perianth membranaceous, coloured, petaloid, dimorphous, the three outer divisions orbicular, concave; the three inner linear-oblong, emarginate, connivent into a cylinder. Stamens nine; with short filaments, membranous at base. Styles three, of moderate length, with small, capitate stigmas. Achenium attenuated, triangular. Embryo excentric ; radicle superior ; cotyledons flat.  
E. *ovalifolia. — Leaves all redical, short and roundish-ovate, whitely tomentose; capitulum made up of several sessile, whitely tomentose involucres; outer segments of the yellow perianth rather narrower at base, the inner emarginate segments exserted.
Eriogonum ovalifolium. Nutt. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.
Hab. Sources of the Missouri. Flowers bright yellow.
Eriogonum ovalifolium Nutt. is an accepted name, common in south and east California.
E. *purpurea. Leaves all radical, short and roundish-ovate, whitely tomentose; capitulum made up of several sessile, smoothish, tomentosely margined involucres; outer segments of the purple perianth orbicular, sometimes emarginate at base; the inner emarginate, narrow, segments scarcely exserted.
Scape about a span high, arising from a multifid woody caudex; flower larger than in the preceding, and purple; filaments much shorter than the perianth, with a torn membranous margin, at base three stamens seated on each of the inner narow segments; embryo rather short.
Hab. Rocky Mountains.
This is a synonym of Eriogonum ovalifolium var. purpureum (Nutt.) Durand
† In reference to the circular figure of the perianth.  

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 2005.  

The characters of subgroup Eucycla are primarily: perennial, stems not jointed, flowers without a stipe-like base.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum effusum;  

The one representative of subgroup Eucycla that is found in Golden s.l. is E. effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat.”

Other wild buckwheats in subgroup Eucycla in the author's experience are E. microthecum Nutt. “Slender Buckwheat” from the Mono Lake Basin and E. wrightii Torr. ex Benth. “Bastardsage” from the eastern Mojave Desert. All three of these wild buckwheats are very similar appearing.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Oligogonum Nutt.

Nuttall (1848b, p. 165) discusses the differences between E. tomentosum on which Michaux (1803) founded the genus Eriogonum, noting some key differences and proposing a subgenus Oligogonum which contains some of our more common wild Buckwheats.

Original Text Comments
The character of the genus Eriogonum, of which there are so many species, perhaps deserves some additional consideration. The genus, as founded on E. tomentosum of Michaux, possesses yet some peculiarities not common to the rest of the genus; among the rest of its characters I may remark, that in place of the interior segments of the perianth being smaller, it is the reverse; the perianth increases in size with the perfecting of the fruit, and as in Rumex, the three inner segments are larger and erect, the three outer reflected ; the next discrepancy in the character, as given by authors, is in the condition of the embryo, which is placed in the centre of axis of the seed, and is not as described excentric.  
In E. longifolium, besides a remarkable difference in habit, the perianth is wholly herbaceous, very lanugunous, and the segments all so very equal, as to appear, at length, almost disposed in a simple series; the achenium is also lanuginous, and the seed presents, as in E. tomentosum, a concentric embryo. For E. longifolium I would therefore propose the name of Trachytheca, excluding every other species. It is the first species of the section Eriantha of Bentham, which name, in not being exclusive, and too near Erianthus, cannot properly be employed for the present plant. It is very peculiar in its solitary leaves and alternate beanches.  
In all the rest of this numerous genus, the outer segments of the perianth, which increase a little in size, are either larger and erect, or all nearly equal. In these, some of which have the embryo excentric and others concentric, the subgeneric name of Olygogonum may be applied, but whether any other subdivision may be made by the condition of the embryo is at present uncertain. In E. flavum, I believe the embruo is excentric, but how far that species connects itself to any others of similar form, remains to be examined. Olygogonum has become Oligogonum and is now the name of an Eriogonum subgroup that contains E. arcuatum, E. flavum, and E. umbellatum.

Oligogonum is the larger of the subgroups and contains many of the caespitose or mat-forming perennials, those with a stipe-like base on the flowers.


Literature Cited:
- Gross-Konigsberg, Hugo, 1913.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Eriogonum, Reveal, 2005;  

Eriogonum subgroup Pterogonum Gross

Gross (1913, vol. 49, pg. 239, footnote 1) in his “Contributions to the knowledge of the Polygonaceae” proposed Pterogonum for some Eriogoneae but I cannot read the original German well enough to understand the basis for segregation from the remainder of Eriogoneae.

Original Text Comments
1) Pterogonum H. Gross nov. gen. Eriogonearum. Involucrum pluriflorum, gamophyllum, ± campanulatum, 5-dentatum. Perigonium profunde 6-partitum, tepalis ternis in 2 cyclis dispositis. Stamina 9. Ovarium trigonum, 1-loculare, ovula unico basilari orthotropo, stylis 3 capitato-stigmatosis. Achaenium maturum perigono longius, trialatum. — Herbae perennes Eriogonis simillimae, indumento subsericeo. Folia radicalia, caulina pauca, altrerna. Rami floriferi apice caulis in di-usque pleiochasium conferti nonnumquam etiam racemosi. Embryo fere rectus v. subexcentricus, cotyledonibus sat amplis.  
Species adhuc certae: Pterogonum alatum (Torr. sub Eriogono) Gross, P. atrorubens (Engelm. sub. Erigono) Gross, P. hieracifolium (Bth. sub. Eriogono) Gross.  

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, J. L., 2005.  

Reveal (2005) places six North American taxa in subgroup Pterogonum of which only one, E. alatum occurs in Colorado.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum alatum;  Notes on Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  

Eriogonum alatum Torr. “Winged Buckwheat”


Literature Cited:
- Fremont, John C., 1845.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fremont, 1845, publication details;  

No mention of Eriogonum alatum in the report of Frémont's 1842 and 1843-'44 expeditions, though Torrey (1853) notes they were aware of it.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1852-1853, Plantæ Wrightianæ;  

No mention of Eriogonum alatum in Gray's (1852) account of Wright's collections in Texas and New Mexico in 1849. In fact, there are no Polygonaceae in either part of Gray's account, although DeCandolle (1857) will say he has seen a collection of Eriogonum alatum by Wright. Gray's preface notes that the cacti were given to George Engelmann, of St. Louis, for examination. The seeds were divided between the Botanic Garden of Harvard University, under Gray's charge, and the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, under the direction of Sir Wm. Hooker. Sets of plants were distributed to Gray's herbarium, the Smithsonian Institution, John A. Lowell, a patron of the Wright's explorations, with a few distributions to others. If one assumes that Wright collected any Polygonaceae, what happened to them?

Literature Cited:
- Sitgreaves, L., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sitgreaves, 1853, publication details;  

Dr. John Torrey wrote the Botany chapter of the Sitgreaves Report on the expedition Sitgreaves led down the Zuni and Colorado Rivers in 1851.

Original Text Comments
E. alatum. (Torr., l. c.;) perenne ; caule erecto subflexuoso folioso, ramis alternis erectis paniculatis ; foliis spathulatis hirsutis ; pedunculis terminalibus ternis ; involucris solitariis campanulatis 5-fidis ; perigoniis glabris, laciniis aequalibus ; acheniis trialatis.

On the Zuñi river; September. Root stout and blackish, descending to a great depth ; stem 1--3 feet high, arising from a short thick caudex, which is clothed with the remains of leaves. Radical leaves 2--4 inches long, and 3--5 lines wide, almost villous, with long hairs, mostly obtuse ; stem leaves much smaller, and gradually diminishing in size upward, all of them erect. Branches solitary and distant, subdivided in a trichotomous manner, each division bearing a single involucre, which is about 2½ lines long, and pubescent. Pedicels glabrous, a little exserted, jointed close to the flower ; perigonium not enlarging after flowering ; the segments lanceolate ; filaments glabrous ; ovary oblong, triquetrous, longer than the styles ; achenium nearly four lines long, with three very conspicuous membranaceous wings ; seed ovate, triangular ; embryo straight.

Torrey's “l. c.” refers to the second previous entry, i.e., that for Eriogonum orthocladon for which the citation is “(Torr. mss., in D. C. Prodr. ined.:).” I interpret this as “I, Torrey, described this in a manuscript I gave to DeCandolle for his use in his Prodromo.” As it happens, though, Torrey's account in the Sitgreaves Report was published in 1853, four years before DeCandolle's Prodromo volume 14 containing Torrey's manuscript description.
This remarkable species was first detected by Colonel Frémont in upland prairies, at the sources of the Plata, in 1843, and again in 1845 in “Bahia Salada,” in the Rocky mountains. Lieutenant Abert found it on the Raton mountains in 1846.  

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  DeCandolle, 1857, publication details;  

DeCandolle (1857, vol. 14., p. 6) …

Original Text Comments
2. E. alatum (Torr.! in Frémont Rep.), herbaceum, elatum, subsericeo-villosum, foliis subradicalibus petiolatis oblongis lanceolatisve elongatis, caulinis paucis, pedrunculis axillaribus terminalibusque apice 2-3-chotomis umbellatisve, involucris pedicellatis campanulatis 5-dentatis, perigoniis parvis glabris, achaenio 3-4-plo longiore a basi trialato. ♃ In montibus Scopulosis in regione superiore fl. Platte meridionalis et Bahia Salada (Frémont !), in Novo-Mexico (Abert! Fendler ! n. 763 , Wright !). Habitus fere E. hieracifolii, sed præter corymbum terminalem adsunt etiam peduncili breves laterales. Perigonia multo minora, sub anthesi vix lineam longa, nec multum sub fructu aucta. Achænium 3-4 lin. longum, a basi as apicem late trialatum. (v. s.)  
β elatum. caule sub-3-pedali, foliis radicalibus 6-8 poll. longis. In montibus Scopulosis inter fl. Platte et Sweetwater (Geyer! n. 145). — Journ. 1853, p. 263.  

DeCandolle notes that he has seen Fendler's No. 763 and agrees it is E. alatum. Fendler's collections went to Gray, who in his Plantae Fendlerinae make no mention of it, or any other Polygonaceae. There are two vouchers of Fendler's 763, one at Harvard University (GH) and one at Brown University (BRU). The locality of both vouchers states “2 mi east of the Moro River,” which river does not now exist in New Mexico. However, there is a Mora River that is crossed by the Santa Fe Trail and given the August date of the GH voucher, it is likely that Fendler collected it on his way home. What I don't understand is why Torrey did not publish the name from Fendler's collection, but instead published the name from the Woodhouse collection on the Sitgreaves Expedition of 1851.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum arcuatum;  Notes on Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1401.1, 8 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 1695, 29 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1401.1, Eriogonum arcuatum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1695, Eriogonum arcuatum  

Eriogonum arcuatum Greene. “Baker's Buckwheat”


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.

Locations: Pagosa Springs.  

Greene (1901, v. 4., part 25, p. 319) described E. arcuatum from a collection on hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Colorado by C. F. Baker.

Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum. Near E. flavum, about as large, more extensively caespitose, forming broad matted tufts : leaves oval, obtuse, an inch long or less, abruptly tapering to a rather slender petiole about as long, white-tomentose beneath, pale-green and thinly tomentellous above : scapiform peduncles 6 inches high, bearing a single large sessile involucre and a pair of long-peduncled ones arising from its base, these opposite each other and curving upwards to the length of 1½ to 2 inches : perianths yellow, very sparsely silky-villous : stamens long-exserted.
On hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Colorado, 17 July, 1899. C. F. Baker.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.  

Six weeks later, Greene (1901a) published Eriogonum bakeri.

Original Text
Eriogonum Bakeri. Allied to E. flavum, rahter taller, the branches of the caudex very slender and only loosely leafy, the leaves thin, the elliptic-lanceolate blades 1/2 to 1 inch long, on slender petioles much longer, white-tomentose beneath, sparsely villous above: scapiform peduncles 5 to 8 inches high, erect slender; inflorescence of a sessile involucre and 1 to 3 dichotomous peduncles from its base, the whole number of involucres thus 7 to 9, all turbinate: perianths yellow, small very long-stipitate, silky villous, the inner segments much longer than the outer, all obovate, obtuse.
Black Cañon, 1 Aug., n. 696. Said to be caespitose in rather small tufts. The inflorescence is like that of E. Jamesii, though far less ample; and the real affinity is with E. flavum.

We now treat E. bakeri as a synonym of E. arcuatum.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004a.  

Reveal (2004a, p. 157) reviewed all the available names in the subfamily Eriogonoideae in preparation for his contribution to FNANM. Reproduced below are his analyses of E. arcuatum and E. flavum.

Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum Greene, Pittonia 4: 319. 1901. – T.: Hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Archuleta Co., Colorado, 17 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 284. Holotype: NDG (sheet number 118); isotypes: B, BM, E, F, G, GH, K, MO, NDG, NMC, NY, P, POM, RM(2), UC, US. – E. jamesii Benth. Var. arcuatum (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936.  
Eriogonum bakeri Greene, Pl. Baker. 3: 15. 1901. – T.: Black Canyon, Montrose Co., Colorado, 1 Aug 1901, C. F. Baker 696. Holotype: NDG; isotypes: E, G, GH, K, LY, MIN, MO, NY, POM, RM(2), UC, US, VT, W. – E. jamesii Benth. Subsp. bakeri (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936. Elsewhere, Reveal noted that Greene published E. bakeri six weeks after E. arcuatum.
Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana: [2,] no. 34. 1813. – T.: Variously stated as “in the vicinity of the rocky mountains” or “from the Arikare village,” most likely found in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – A Nuttall sheet at PH with a label alluding to the Rocky Mountains was collected in 1834 and is not original material.  
Reveal lists eight synonyms of E. flavum, two of which are particularly interesting.  
Eriogonum laterifolium Raf. New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 53. 1838. – LT.: Upper Missouri River, probably in South Dakota, Jun 1811, J. Bradbury s.n. Lectotype: BM, designated here; isolectotype: LINN.

The original collection in Rafinesque's possession was probably destroyed, not found at P or PH.

This is one of the few published names I have seen that specifically refer to a Bradbury collection.
Eriogonum sericeum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2:277. 1813. – T.: “On the prairies of the Missouri [River',” probably in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – E. flavum Nutt. Var. sericeum S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 116. 1936. I assume this was Pursh's view of the same collection that Nuttall published as E. flavum.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- SEINet, 2019+.  

The treatment of subfamily Eriogonoideae in Flora of North America was written by Jim Reveal. Eriogonum arcuatum, E. flavum, and E. jamesii are all in subgroup Oligogonum, and couplet 20 separates E. arcuatum and E. flavum. (I might add that the original online key contains an HTML coding error that will throw you off, and has been corrected below. To date, 22 Oct 2022, this HTML coding error has been propagated to the beta version of FNANM.)

Original Text
22 (21) Inflorescences compound-umbellate or, if umbellate or capitate, not of distribution of E. flavum; Colorado Plateau, s Rocky Mountains and w edge of Great Plains from s Wyoming to n Arizona and n New Mexico   129. Eriogonum arcuatum
+ Inflorescences subcapitate or umbellate; n Great Plains and n Rocky Mountains, Wyoming and Nebraska north to Canada and Alaska, west to e Oregon and Washington   133. Eriogonum flavum

The way I read this key, E. arcuatum and E. flavum should not be sympatric. Yet the map of collections determined one of the two taxa in Colorado are definitely geographically intermixed (SEINet, 2020). Similarly, the distribution maps in Ackerfield (2015) show the distributions of the two taxa are quite similar.

Full Size Image
Map of collections determined one of the two taxa of Eriogonum in Colorado

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not distinquish between E. arcatum and E. flavum.

Original Text
7b. Flowers E. flavum (Nuttall) [yellow]. Plains to alpine. As we see it, this species consists of various distinctive local forms that probably evolved in isolation. Alpine plants tend to be of shorter stature, with congested umbels (E. arcuatum var. xanthum (Small) Reveal, E flavum subsp. chloranthum (Greene) Stokes). On the eastern plains the inflorescence varies from simple to compound umbels. In the foothills, taller forms have been called E. arcuatum Greene. One might be justified in considering the local races of no nomenclatural significance, and even treating E. jamesii as E. flavum subsp. jamesii.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) distinguishes between E. arcuatum and E. flavum on the basis of pedunculate involucres.

Original Text

4a. Involucres elevated on evident peduncles ... E. flavum var. flavum
4b. Involucres sessile or nearly so ... E. arcuatum


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum effusum;  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  Notes on Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  Notes on Eucycla, discussion.;  

Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848b.  

Nuttall (1848) described Eriogonum effusum in his description of plants collected by William Gambel. It is, however, a Nuttall collection made on the “… Platte plains …” and therefore on his 1834 journey across the Rocky Mountains. An isotype is at the Gray Herbarium (GH) and can be seen through SEINet.

Original Text Comments
E. *effusum. Suffruticose ; leaves linear, oblong, obtuse, beneath whitely tomentose, above pubescent, greenish ; stem tomentose, two or three times trichotomous, divaricate ; bractes ternate, lanceolate-acute ; (flowers not seen.)  
Stem divided into many simple branches below ; flowering stem bearing bractes only, divided compoundly and numerourly, each division subtended by conspicuous trifid bractes.  
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains. (Nuttall.) I assume that “Nuttall” indicates this is a Nuttall collection rather than a Gambel collections.

In this same volume, Nuttall also published Eucycla as a generic name for the wild buckwheat we now call Eriogonum ovalifolium. This name has now become a subgroup name for wild buckwheats that are perennial, without jointed stems, and flowers without a stipe-like base.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum umbellatum;  Notes on Eriogonum in Golden s.l.;  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torrey, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York. 2: 241. 1827. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.

Original Text Comments
391. R. umbellatum, caule nudo, simplici ; pedunculis elongatis (sub-senis) umbellatis, apice involucrum singulum gerentibus ; calycibus glabris ; laciniis obovatis, basi angustatis, obtusis ; foliis obovato-spathulatis, subtus lanuginosis, supra glabriusculis.  
Desc. Perennial, herbaceous, cespitose. Caudex divided at the base into several branches ; most of the branches short, bearing fasciculi of leaves at the extremity, one of them elongated and resembling a scape ; covered with a copious loose tomentum. Leaves obovate-spathulate, about an inch long, and less than an inch broad, white tomentose beneath, smoothish above. Flowering stem a span high, bearing a simple umbel at the extremity. Peduncles or rays an inch and a half long, wooly, thick, furnished with several oblong-lanceolate leaves at the base. Involucrum about 20-flowered, campanulate, with lanceolate obtuse teeth. Florets distinctly pedicellate. Calyx very smooth ; segments obovate-oblong, obtuse, narrowed at the base. Stamens 9. Seed acutely triangular.  
Hab. With the preceding. The preceding appears to be 390. E. tenellum which is also described as being “… with the preceding …” E. tenellum is known from southeastern Colorado. The next preceding is
389. E. annuum, n. sp. Nutt. Mss. Near the Rocky Mountains. Found also on the Arkansa by Mr. Nuttall. Root annual !
E. annuum is known from eastern Colorado, but not Jefferson County.
Obs. Flowers larger than in E. tomentosum. It is remarkable that Humboldt and Bonpland did not observer any species of Eriogonum in Mexico, as they abound, accoding to Dr. James, about the sources of the Canadian.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum;  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. ramulosum Reveal “Buffalo Bill's Sulphur Flower”


Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004.  

Reveal (2004) proposed variety ramulosum.

Original Text
Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. ramulosum Reveal, var. nov. TYPE: UNITED STATES. Colorado, Jefferson Co.: Along U. S. Hwy 6 adjacent to I-70, 0.4 mi E of Exit 256 to Buffalo Bill's Grave, N39°42'12", W105°14'32", T4S, R70W, sec. 18, 7100 ft elev., 25 Jul 1992, J. L. Reveal 7244. HOLOTYPE: NY. Isotypes: BY, CAS, COLO, GH, MARY, MO, RENO, RM, RSA, UC, US, UTC.
A Eriogono umbellato var. umbellato inflorescentibus divisis differt.
Plants low, often rather compact, mats 2-4 dm across; leaves in loose rosettes, the leaf-blades mostly elliptic to oval, 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm side, densely white to gray tomentose abaxially, floccose and green adaxially; flowering stems erect, mostly 1-3 dm long, floccose; inflorescences compound umbellate and divided 2-3 times; involucral tubes 2-3 mm long, the lobes 1.5-3 mm long; flowers bright yellow, 4-7 mm.
Other specimens seen
UNITED STATES. Colorado, El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs, Jul 1892, Eastwood s.n. (F, MO, RM); Jefferson Co.: Mt. Vernon Country Club, Golden, 7 Aug 1941, Ehlers 8159 (COLO, MICH, TEX, WTU), Larimer Co.: Cherokee Park, 15 Jul 1934, R. J. Davis 394-W (IDS); Estes Park, 16 Jul 1978, Hampton s.n. (NY); 2.1 mi W of Drake, 9 Aug 1967, Neal & Neal 2 (ASU); Estes Park, Aug 1931, E. C. Smith s.n. (MONT); Big Thompson Canyon, 7500 ft elev., 3 Jul 1934, S. Stokes 201a (RM). Mineral Co.: Piedra, 12 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 291 (RM).
Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum (from the Latin ramulosus, meaning “with small branches”) is encountered mainly but infrequently along the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains mainly west of Fort Collins south to Colorado Spring then westward to Piedra. Buffalo Bill's sulphur flower is related to var. umbellatum, differing consistently in having a compound umbellate inflorescence.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum umbellatum var. umbellatum;  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. umbellatum. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fallopia baldschuanica;  

Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub

The basionym is Polygonum baldschuanicum Regel published in Trudy Imperatorskago S.-Peterburgskago Botaniceskago Sada. Acta Horti Petropolitani. St. Petersburg 8: 684 (1884)

Literature Cited:
- Regel, E, 1883.
Full Size ImageRegel's illustration of Fallopia baldschuanica.  

POLYGONEAE. Polygonum L. POLYGONEAE. Polygonum L.  
81. Polygonum baldschuanicum Rgl. 81. Polygonum baldschuanicum Rgl.  
Tabula X. Tabula X.  
Glabrum; caule frutescente, lignoso, volubili, basi usque 13 Mm. in diametro, cortice fusco lenticellis crebris ornato. Ochreae brevissime cylindricae, ut bracteae membranaceo-hyalinae mox fissae, denique subevanescentes. Folia inferiora opposita, longe petiolata, hastato- cordata, acuta v. acuminata v. rarius obtusa, margine obsolete crenulato-scabra, petiolum superantia; folia suprema floraliaque valde minora, nunc caulinis similia, nunc lineari-lanceolata in petiolum attenuata. Florum paniculae axillares terminalesque, folium pluries superantes, fere aphyllae, laxae; rhachis angulata, ad angulos minute scabra. Flores ramulorum paniculae fasciculati, pedicellati; fasciculi pluriflori; pedicelli supra basin articulati, apicem versus hyalino-albido trialati. Calycis 5 partiti hyalino-albidi lobis tribus exterioribus ovatis, patentibus, dorso naviculari-alatis; alis in pedicellum decurrentibus; sepalis interioribus duobus erectis, obovatis, exalatis, rubescentibus. Stamina 8. Stigma capitatum, trilobum, in ovarii apice sessile. Calyx fructifer vix auctus, late alatus. Achaenium triquetrum, nigrum, nitidum.    
Folia caulina incluso petiolo usque 7 — 8 Cm. longa; lamina usque 4 Cm. lata et 5 Cm. longa. Flores 5 — 6 Mm. in diametro. Caulis 10—15 pedes altus.    
In Bucharae orientalis chanato Baldschuan ad fluvium Wachsch ad pedem orientalem montium Sevistan, 4—5000' alt., mense Julio anno 1883, leg. A. Regel. In the eastern part of Bukhara, the Baldschuan river runs to the Wachsch river the eastern foot of the Sevistan mountains, 4-5000' alt., in the month of July 1883, leg. A. Regel Bukhara is a city and a region of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country.

The Baldschuan River was suggested to be the Zarafshan River by ChatGPT, which I now think is incorrect.

The type of Primula baldschuanica B. Fedtsch. Consp. Fl. Turkestanicae 5:6 (1913) was named for the type location Baldschuan (Boldzhuan), Tajikistan. GoogleMaps spells it as Baldzhuvon at coordinates (38.307612,69.677265). I have also seen the name spelled Baljuan.

The Wachsch River might be the Vakhsh River.

Baldschuan is at the intersection of two rivers. However, I don't see that either of them flow into the Vakhsh River.

Species proxima P. multiflorum Thbrg. «caule herbaceo, floribus triplo minoribus rufescentibus, calyce fructifero valde aucto fuscescente alato» facile dignoscitur.    
Explicatio tabulae X.    
a. Ramus cum panicula, — flos a latere visus, — flos apertus a latere superiore visus. — d. e. stamina. — f. pistillum. — g. h. fructus maturi. — i. achaenium. — Figurae a, g, h, i magnitudine naturali, — b , c, d , e, f auctae. — k. floris digramma.    


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fallopia convolvulus;  

Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A.Löve “Black Bindweed”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fallopia japonica;  

Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. “Japanese Knotweed”

(Syn: Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc., Reynoutria japonica Houtt.)

Literature Cited:
- Houttuyn, Martinus, 1777.  

  Naar zekeren Heer van Reynoutre, waar van Lobel getuigt , dat dezelve aan de Kruidkunde zeer veel dienft gedaan heeft ; zo als ik bevoorens heb gemeld (*). To a certain Lord of Reynoutre, where van Lobel testifies that the same to Herbology has done much service; like me in advance have reported (*).

(*) II. D. VII. Stuk, bladz. 64.
II. Deel/. VIII. Stue.
IV. Afdeel. XI. Hoofdstuk. Driewyvige., Immers in dit Kruid heb ik de Bloempjes bevonden tien Meeldraadjes of liever Meelknopjes bevatten, en het Vrugtbeginzel is driekandg , met drie Siempels gekroond : uit welken hoofde, anders , dit Gewas tot het Duizendknoop betrokken zou kunnen worden. Het heeft den Kelk vyfbladig, zonder Bloemblaadjes. For in this Herb I have found the Flowers ten Stamen or rather Flour buds contain, and the Vrugtbeginzel is trikandg , crowned with three Siempels: on what head, otherwise, this Crop involved to the Knotweed could become. It has den Chalice with five petals, without petals.
I. Renoutria Japonica. japaniche. Pl. LI. Fig. 1. De eenigde Soort , my daar van bekend , heeft een vooze , ronde, doch eenigszins gegroefde of gellreepte , brumachtige Steng, die bogtig is en knoopig, overhoeks Takken uitgeevende, welke , zo wel als de Steng , overhoeks bezet zyn met lang gefteelde Piekswys' Hartvormige Bladen , de grootften wel vier Duimen lang en derdhalf Duim breed. Hier en daar komen aan de Knoopen , en in de Oxels der Bladen , drie of vier Ristachtige Bloem- en Zaadtrosjes voort, met zeer kleine Bloempjes , van gezegde hoedanigheid. De Bladen verkleinen niet naar boven , maar komen zelfs naar 't end der Takken veel grooter voor , dan om laag. The only kind, known to me, has a voodoo, round, but somewhat grooved or gellreepte, brumig Steng, that bogtig is and knotted, giving out branches diagonally, which, as well as the Steng, occupies across the corner are with long-stemmed Piekswys' Heart-shaped Blades, the sizes up to four inches long and three and a half inches wide. Coming here and there the Buttons , and in the Oxels der Bladen , three or four Ristle-like Flower- and Seed-trusses forth, with very small Flowers, from proverb capacity. The Sheets do not shrink to above , but come even to the end of the Branches much larger in front than down.
* II. D. v. Stuk, bladz. 116. Terwyl ik het Geflagt van Cotyledon , onder den naam van Navelkruid, als veele Heefterigen gen bevattende, reeds befchreeven heb * , zo komt hier thans eerst in aanmerking het. While I read the Geflagt of Cotyledon , below the name of Navelweed, like many of the Hasty gene containing, already described * , zo comes into consideration here first.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Persicaria lapathifolia;  

Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) A. Gray “Pale Smartweed”

(Syn: Polygonum lapathifolium L.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Persicaria maculosa;  

Persicaria maculosa A. Gray “Lady's Thumb”

(Syn: Polygonum persicaria L.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum achoreum;  

Polygonum achoreum S. F. Blake “Leathery Knotweed”


There is one collection from South Table Mountain, Yeatts #808, 8/20/1983, that is labeled Polygonum erectum ssp. achoreum (COLO00613273,KHD21868).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept only P. erectum for Colorado, noting the differences are slight.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Treated at the species rank by Ackerfield (2015), P. erectum not accepted for Colorado.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum aviculare;  

Polygonum aviculare L. “Prostrate Knotweed”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum douglasii;  

Polygonum douglasii Greene “Douglas Knotweed”


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1885.  

Greene (1885, v. 1, n. 3, p. 125) ...

P. Douglasii.

Glabrous and somewhat glaucous, often a little scabrous about the nodes, 1-1½ feet high, with numerous, slender, divergent branches: leaves thinnish, oblong to lanceolate, 1-nerved, their margins smooth and more or less revolute; stipules entirely hyaline, the sheathing portion very short, or wanting, the upper part more or less lacerate: floral leaves reduced: flowers commonly more than one in each axil, their pedicels deflexed: akenes longer than in the preceding, shining or granular-roughened. — P. tenue, Watson, Bot. King. 315; Bot. Cal, II. 12, but not of Michx.
var. latifolium.
Leaves oblong : flowers numerous and crowded into a spike : face of akene rather oblong than ovate in outline. — P. tenue, var. latifolium, Engelm.
From the Saskatchewan to British Columbia, and southward everywhere in the mountains to the borders of Mexico. Clearly distinguishable from its eastern analogue by the characters indicated, of which the 3-parallel-nerved leaves and their almost saw-toothed margins are the most obvious.
In P. Douglasii, which we dedicate to perhaps its very earliest collector, the secondary veins, when apparent at all, are not parallel, bnt pinnate. The plant is variable, and yet the var. latifolium may be a distinct species; the shape of the akene is peculiar.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum engelmannii;  

Polygonum engelmannii Greene “Engelmann's Knotweed”

(Syn: Polygonum douglasii Greene ssp. engelmannii (Greene) J.T.Kartesz & Gandhi )

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1885.  

Greene (1885, v. 1, n. 3, p. 126) ...

P. Engelmanni.
Erect-spreading, diffusely branched from the base, a span or more high, reddish, very minutely scabrous-puberulent throughout: branches slender and somewhat flexuous: stipules sparingly lacerate, short, with no tubular or herbaceous portion; leaves lanceolate, acute, with revolute margins, ½ inch or more long, the upper much smaller and remote: flowers in all the axils, solitary or in twos or threes, very small: pedicels strongly defiexed: sepals obtuse, shorter than the very small, ovate, shining akene, and but loosely investing it. — P. tenue, var. microspermum, Engelm.
Rocky Mountains of Colorado at considerable elevations. Very unlike any forms of the preceding species; differing not more remarkably in the minuteness of its flowers and fruit than in its peculiar erect-spreading habit and the fact of its flowering from the very base of the stems and branches.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polygonum ramosissimum;  

Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. “Bushy Knotweed”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex acetosella;  

Rumex acetosella L. “Sheep Sorrel”

(Syn: Acetosella vulgaris (K. Koch) Fourr., R. angiocarpus Murb.)

Literature Cited:
- Tabermaemontanus, Jacobus Theodorus, 1590.
Full Size ImageTabernaemontanus (1590) illustration of Oxalis ovina.  


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 338) ...

Original Text
Acetofella. 22. RUMEX floribus dioicis , foliis lanceolato-haftatis. Vir. cliff. 32. Hort. cliff. 139. Fl. lapp. 131. Fl. fuec. 296. Roy. lugdb. 231. Gron. virg. 153.
  Acetofa afvenfis lanceolata. Bauh. pin. 114.
  Oxalis ovina. Tabern. ic. 440.
  β. Acetofa lanceolata anguftifolia repens. Bauh. pin. 114. prodr. 55.
  γ. Acetofa arvenfis minima non lanceolata. Bauh. pin. 114.
  δ. Acetofa minor erecta, lobis multifidis. Bocc. muf. 164. t. 126.
  Habitat in Europae pafcuis & arvis arenofis. ♃.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex crispus;  

Rumex crispus L. “Curley Dock”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex salicifolius;  

Rumex salicifolius Weinm. “Willow Dock”

“The name R. salicifolius has been applied in a broad sense to nearly all species of subsect. Salicifolii, including even mostly Asian R. sibiricus. Rumex salicifolius appears to be most closely related to R. californicus and R. utahensis (Mosyakin, FNANM, v. 5)”.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex triangulivalvis;  

Rumex triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. f. “Triangular-Valved Dock”

(Syn: R. salicifolius Weinm. var. triangulivalvis (Danser) J. C. Hickman )


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rumex venosus;  

Rumex venosus Pursh “Veiny Dock”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Descibed by Pursh (1814, v. 2, supplement, p. 733) from a collection by Bradbury in Upper Louisiana.



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chenopodiaceae;  

Chenopodiaceae Ventenat


Literature Cited:
- Stevens, P. F., 2001 onwards.  

Given the obvious general relationships between the old Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, and the complexity of the details of the relationships between them, a classification of Amaranthaceae s.l., albeit incomplete, is suggested above, however, what the future holds in terms of ideas of relationships will determine its fate... `


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Atriplex canescens;  

Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. “Four-wing Saltbush”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 370) published the name as Calligonum canescens from a Lewis & Clark collection at the Big Bend of the Missouri.

Original Text Comments
  441. CALLIGONUM. Gen. pl. 834.
canescens. 1. C. dioicum, pulverulento-tomentosum ; foliis lanceolatis, floribus axillaribus glomeratis in apice ramulorum, subspicatus, frictibus alatis, alis venosis cristato-dentatis.
  In the plains of the Missouri, near the Big-bend. ♄. July, Aug. v. s. in Herb. Lewis flowers exceeding small. Goats delight to feed on this shrub.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, p. 197) moved it to Atriplex

Original Text Comments
283. ATRIPLEX. L. (Orache.)  
Flowers polygamous. — Calix 5-parted. Corolla none. Style bifid. Feminine flower; calix 2-parted, compressed. Seed vertical.  
Flowers glomerate, paniculate; bisexual; masculine and feminine flowers intermixed, or on separate plants; leaves alternate, rarely subopposite. Mostly annual, rarely shrubby.  
Species. 1. A. *canescens. (Calligonum canescens, Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 370.) Dioicous; pulverulently furfuraceous and canescent; stem shrubby, diffuse; leaves linear-oblong, entire, obtuse, attenuated towards the base, younger leaves acute. — Obs. Stem much branched, and diffuse, about 3 or 4 feet high, with round gray branches. Leaves alternate, 15 to 20 lines long, about 3 wide, sometimes cuneate-oblong, obtuse and now and then emarginate, very entire, covered with the white branny scales common to this and the preceding genus. Flowers dioicous, with 4, 5, and 5 stamens, conglomerated towards the ends of the branches; male clusters (at least the lower ones) pedunculate. Calix of the female flowers 2-parted, becoming indurated, acute, with 4 unequal cristated or dentated angles. Style 1, deeply bifid, exserted.  
Nearly allied to A. portulacoides. Hab. On the denudated saline hills of the Missouri; commencing about 15 miles below the confluence of White river, and continuing to the mountains. Flowering in May.  

2. hortensis.
3. patula. …
4. laciniata.
5. *argentea. …
6. * arenaria. …
Chiefly an European genus, the above excepted, with 1 species at the Cape of Good Hope, 1 in Barbary, 1 in Siberia, 2 in Tartary, from whence A. hortensis is said to have originated, and 1 in Bengal.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Atriplex hortensis;  

Atriplex hortensis L. “Garden Orache”



Bassia All.


Literature Cited:
- Allioni, Carlo, 1766.  

The name Bassia was proposed by Allioni (1766) primariy from plants collected in Egypt.

Literature Cited:
- Kadereit, Gudrun, and Helmut Freitag, 2011.  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Blitum nuttallianum;  

Blitum nuttallianum Schult. “Nuttall's Povertyweed”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 1., p.4) ...

7. BLITUM. L. (Strawberry-spinage.)
Calix 3-parted. Corolla 0. Seed 1, covered by the calix, which enlarges and generally becomes a berry.
Flowers and berries in capitate clusters; the capituli resembling strawberries, and are both terminal and axillary.
Species. 1. B. capitatum. A doubtful native. 2. * Chenopodioides? Leaves almost hastate-riangular, somewhat dentate, at either end attenuate; glomeruli all axillary, leafy; seed distinct, punctate, not berried.
Hab. on arid soils near the banks of the Missouri. ☉
Obs. Stem erect, virgate; seeds naked, imricated, surrounded by a few linear leaves longer than the seed; proper calix, apparently none, style 1, deeply bifid. Seed coated, coverec with impressed punctures, oboval, slightly margined, beneath the outer envelope dark brown, a little rigose, emarginate below. Corculum curved round the perisperm, parallel with the margin of the seed; perisperm partly farinaceous and partly corneous.

Blitum chenopodioides L. was a validly published name for a plant found in Tataria, a name used for central Asia and European Russia east of the river Don. Nuttall's plant was not this, so the publication was a nom. illeg.

Literature Cited:
- Schultes, Josef A., 1822.  

Schultes (1822, v. 1, p. 65-66) ...

5. Blitum Nuttallianum; foliis subhastato-triangularibus, subdentatis, utrinque attenuatis; glomerulis omnibus axillaribus, foliosis; seminibus distinctis, punctatis, nec baccatis. Blitum chenopodioidis? Nuttall gener. P. 4.
Caules erecti, virgati; semina nuda, imbricata, foliolis aliquot linearibus circumdata, eadem excedentibus, cat. O; stylus 1, profunde bifidus. Semen obovatum, submarginatum, sub tegmine exterior fuscum, punctis impressis, subrugosum, basi emarginatum. Corculum circa perisperma farinoso - corneum curvatum. Nuttall. In aridis ad ripas Missouri. ☉.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1891-97.  

Greene (1891-1897, p. 168) ...

3. MONOLEPIS, Schrader. Annuals, with the habit and foliage of Chenopodium, but the perianth consisting of a single scale-like or bract-like sepal (or this to be regarded as a mere bract subtending an achlamydeous flower). Stamen 1. Styles 2, filiform. Pericarp membranous, persistent upon the vertical compressed seed. Embryo annular; albumen copious. — In aspect wholly like Chenopodium, to which the genus may as well be united as Mungea to Amarantus.
1. M. Nuttalliana, Greene. Roem. & Schult. Mant. i. 65 (1822), under Blitum: M. chenopodioides, Moq. in DC. Prodr. xiii. 85 (1849). Blitum chenopodioides (?) Nutt (1818), not Linn. Branches many, decumbent or almost prostrate, 1/4-l ft. long ; herbage deep green, the growing parts mealy : leaves lanceolate-hastate, 1/2 - 1 in. long, entire or remotely sinuate-dentate, acute or obtuse, cuneate at base, the upper floral subsessile : flower-clusters axillary, dense, sometimes reddish : sepal foliaceous and fleshy, oblanceolate or spatulate, often exceeding the fruit : pericarp somewhat fleshy, becoming dry and favose-pitted, adherent : seed lenticular or reniform, 1/2 line broad. — Alkaline soils along the eastern base of the Sierra.

Literature Cited:
- Fuentes-Bazan, Susy, Pertti Uotilla, and Thomas Borsch, 2012.  

Fuentes-Bazan, Susy, Pertti Uotilla, and Thomas Borsch (2012, p. 18) …

3. Blitum nuttallianum Schult., Mant. 1: 65. 1822 ≡ Blitum chenopodioides Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 4. 1818 [non L. 1771] ≡ Monolepis chenopodioides Moq. in Candolle, Prodr. 13(2): 85. 1849, nom. illeg. ≡ M. nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene, Fl. Francisc.: 168. 1891. — Described from the banks of the Missouri river; type not designated.
= Chenopodium trifidum Trev., Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Vratislav. 1829 [n.v.] ≡Monolepis trifida (Trev.) Schrad., Ind. Sem. Hort. Goett: 4. 1830. — Lectotype (designated here): “C. trifidum Trev., m[isit] Trevianus” [later added:] “M. trifida Schrad.” [both, manu Ledebour] in herb. Ledebour (LE!).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chenopodium album;  

Chenopodium album L. “Lambsquarters”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chenopodium atrovirens;  

Chenopodium atrovirens Rydb. “Pinyon Goosefoot”


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900a.  

Rydberg (1900, p. 131) ...

Original Text
* Chenopodium atrovirens.
Stem 3-5 dm. high, branched, striate, obtusely angled ; leaves slender-petioled, broadly ovate, obtuse, truncate, or the upper mucronate, entire, sometimes slightly hastately lobed at the base, three-nerved, very dark green, only sparingly mealy, rather thick and somewhat fleshy, 1-3 cm. long and 5-15 mm. wide; flowers in small spike-like glomerules in the axils of the leaves and in compound interrupted spikes at the ends of the branches, very small and sparingly meally; seeds lenticular, 1 mm. long, almost black, smooth, easily separating from the pericarp.
It much resembles C. olidum, but differs in the darker green color of the leaves and stem, the sparser mealiness, the smaller flowers and the easily separated seeds, which are not pitted as are those of C. olidum. The type was growing on a dry hillside together with Mentzelia tenerrima and Symphoricarpos vaccinioides, under some trees of Pseudotsuga mucronata.
Montana: Foothills of Electric Peak, August 18, 1897, Rydberg & Bessey, 3948 (type).
Yellowstone Park: Stevenson Island, 1885, Tweedy, 439.

* Watson, Rev. N. A. Chenopodiaceae in Proc. Am. Acad. 9: 82-126.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chenopodium berlandieri;  

Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. “Pitseed Goosefoot”


Literature Cited:
- Moquin-Tandon, Alfred, 1840.  

Moquin-Tandon (1840, p. 23) ...

Original Text Comments
9. C. Berlandieri , caule fruticoso ascendente ramoso, foliis alternis ovatis vel ovato-oblongis aculis submucronulatis integerrimis pulverulentis glaucis, inferioribus subrliombeo-ovatis interdum rhombeis (angulis lateralibus prominulis), spicis subpaniculaiis laxis aphyllis , perigonio fruclifero non carinato , semine punclulato-rugoso haud nitido margine acuto.  
Circa Mexico. Berlandier 1906. (v. s. in herb. Moricand.) Seen in the dried state in the herbarium of Moricand.

Moricand is probably Moïse-Étienne Moricand, a Swiss botanist and malacologist (1779–1854). In 1833-1846, he published Plantes nouvelles d'Amérique, based chiefly on collections of J.L. Berlandier, J.S. Blanchet and J.A. Pavón. Moricand's herbarium, numbering more than 54,000 specimens at the end of his life, contained material from all over the world, again collected by him and those with whom he had built relationships. It was given to the Conservatoire botanique de la ville de Genève by his son in 1908.


Dysphania R. Br. “Wormseed”


Literature Cited:
- Uotila, Pertti, et al., 2021.  

… placed Cycloloma in Dysphania


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dysphania botrys;  

Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants “Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Chenopodium botrys L., Sp. Pl. 1: 219 (1753).


Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants, Ukrayins'k. Bot. Zhurn. 59(4): 383 (2002).


Kochia Roth


IPNI (2021) provides this reference, “Kochia Roth, J. Bot. (Schrader) 1800(1): 307 (1801),” which I think is this publication: Unfortunately, I am unable to find it there.

I think it is pretty clear that Bassia Allioni (1766) has priority over Kochia Roth (1801).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Kochia scoparia;  

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. “Common Red Sage”

The basionym is Chenopodium scoparia L.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 221) ...

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
15. CHENOPODIUM foliis lineari-lanceolatis planis integerrimis. Hort. cliff. 86. Hort. upf. 55. Roy. lugdb. 220. Scoparia.  
Linaria fcoparia. Bauh. pin. 212.    
Ofyris. Dod. pempt. 151    
Habitat in Græcia, Japonia. ☉    

Literature Cited:
- Schrader, Heinrich Adolph, 1809.  

Schrader (1809, p. 85) placed our plant in Kochia Roth. There may be some discussion on the preceding pages explaining the reason. However, my German abilities are insufficient to find it.

Literature Cited:
- Kadereit, Gudrun, and Helmut Freitag, 2011.  

Excerpts that relate to Kochia scoparia:

Original Text Comments
Morphological studies … frame of the study did not allow the full study of critical groups, such as Kochia scoparia s.l. and K. prostrata s.l., in detail to solve their inherent taxonomic problems.  
Bassia and Kochia are highly polyphyletic, with the former distributed among all clades, and the latter in most of them.  
Scott (1978) already reduced the number of non-Australian genera of Camphorosmeae to five by including Kochia, Londesia and Chenolea into Bassia.  
The Bassia hyssopifolia subclade contains Bassia hyssopifolia and the Kochia scoparia group, a clade consisting of four closely related and morphologically similar taxa; Fig. 5. We also treat the latter here under Bassia. The subclade consists of annual species and has a wide distribution area in Eurasia which ranges from the Iberian Peninsula to Japan.  
The Kochia scoparia group is well-known for its large variation in shape, size and indumentum of leaves, indumentum of leaf axils (very dense and long in K. densiflora), size and shape of wings on the fruiting perianth etc. which were treated in various ways by different authors. Our sampling included some conspicuous forms but was not large enough to resolve the taxonomy of the group. For morphological and ecological reasons, most likely only K. scoparia, K. indica and K. littorea deserve species rank.  
Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott in Feddes Repert. 89: 108. 1978 = Chenopodium scoparium L., Sp. Pl.: 221. 1753 (‘scoparia’) = Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. in Neues J. Bot. 3(4): 85. 1809.
= K. sieversiana (Pall.) C.A. Mey. in Ledebour, Fl. Altaic. 1: 415. 1829.
= K. scoparia var. densiflora Moq. in Candolle, Prodr. 13(2): 131. 1849.
= K. densiflora auct.
= K. alata Bates in Amer. Bot. (Binghamton) 24: 52. 1918.

Further studies are required to elucidate the infraspecific grouping.


I should look up this reference:

Scott, A.J. 1978. A revision of the Camphorosmoideae (Chenopodiaceae). Feddes Repert. 89: 101–119.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salsola tragus;  

Salsola tragus L. “Tumbleweed”

(Syn: S. australis R. Brown, S. iberica (Sennen & Pau) Botschantzev ex Czerepanov, S. kali, S. kali var. tenuifolia Tausch., S. pestifer Nels.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Suckleya suckleyana;  Torrey & Gray, 1855. Pac. R. R. Rep.;  Turland, et al., 2018;  

Suckleya suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb. “Poison Suckleya”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1860.

Locations: Milk River.
Full Size ImageIllustration of Suckleya suckleyana.  

Torrey in Gray (1860, v. 12, Bk. 2, pt. 2, p. 47) … the "Pacific Railroad Reports" through Washington Territory.

Original Text
OBIONE SUCKLEYANA, Torr., n. sp. (Plate IV.) "Annual, stem branching, prostrate; leaves suborbicular on long petioles, acutely repand-dentate, pale-green both sides, nearly glabrous ; glomerules axillary, monoecious bracts of the sessile fruit deltoid, united to the summit, the margin narrowly winged, crenate-denticulate. Very distinct from every other North American species of Obione, but having some resemblance to 0. argentea. It is remarkable for the roundish leaves, very long petioles, and the large and much compressed nearly glabrous fruit. The male flowers were tetramerous." — TORREY. This was collected in the Milk River valley, August 19.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1876b.  

Gray, Asa, 1876, pp. 101-103 described Suckleya as a taxon that fits between Atriplex and Grayia. In that process, Gray proposed a new name — Suckleya petiolaris — and placed Obione Suckleyana Torr. in synonomy. Now, of course, we would describe Gray's specific epithet as superfluous. Not sure what Gray was thinking, perhaps that Suckleya suckleyana was an redundant name. Certainly, he knew about priority of names, as the first “code” was published in 1867.

By Asa Gray.
Presented, Oct. 12, 1875.
The following notes and characters relate mainly to Californian botany, the writer having been engaged in the preparation of the Gamopetalae for Professor Brewer's Botany of California, now printing. Some of the observations are such as could not well be recorded in that work ; and the characters of certain new genera and species may appropriately be introduced to the botanical world in a continuation of the " Contributions " which have from time to time been communicated to the Academy, and published in its Proceedings. My first note has reference to two plants of the Atlantic United States, which have long been confounded.
Grayia Brandegei. Inermis, sesquipedalis, leviter fuifuraceo-cinerea ; foliis spathulato-linearibus ; thecis minoribus flavidulis oblato-orbiculatis quandoque trialatis basi latissime retusis, alis subundulatis ; ovario basilari papuloso. — Hillsides, among fragments of cretaceous sandstone, on the San Juan River, near the boundary between Colorado and Utah, T. S. Brandegee in Hayden's Exploration, August, 1875. — While pleased with an accession to this genus, and with the opportunity of associating it with the name of an excellent correspondent who discovered it, I must add that it does not much strengthen the genus. The small thecae, as far as seen only 3 lines broad, and with some furfuraceous puberulence (but they are far from mature, and mainly unfertilized), and the papulose cellular ovary too much remind us of Atriplex (incl. Obione). A. Endolepis of Watson, Rev. Chenop., p. 111 (of which I should like to form a distinct section), has as thin and complete a sac; but there are two minute teeth at its apex, and their position, along with the venation, shows that the sac is compressed laterally, i.e., formed of two flat bracts. I agree with Mr. Watson's view, that the sac of Grayia is obcompressed, or formed of a pair of conduplicate bracts, completely united to the very tip ; and on this character (along with the inferior radicle) the genus actually rests. But this view demands the separation from Atriplex of a species which has always appeared like a stranger in the genus, and which I propose to establish by itself, between Atriplex and Grayia, under the name of its discoverer, Dr. George Suckley, U. S. A., one of the naturalists of the exploration across the Continent under Governor Stevens.*

* Subtribus EUROTIEAE. Theca, e bracteis pl. m. conduplicatis coalitis con stans, obcompressa, rarissime triptera.
1. Grayia. Theca nuda, integerrima, scariosa, orbiculata, plana, samaroidea, alato-marginata. Radicula infera. Flores dioici.
2. Suckleya. Theca nuda, subhastata, complanata, marginibus herbaceo-cristatis, apice bidentato. Radicula supera. Flores monoici. — S. petiolaris. Obione Suckleyana Torr. Atriplex Suckleyana Watson, l. c.
3. Eurotia. Theca villosissima, turgida, nec marginata nec aristata, apice bifida. Radicula infera. Flores dioici.
4. Ceratocarpus. Theca cuneata, obcompresso-plana, biaristata. Radicula infera. Flores monoici.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1900a.  

Rydberg (1900, p. 133) corrected Gray's (1876) error in Catalogue of the flora of Montana and the Yellowstone National Park without comment, placing Gray's superfluous name in synonomy along with Torrey's Obione suckleyana.

Original Text
Original Text
Suckleya Suckleyana (Torr.) ; Obione Suckleyana Torr. Pac. R. R. Rep. 12: 47, 1860; Suckleya petiolaris Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 11: 103, 1876 [Man. R. M. 311].
Montana: Milk River, 1853 (Stevenson Exped.), Suckley.



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthaceae;  

Amaranthaceae Juss.


Literature Cited:
- Morales-Briones, Diego F., et al., 2021.  

Despite the strong signal of gene tree discordance, both nuclear and plastid data sets strongly supported five major clades within Amaranthaceae s.l.: Amaranthaceae s.s., “Chenopods I,” “Chenopods II,” Betoideae, and Polycnemoideae … These five clades are congruent with morphology and previous taxonomic treatments of the group.

Chenopods I includes Atriplex, Grayia, Chenopodium, Dysphania, and Krascheninnikovia.

Chenopods II includes Suaeda, Salicornia, Allenrolfia, Salsola, and Kochia.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus albus;  

Amaranthus albus L. “Prostrate Pigweed”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus arenicola;  

Amaranthus arenicola I. M. Johnst. “Sandhill Pigweed”


Literature Cited:
- Johnston, Ivan M., 1948.  

Original Text
Amaranthus arenicola sp. nov.

Herba erecta dioica annua: ... [... Latin diagnosis omitted ...]

KANSAS: sandhills, Hamilton County, 1895, Hitchcock 428A (type, Gray Herb.) ; sandy soil, southwestern Kansas, Aug. 3, 1895, Hitchcock 609.
COLORADO: South Fork of the Platte, 1856, H. Engelmann; indefinite, 1861, Parry 323; Ft. Lupton, Weld. Co., 1914, Johnston 275; Gilcrest, Weld Co., 1916, Johnston 275A.
OKLAHOMA: bottom of Cimarron River, Cimarron Co., 1936, Demaree 13306.
TEXAS: Limpia Canyon, 8.7 miles northeast of Ft. Davis, 1942. Cory 40520.
INDEFINITE: Powell Colorado Exploring Exped., 1868, no. 509 ; Upper Missouri River, Hayden; sandhills, 1862, E. Hall.
A species most closely related to A. myrianthus Standley of northeastern Mexico and southern Texas. The latter is a loosely and much branched plant with usually sprawling branches and has the bracts subtending the female flowers broad, cuspidate, and distinctly shorter than the perianth lobes. The plant here described grows in sandy places on the high plains. It has passed as A. Torreyi Gray and is treated under that name in Standley's revision of the genus, No. Am. Fl. 21: 107 (1917). The name "A. Torreyi Gray," however, properly belongs to a very different plant growing along the Mexican boundary. Cf. Johnston, Jour. Arnold Arb. 25: 155 (1944).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus blitoides;  

Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson “Mat Amaranth”


Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.
- Watson, Sereno, 1877.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Watson, 1871, 40th Parallel, publication details;  

Sereno Watson (1879, v. 12, new ser. v. 4, p. 274) proposed Amarantus blitoides.

Original Text
Amarantus (Pyxidium) blitoides. Prostrate or decumbent, the slender stems becoming a foot or two long, glabrous or nearly so : leaves broadly spatulate to narrowly oblanceolate, attenuate to a slender petiole, an inch long or usually less : flowers in small contracted axillary spikelets : bracts nearly equal, ovate-oblong, shortly acuminate, 1 to 1½ lines long, little exceeding the oblong obtuse and mucronulate or acute sepals : utricle not rugose, slightly longer than the sepals : seed nearly a line broad. — Frequent in the valleys and plains of the interior, from Mexico to N. Nevada and Iowa, and becoming introduced in some of the Northern States eastward. It somewhat resembles the A. Blitum, Linn., of the Old World, and has been mistaken for it ; but that species is usually erect, with shorter and more scarious bracts, and a smaller seed more notched at the hilum. The allied A. albus, Linn., also common and indigenous throughout the interior, is distinguished by its usually erect diffusely branched habit … [… Description of A. albus omitted …]
Of the collections currently determined A. blitoides with data available online, the oldest are:
  • F. J. Lindheimer #513, 1846, Texas, GH1928850, A. graecezans L
  • J. M. Bigelow, s.n., 1853, NY3363450, Texas, Canadian River, Fort Smith to the Rio Grande, Amaranthus albus -- Whipple 35th parallel.
  • F. V. Hayden, s.n., 1858, NY3363419, Nebraska
  • I. Burk, s.n., 1864, PH20866791, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Grenwich Point.
  • S. Watson, 1004, July 1868, NY2281426, Utah (Nevada), Diamond Valley.
  • Pomell, s.n., 1868, SJNM2064, Nebraska, Douglas County, Omaha.
  • George Vasey, 1868, SJNM, Nebraska, Douglas County, Omaha.

I think Watson's Coll. No. 1004 is interesting. When Watson collected and first reported it (Watson, 1871, p. 297), he applies Amaranthus alba L., while noting it is a prostrate form.

Original Text
Amarantus albus, L. Reported from the Upper Missouri, Northern Texas, and Menzies Island in the Columbia River. Truckee River bottom, and roadsides in the low valleys of Nevada and Utah. Midvein of the leaf terminating as usual in a short awn ; erect, the lower branches ascending ; ½-2 high. (1,003.) With it was also found a wholly prostrate form, the stems 1-2° long; leaves obovate or nearly orbicular. (1,004.)

In 1877, Watson will propose A. blitoides for a prostrate form of Amaranthus that is otherwise similar to A. albus. While Watson labeled his collection A. albus, it has since been annotated A. blitoides. Watson's Coll. No. 1003, to which he initially applied A. albus has since been annotated A. californicus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amaranthus powellii;  

Amaranthus powellii S. Watson “Powell's Pigweed”

The earliest collection of this pigweed would appear to be Fendler #735, which was in 1894 designated the type of A. bracteosus Uline & W. L. Bray, who thought that Fendler's collection was different from the plants grown from Powell's seed. However, Watson's (1875) A. powellii has priority.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1875.  

Watson (1875, v. 10, p. 347) published Amarantus powellii from plants that were garden-grown from seeds brought from Arizona by Col. Powell.

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
Amarantus Powellii. Slender, 4-5 feet high, glabrous, the stem becoming bright red, branches erect ; leaves small, oblong-lanceolate, 2 inches long, cuneate at base, the slender petiole shorter ; flowers in close narrow compound spikes, the lateral ones erect ; seed nearly black, shining, less than half a line broad, lenticular, very minutely and slightly tuberculate. — Likewise cultivated from seeds brought from Arizona by Col. Powell, and apparently a very distinct species. A. albus and retroflexus were also raised from the same collection of Arizona seeds, used as food by the Indians. The only other species known from our western territory and apparently indigenous are A. chlorostachys and Blitum. The other seeds were A. leucocarpus that is now treated as a synonym of A. hypochondriacus L.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Froelichia gracilis;  

Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq. “Slender Snakecotton”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, William Jackson, Sir, 1837-1841.  

Hooker (1840, v. 3., Tab. CCLVI) notes a distinct Oplotheca collected by Drummond in Texas. He also mentions a genus name of Froelichia of Moench.

Original Text
… and a very distinct one also exists in Mr Drummond's 2d Coll. from Texas, n. 244, which may be thus characterized :—
Oplotheca gracilis ; pubescenti-sericea, caulibus gracillimis basi decumbentibus geniculatis dein erectis, foliis anguste lineari-lanceolatis, spiculis parvis paucifloris remotis, perianthio tomentoso, fructifero cristis brevibus crassis profunde dentatis.
Hab. Texas, Drummond.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Agustin Pyramus, 1849.  

DeCandolle (1849, v. 13, pt. 2, p. 419) accepted Froelichia Moench and placed Oplotheca Nutt. in synonomy.

Original Text Interpretation and Comments.
XLIII. FROELICHIA Moench meth. 1794, p. 50, Endl gen. p. 302, n 1959, non Froehlichia Vahl (1), nec Wulf (2). — Oplotheca Nutt. gen. am. 1818. v. 2, p. 78, …  
Sectio I. Hoplotheca  
1. F. gracilis, caule tereti striato villoso ... [... Latin diagnosis omitted ...] (I) In Texas (Drummond! n. 244), Oplotheca gracilis Hook.! in herb. (v. s. in h. Hook. et Mus. vindob.) Seen in the dry state in Hooker's herbarium and the herbarium of the Natural History Museum of Vienna.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Abronia fragrans;  

Abronia fragrans Nutt. ex Hook. “Snowball Sand Verbena”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William J., 1853.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hooker, 1849-1857, publication details;  

Hooker (1853, p. 161) described this taxon from a description by Nuttall.

Original Text
2. Abronia fragrans, Nutt.

Hab. On loamy, sandy, firm banks, within the high drift-sand hills of the Lower Platte. Two feet long. Umbels large. Flowers porcelain-coloured, opening only at night, very fragrant ; growing with “Rumex venosus” and Psoralea arenaria, Ph. June n. 157.

Nuttall collected the plant on the sand hills of the Lower Platte, though he does not identify the expedition or the year. It is assumed (by me and others) that the collection was made on his trip to Oregon Territory in 1834. Otherwise, the earliest know collection would be on Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 1842. This voucher (NY3370444) was in Torrey's Herbarium, so it would seem that knew the plant and the name but deferred to Nuttall to publish it.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Mirabilis linearis;  

Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl “Narrowleaf Four O'Clock”

(Syn: Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) B. L. Robinson )

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.  

Nuttall (1813, p. 2) ...

Original Text Comments
21. [Calymenia] angustifolia. ‡ M.  

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, Supplementum, p. 728) ...

Original Text Comments
p. 97 Allionia linearis. — A. caule erecto teretii, foliis linearibus subcarnosus, floribus racemosis, pedicellis aggregatis, staminibus longissime exertis.  
  Calymenia angustifolia. Fraser Catal.. 1813.  
  In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury. v. s. in Herb Bradbury.  

Literature Cited:
- Heimerl, Anton, 1901.  

Heimerl (1901, p. 186) ...

Original Text Translation and Comments
10. Mirabilis linearis (Pursh). — Das Herbarium Delessert besitzt von dieser, bekannutlich in Nordamerika sehr gewohnlichen Pflanze eine neue Form, welche von dem verbreiteten Typus durch rauhe Behaaruug (besonders der unteren Stengelstucke) abweicht und als forma subhispida bezeichnet werden soll. Sie stimmt vollig mit dem Typus im Habitus, in den sitzenden linealeu bis lineallanzettlichen, ganzrandigen oder undeutlich uod entfernt gezahnelteni Blattern, in der ziemlich reichblutigen, opponiert und decussiert verastelten, drusenlos behaarten Rispe, in den 2-3 blutigen Involucren, mit ziemlich ansehnlichen Bluten u. s. f. uberein — unterscheidet sich aber leicht folgendermassen : caulis internodia imprimis inferiora et media (paniculae regione excepta!) pilis haud densis, saepius sparsis, patentibus, asperis, usque 2 mm. lg. subhispida; folia inferiora et media iisdem pilis imprimis in margine et infra in nervo mediano parce setoso-hirta, folia in paniculae regione brevius pubescentia. Das Exemplar wurde von Earle in New-Mexico gesammelt und mit der Bezeichnung ausgegeben: N. Mex., north of El Capitan Mts., Lincoln County (Exsicc. no. 383). The Herbarium Delessert possesses of this, notably in North America ordinary plant a new form, different from the common one Type by rough hair (especially the lower stem pieces) differs and is called forma subhispida target. ... The specimen was obtained from Earle in New Mexico collected and issued with the designation: N. Mex., north of El Capitan Mts., Lincoln County (Exsicc. no. 383).

There of five vouchers of Earle's Coll. No. 383 listed on SEINet: three at NMC, and one each at NY and RM.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Mirabilis nyctaginea;  

Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. “Heartleaf Four O'Clock”


Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

Michaux (1803, v. 1, p. 100) ...

Original Text
Cal. communis oblongus , simplex , triflorus ; proprius obsoletus , superus. Corollulae irregulares. Recept. nudum.
nyctaginea. A. erecta, glabriuscula : foliia latocordatis, acutis : pedunculis solitariis ; involucro quinquefido , 3 - floro : calycibus fructiferis brevissima pube hirsutulis, involucro ampliato multo minoribus.
Obs. Habitus omnino Nyctaginis hortensis (Mirabilis Jalapae. Linn.)
Hab. ad ripas fluminis Tennassee.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Claytonia lanceolata;  

Claytonia lanceolata Pursh “Lanceleaf Springbeauty”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 175) ...

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
3. C. foliis lanceolatis : caulinis ovatis sessilibus, racemo solitario elongato, calycis foliolis brevibus obtusissimis, petalis cuneatis bifidis, radice tuberosa. — Pall. Mss. lanceolata.  
On the Rocky-mountains. M. Lewis. ♃ June. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers white, nearly the size of the first species, without veins. In the collection of A. B. Lambert, Esq. I found a specimen collected by Pallas in the eastern parts of Siberia, perfectly agreeing with the present species.   The “first species” was C. virginica.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Claytonia rosea;  

Claytonia rosea Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Springbeauty”


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1904.  

Rydberg (1904, v. 31, n. 7, p. 404) ...

Original Text
Claytonia rosea sp. nov.
Scape about 1 dm. high, slender, from a small corm 10-15 mm. diameter ; basal leaves rare, long-petioled ; blade 1-2 cm. long, spatulate ; stem-leaves linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate, sessile, 2-5 cm. long, 1-ribbed or faintly 3-ribbed, acute, rather fleshy ; sepals rounded ovate, rounded at the apex, about 5 mm. long, half as long as the pink obovate petals; inflorescence 5-10-flowered, short, little exceeding the leaves, bractlets lanceolate ; capsule shorter than the sepals ; seeds about 2 mm. long, black and very glossy.
The few specimens of this species that are found in our herbaria bear a variety of names, as C. caroliniana, C. caroliniana lanceolata, C. caroliniana sessilifolia and C. lanceolata sessilifolia. The original C. lanceolata Pursh is a much larger plant with broad, strongly 3-ribbed stem-leaves, elongated inflorescence and large flowers, the sepals being about 6 mm. long. The type of C. caroliniana sessilifolia Torr., is a plant somewhat resembling the present species, but with somewhat broader leaves abruptly contracted at the sessile base and with acutish sepals. Neither in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden nor in that of Columbia University is found any other specimen matching the original collected by Bigelow. Most species of Claytonia are found near water or in damp places. The type of C. rosea was collected on rather dry hills, at an altitude of 2200-2300 m.
Colorado : La Veta, 1900, Rydberg & Vreeland, 6300 (type) ; "Colorado," G. C. Woolson ; 1875, W. A. Henry ; Graham's Peak, 1899, C. F. Baker, 303.
Wyoming: Pole Creek, 1894, Aven Nelson, 27.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phemeranthus parviflorus;

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImagePhemeranthus parviflorus on top of North Table Mountain.  

Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.) Kiger. “Sunbright”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) proposed Talinum parviflorum from a manuscript by Nuttall.

Original Text
2. TALINUM. Adans. (in part.); Sims, bot. mag. t. 1357.
Sepals 2, ovate, concave deciduous. Petals 5, sessile, hypogynous. Stamens 10-20, inserted with the petals, and often coherent with them at the base. Style trifid. Capsule subglobose, 3-valved, many-seeded.
§ Stigmas or lobes of the style short, connivent, Perennial herbs, with a short thick and firm stem, and terete subulate fleshy stems : flowers in a terminal dichotomous cyme, expanding for a single day. — Phemeranthus, Raf.
1. T. teretifolium (Pursh): ...
2. T. parviflorum (Nutt. ! mss.): “small; leaves slender; stamens 5?-10.”

On rocks, Arkansas; with the preceding species, Nuttall! — A distinct species, according to Nuttall, with muvh smaller flowers than T. teretifolium.

Literature Cited:
- Kiger, Robert W., 2001.  

Kiger (2001) described new combinations to be used in his treatment of Portulacaceae in Flora of North America.

Original Text Comments
... recent molecular data ... congruent with morphological evidence ... indicates that Phemeranthus is phylogenetically distinct from the mainly Old World Talinum ... ... morphological differences between Phemeranthus and Talinum ...
Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nuttall) Kiger. comb. nov. Basionym: Talinum parviflorum Nuttall, in J. Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 197. 1838. TYPE: U.S.A. Arkansas: n.d., T. Nuttall s.n. (possible isotypes or syntypes, K [in type folder, on sheet with Drummond 34], K [in general herbarium]) There follows some discussion of whether the specimen at K is a type or, if not, further search should be conducted before designating a lectotype.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Portulaca oleracea;  

Portulaca oleracea L. “Little Hogweed”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 445) ...

Original Text
1. PORTULACA foliis cunciformis, floribus feffilibus. Roy. lugdb. 473. Gron. virg. 59. Hort. upf. 146. Mat. med. 260. Dalib. parif. 158. Hall. helv. 392. Sauv. monfp. 168. oleracea.
Portulaca foliis cuneiformibus verticillatis feffilibus, floribus feffilibus. Hort. cliff. 207.  
Portulaca anguftifolia fylveftris. Bauh. pin. 288.  
β. Portulaca latifolia fativa. Bauh. pin.288.  
Portulaca domeftica. Lob ic. 388.  
Habitat in Europa auftrali, India, Inf. Afcenfionis, America, ☉  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cerastium arvense strictum;  

Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum Gaudin “Field Chickweed”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 439) ...

Original Text
8. CERASTIUM foliis lanceolatis, pedunculis ramofis, capsulis fubrotundis. ftrictum.
Ceraftium caule perenni procumbente, foliis lanceolatis tomentofis. Roy. lugdb. 450.  
Myofotis arvenfis, polygoni folio. Vaill. parif. 141. t. 30. f. 5.  
Lychnis incana repens. Bauh. pin. 206.  
Habitat in Gallia, Italia. ♃  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cerastium brachypodum;  

Cerastium brachypodum (Engelmann ex A. Gray) B. L. Robinson “Short-stalked mouse-ear chickweed”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1867.  

Cerastium nutans var. brachypodum Engelm. ex A.Gray, Manual (Gray), ed. 5. 94 (1867).

Gray (1867, p. 94) ...

Original Text
3. C. nutans, Raf. Annual, very clammy-pubescent; stems erect, slender, grooved, diffusely branched (6'- 20' high); cyme loose and open, many-flowered; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, the lowest spatulate ; peduncles mostly elongated ; petals longer than the calyx ; pods nodding on the stalks, curved upwards, thrice the length of the calyx. — Moist places, Vermont to Minnesota and southward. May-July. — Var. brachypodum, Engelm., W. Illinois and southwestward, has pedicels shorter than the pods.

Cerastium brachypodum (Engelm. ex A.Gray) B.L.Rob., Mem. Torrey Bot. Club v. (1894) 150; et in Proc. Am. Acad. xxix. (1894) 277.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dianthus armeria;  

Dianthus armeria L. “Deptford Pink”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 410) ...

Original Text
Armeria. 3. DIANTHUS floribus aggregatis fafciculatis, fquamis calycinis lanceolatis villofis tubum aequantibus. Hort. cliff. 165. Fl. fuec. 345. It. gotl. 301. Roy. ludb. 443. Sauv. monfp. 144.
  Caryophyllus barbatus fylveftris. Bauh. pin. 208.
  Armeria fylveftris altera. Lob. ic. 448.
  Habitat in fterilibus Gotlandiae, Germaniae, Galliae, Italiae. ☉


Literature Cited:
- Zeise, Larry Steven, 1976.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eremogone fendleri;  

Eremogone fendleri (A. Gray) Ikonnikov “Fendler's Sandwort”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• US Interstate 25:   at Las Vegas;

Locations: Las Vegas.  

Gray (1849, p. 13) …

Original Text
† 57. Arenaria (Eremogone) Fendleri (sp. nov.) : caudice polycephalo; turionibus imbricato-polyphyllis ; foliis praelongis erectis setaceis planiusculis margine serrulato-scabris cauleque slmplici glabris, caulinis ochreato-connatis ; symis strictis sparsifloris et calycibus glanduloso-pubescentibus ; pedicellis gracilibus ; sepalis ovato-lanceolatis sensim acuminatis cuspidatis inferne late scariosis medio viridibus trinerviis petala obovata subaequantibus ; stjlis exsertls. — Prairies, five miles west of Las Vegas ; August. — A group of grassy-leaved species, belonging to a group not before known in the New World, and to the subdivision Chromolemmae of Fenzl. My specimen is eleven inches high, just in flower, but destitute of fruit. The leaves of the sterile radical tufts are 3 to 4 inches long; the cauline pairs (3 or 4) successively shorter. Petals white, 4 lines in length.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gypsophila elegans;  

Gypsophila elegans M. Bieb. “Showy Baby's Breath”

There is one collection of this species of Baby's Breath, made on Lookout Mountain. One other collection in Jefferson County was made at Rocky Flats. The few (eight) Colorado collections have been made along the base of the Front Range.

The species was first described from the region of Mount Kafbek (Kazbek) in the Caucasus Mountains, in the gravels of the Terek River that drains the north side of the mountains, and in the Alps of Kafbek (Bieberstein, M., 1808). It is frequently found in wildflower mixes.

Literature Cited:
- Bieberstein, Marschall von, Freidrich August, 1808.  

Bieberstein (1808, v. 1, p. 319) ...

Original Text Comments
789. GYPSOPHILA elegans.  
G. foliis lanceolatis fubcarnofis paniculaeque ramis dichotomis patentiffimis glabris; corolla emarginata calyce genitalibusque duplo longiore.  
Habitat in glareofis torrentis Terek, circa portas caucalicas et alpem Kafbek. Septembri hinc inde adhuc florentem legi. ☉ “She lives in the gravel valley of Terek, near the caucal gates and the Alps of Kafbek. I picked up on it in September and it is still flowering.”
Radix exilis annua. Caulis paniculatus: ramis floriferis ad angulum rectum patentibus per iteratam dichotomiam dinaricatis. Pedicelli filiformes. Flores forina, colore et magnitudine praecedentis. Affinis G. vifcofae; feci foliis utrinique aculis anguftioibus, paniculae ramis glaubris longioribus et calycibus breuioribus diftincta.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Holosteum umbellatum;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2246, Holosteum umbellatum  

Holosteum umbellatum L. “Jagged Chickweed”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 88) ...

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
umbellatum. 4. HOLOSTEUM floribus umbellatis.  
  Spergula foliis oppofitis, pedunculis umbellatis. Guett. ftamp. 298. Dalib. parif. 134.  
  Holofteum caryophyllaeum arvenfe. Tabern. ic. 233.  
  Lychnis graminea hirfuta umbellifera. Morif. hift. 2. p. 546. f. 5. t. 22. f. 46.  
  Caryophyllus arvenfis umbellatus, folio glabro. Bauh. pin. 210.  
  Caryophyllus arvenfis. Bauh. hift. 3. p. 361.  
  Habitat in Germaniae, Galliae arvis.  Lives in German and French fields.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Paronychia jamesii;  

Paronychia jamesii Torr. & A. Gray “James' Nailwort”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 170-171)

Original Text
4. P. Jamesii: minutely scabrous-pubescent, caespitose, much branched from the base ; leaves linear-subulate, obtuse (the uppermost mucronate) ; cymes dichotomous, few-flowered, crowded, with a central subsessile flower in each division ; sepals minutely hairy at the base, linear-oblong, obscurely 3-ribbed or even, with a very short cusp, arched at the summit within ; sterile setae as long as the filaments. — P. dichotoma ? Torr. ! in ann. lyc. New York, 2. p. 290.
β depressa: dwarf, densely dichotomous; leaves and stipules imbricated on the short branches ; flowers nearly immersed in the leaves. — P. depressa, Nutt.! mss.
Rocky Mountains, lat. 41°, Dr. James! Nuttall ! β “On the barren plains of the Rocky Mountains (lat. 41°), and on the plains of the Oregon.” Nuttall ! — Stems 4-6 inches high. Leaves on the flowering branches about half an inch long, slightly 2-sulcate, about the length of the internodes. Stipules shorter than the leaves, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, or setose ; the point much shorter than in P. dichotoma ; the flowers smaller, fewer, and more crowded ; the cusp stouter and confluent with the arched inner portion. Calyx obpyramidal at the base. Style 2-cleft ⅓ of its length. The β. depressa has the branches crowded with leaves to the summit; the stipules are nearly the length of the leaves, and the flowers are scarcely cymose.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Locations: Big Sandy Creek.  

Gray (1849, p. 14) ...

Original Text
69. Paronychia Jamesii, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. p. 170. High prairies, in gravely soil, east of Big Sand Creek (between the crossing of the Arkansas and Bent's Fort), Sept., 1846 ; and from San Miguel, New Mexico, to Council Grove, Aug. – Sept.

Big Sand Creek may now be Big Sandy Creek, and is the same creek where the Sand Creek massacre occurred.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pseudostellaria jamesiana;  

Pseudostellaria jamesiana (Torr.) W. A. Weber & R. L. Hartm. “Tuber Starwort”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Published as Stellaria jamesiana Torrey (1827) who noted the habitat was moist situations within the Rocky Mountains.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald Hartman, 1979.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2787, Pseudostellaria jamesiana  

Weber & Hartman (1979) transferred our plant to Pseudostellaria saying,

“... realignment of Stellaria jamesiana with Pseudostellaria reinforces the emerging pattern of the Southern Roky Mountain Flora as one having a strong Asiatic element probably dating back to the Tertiary, a feature which greatly impressed Sir Joseph Hooker a century ago when he visited Colorado with Asa Gray.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saponaria officinalis;  

Saponaria officinalis L. “Bouncingbet”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1., p. 408-409) ...

Original Text
officinalis. 1. SAPONARIA calycibus cylindricis, foliis ovato-lanceolatis. Hort. cliff. 165. Hort. upf. 106. Mat. med. 214. Roy. lugdb. 444. Gron. virg. 160. Gort. gelr. 245.
  Saponaria major laevis. Bauh. pin. 206.
  Saponaria vulgaris. Cam. epit. 152.
hybrina. β. Saponaria concava anglica. Bauh. pin. 206. Morif. hift. 2. p. 548. f. 5. t. 22. f. 52.
  Gentiana folio convoluto. Bauh. hift. 3. p. 521.
  Habitat in Europa media.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Silene antirrhina;  

Silene antirrhina L. “Sleepy Catchfly”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1., p. 419) ...

Original Text Comments
17. SILENE foliis lanceolatis glabris, pedunculis trifidis, petalis emarginatism calycibus ovatis, Roy. lugdb. 447. antirrhina.
Silene corymbo dichotomo, floribus pedunculatis, ramis alternis erectis, foliis lanceolatis integerrimis. Gron. virg. 50.    
Vifcago americana noctiflora, antirrhini folio. Dill. elth. 442. t. 313. f. 403.   Leaves like Antirrhinum.
Habitat in Virginia, Carolina. ☉   Known at the time of publication from Virginia and (North and South) Carolina, now described as rangeing from Canada to Mexico (POWO, 2021).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Silene drummondii;  

Silene drummondii Hook. “Drummond's Campion”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1830, v. 1, p. 89) ...

Original Text
Sect, IV. Stachymorpha. Otth. MSS. Caulescentes, Flores spicati (vel racemosi) axillares, non (aut rarius) oppositi. Calyx 10-striatus. DC.
6. S. Drummondii ; tota pubescenti-glandulosa viscida, caulibus erectis simplicibus strictis, foliis remotis lineari-lanceolatis, racemo laxo paucifloro, pedicellis elongatis plerumque alternis, calycibus oblongo-cylindraceis erectis. — S. nicaeensis. Cham. et Schlecht. in Linnaea, v. 1. p. 41.?
Radix perennis, crassiuscula. Caules simplices, erecti, strictissimi, teretes, pedales ad sesquipedalem, ubique, ut et tota plauta, praeter corollam, pubescenti-glandulosi, viscidi, superne prsecipue. Folia lineari-lanceolata, radicalia latiora, in petiolum attenuata; caulina remota sursum sensim minora, opposita, basi connata, uninervia. Flores pauci, 3-5 in racemum laxum, raro spicatum, strictissimum dispositi. Bracteae subulatce. Pedicelli alterni, nunc, sed raro, oppositi, unciam sesquiunciam longi, simplices, nudi vel, nunc, bibracteati. Calyx oblongo-cylindraceus, pubescenti-viscidus, 5-dentatus, dentibus parvis, striis decem viridibus, demum, fructiferus, paulo latior, nunquam inflatus nee clavatus. Petala alba, parva, vix calyce longiora. Capsula cylindracea, sessilis, calycis longitudine, apice 6-dentata.
Hab. Plains of the Saskatchawan. Dr. Richardson ; Drummond. Common on the elevated, gravelly soils near Fort Vancouver, and skirting the Blue Mountains. Douglas. — I am doubtful whether this species should be referred to the division “Stachymorpha” or “Siphonomorpha” of the Prodromus. It accords in many respects with S. gallica of the former division, but it has the flower-stalks vastly more elongated, sometimes opposite, and the calyx more cylindrical; while, on the other hand, it approaches very near to the S. nicaeensis in the latter division, but is far less glutinous, and never has clavate calyces, as in my specimens of nicaeensis from the south of France. Still I suspect it may be the Californian nicaeensis of Chamisso and Schlechtendal, which those authors refer, doubtfully, to the plant of Allioni and De Candolle. From both the species now mentioned ours differs in its remarkably strict habit and small petals.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Silene latifolia;  

Silene latifolia Poir. “Bladder Campion”

(Syn: Lychnis alba Mill. , Melandrium dioicum (L.) Cosson & Germain ) Bladder Campion


Silene latifolia Poir., Voy. Barbarie ii. 165. (1789).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Stellaria media;  

Stellaria media (L.) Vill. “Common Chickweed”

(Syn: Alsine media L. )


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Actaea rubra;  

Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. “Red Baneberry”


Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.  

Aiton (1789, v. 2, p. 221) ...

ACTAEA. Gen. pl. 644.
Cor. 4-petala. Cal. 4-phyllus. Bacca 1-loculatis. Sem. femiorbiculata.  
1. A. racemo ovato, fructibus baccatis. Sp. pl. 722. fpicata.
α baccis nigris. nigra.
Common black-berries Herb-chriftopher.  
β baccis niveis. alba.
White-berried Herb-chriftopher.  
γ baccis rubris. rubra.
Red-berried Herb-chriftopher.  
Nat. α. of Britain ; β. and γ. of North America.  
Fl. April and May. H. ♃.

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1797-1830.  

Willdenow (1799, v. 2, pt. 2, p. 1039) ...

1. ACTAEA fpicata.  
α. Actaea fpicata nigra. ...  
β. ...  
γ. Actara fpicata rubra.  
A. baccis rubris. Ait. Kew. 2. p. 221. I think this is the publication of our name by Aiton.
Houttuyn Lin. Pfl. Syft. 7. p. 181.  
Aehrentragendes Chriftophskraut. W.  
Habitat in nemoribus Europae, β. γ. Americae. ♃ (v.v.)  

Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.  

Willdenow (1809, v. 1, p. 561) ...

★ 2. ACTAEA rubra.
A. racemo ovato, petalis stamininus brevioribus, fructibus baccatis.
Actaea spicata γ. rubra. Sp. pl. ed. W. 2. p. 1139.
Habitat in Canada. ♃. D.
Baccae rubrae et Petala staminibus breviora. Non est varietas praecedentis. Actaea baccis albis ex America boreali mihi est ignota.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Anemone canadensis;  

Anemone canadensis L. “Canada Anemone”

(Syn: Anemonidium canadensis (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Anemone cylindrica;  

Anemone cylindrica A. Gray “Candle Anemone”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1840, v. 1, p. 7) ....

9. A. multifida; pilosa, foliis ternatim divisis, segmentis cuneatis tripartitis laciniatis, laciniis linearibus acutis, involucri involucellorumque breve petiolatis conformibus, sepalis 5-8 subcoriaceis ellipticis extus sericeis. — Poir. in Encycl. Meth. Suppl. v. 1. p. 364, De Less. Ic. v. 1. t 16, De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 21. — A. Hudsoniana. Herb. Banks. Rich. in Frankl. 1st Journ. ed. 2. App. p. 22.
β. caule unifloro. — A. multifida, γ. uniflora. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 21. De Less. Ic. v. 1. t. 17.
γ. flore sanguineo. — A. sanguinea. Pursh, in Herb. Lamb. — A. Hudsoniana, β. sanguinea. Rich. in Frankl 1st. Journ. ed. 2. App. p. 22.
Hab. Gulf of the St. Lawrence. Goldie. From the shores of Hudson's Bay to the western declivity of the Rocky Mountains, and from the United States to near the shores of the Arctic Sea : common. Dr. Richardson. Drummond. West side of the Rocky Mountains, near the sources of the Columbia. Douglas. — Variable in size and in the number of peduncles arising from each stem, from 1 to 3, and agreeing with the figures of De Lessert (from plants gathered in the Straits of Magellan) in every particular, except that in those the segments of the leaves are shorter in proportion to the breadth ; so that their single-flowered variety has very much the appearance of a large state of A. Baldensis. Heads of pericarps, as in that species, roundish-oval, woolly. Flower white, yellow, purple, and deep red.
The species has a very extended range, from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the sources of the Columbia, west of the Rocky Mountains. It was found at Conception in Chili, during Capt. Beechey's Expedition, at the Straits of Magellan, and Dr. Gillies has gathered it on the Andes of Chili.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Anemone multifida var. multifida;  

Anemone multifida Poir. var. multifida “Pacific Anemone”





Literature Cited:
- Ray, John, 1686.
Full Size ImageRay's (1686) description of Aquilegia.  

Latin Automated Translation to English My Interpreted English
Aquilegia recens vocabulum est, quasi Aquilina ob florum mucrones aduncos ut sunt Aquiline ungues. Anglis Columbine dicitur, quia florum calcaria recurva columbarum cervicem cum capite & rostro tum figura tum colore referunt. An veteribus Graecis vel Latinis cognita, aut quo nomine dicta nondum constat. Aguilegia recent designation is, as Aquilina of flowers blades that are AQUILINE hooked claws. English Columbine called for bits of flowers and beaks and curved shape and color the dove's neck and head. Is it known to the ancient Greeks, or to the Latins, the name of which it was said, or not yet been agreed. … flower petals that are like an eagle's hooked claws …
Notae illius genericae sunt folia Umbelliferarum modo divisa, flores penduli cum pluribus corniculis recurvis, femina nigra lucida. Note that the generic Umbelliferarum newspapers are now divided, with many little flowers hanging bend, female black cloud.
Aquilegiam stellatam, quae caret illis corniculis recurvis in flore, pro specie degenere habeo. Aquileia the Star, which has no unto them, little curves that bend in the flower, here standing for species degenerates I have.


  1. “aquiline” like an eagle
    • (of a person's nose) hooked or curved like an eagle's beak.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aquilegia coerulea;  

Aquilegia coerulea E. James “Colorado Blue Columbine”


Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.  

James (1823, v. 2, p. 15) ...

[July] 11th. [1820] From our encampment, we travelled nearly south, and, crossing a small ridge dividing the waters of the Platte from those of the Arkansa, halted to dine on a tributary of the latter. In an excursion from this place we collected a large species of columbine, somewhat resembling the common one of the gardens. It is heretofore unknown to the Flora of the United States, to which it forms a splendid acquisition. If it should appear not to have been described, it may receive the name of Aquilegia coerulea.* Our road, during the morning, lay for about twelve miles, along ...

* A. coerulea. — Leaves twice ternate; flowers terminal, remote; nectaries strait and very long. It inhabits sandy woods of pine, and spruce within the mountains, rising sometimes to the height of three feet.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aquilegia saximontana;  

Aquilegia saximontana Rydb. “Rocky Mountain Columbine”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1878-1895.  

Gray (1895, v. 1, pt. 1, p. 43) ...

A.* saximontana, P. A. Rydberg. Much lower, scarcely a span high : stems slender, several from a scaly rootstock, quite glabrous : leaves small, twice ternate, even the upper slender-petioled, smooth : flowers much as in the preceding, but carpels glabrous. — Rydberg in ms. A. vulgaris, var. brevistyla. Gray, Am. Jour. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiii. 242 ; Porter & Coulter, Fl. Col. 4. A. brevistyla. Coulter, Man. Rocky Mt. Reg. 10; Jones, Zoe, iv. 258. — Rocky Mountains of Colorado, first collected by Parry.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1896.  

Rydberg (1896, v. 3, p. 482) ...

A. saximontana Rydberg ; Gray, Syn. Fl, i, pt. 1, 43 (1895); A. vulgaris brevistyla Gray, Amer. Journ. Sci. ser. 2, xxxiii, 110, and Proc. Acad. Phila, 1863, 57 (1863), name only; Porter, Port. & Coult. Fl. Col. 4 (1874), description; A. brevistyla Coulter, Man. Rock. Mount. Reg. 10 (1885) ; Jones, Zoe, iv, 258 (1893). Pl. XIX.
Stem 1 to 2 dm. high, densely tufted, scarcely exceeding the leaves, perfectly smooth; leaves twice-ternate, all on slender petioles thin, the upper a little smaller; leaflets 8 to 15 mm. long, with long petiolules, pedicels slender, upright; sepals greenish and obtuse or blue and acute; limb of the petals yellow, longer than the blue, curved spur, and the stamens and pistils; ovary smooth; pod 1.5 to 2 cm., smooth.
Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Specimens examined : Colorado, Dr. James (labeled A. caerulea, var. ?); 1861, C. C. Parry, No. 90; 1862, Hall & Harbour, No. 23; 1869, Scoville ; Argentine Pass, 1878, M. E. Jones, No. 875 ; Gray's Peak, 1895, P. A. Rydberg and C. L. Shear.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana;  

Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray. “Rock Clematis”


Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;
• US I-90:   near Warm Springs;   near St Regis;

Locations: Clark Fork. Clark Fork.  

Nuttall (1834, p. 7) describes Atragene columbiana from collections by Nathaniel Wyeth on the Flat-Head river on the return trip between the Falls of the Columbia and the first navigable waters of the Missouri.

Original Text
2. Atragene *Columbiana. Pedunculis unifloris, foliis oppositis ternatum sectis, foliolis ovatis acutis, obsolete crenulatis, sepalis ovatis acuminatis, staminibus vix suplo longioribus.
Hab. Flat-Head river. In flower by the first of March, forming an intricate mat of branches so as to appear almost like a bush. Readily distinguishable from A. verticillaris by the flowers, which are scarcely half as large and of a dull palish blue. The leaflets are also cuneate rather than cordate at base, and the lateral ones apparently always entire.
Clark's Fork receives the Flathead and Bitterroot Rivers, but Wyeth, and consequently Nuttall, called Clarks Fork and all its branches the “Flathead” River (Graustein, 1967, p. 261).

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838) placed Nuttall's Atragene columbiana into Clematis.

Original Text Comments
§ 2. Involucre none : sepals 4 : petals several, minute. — Atragene, DC. Here, Torrey & A. Gray credit DeCandolle as the author of section Atragene
19. C. Columbiana : peduncles 1-flowered ; leaves ternate : leaflets ovate, acute, obscurely crenulate ; sepals ovate, acuminate, nearly twice the length of the stamens. — Atragene Columbiana, Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 7.  
Rocky Mountains, Mr. Wyeth. March. — Flowers smaller than in C. verticillaris, pale blue. Nuttall.  

Literature Cited:
- Pringle, James S., 1993+.  

James S. Pringle (1993+) writing in Flora of North America places C. columbiana in subgroup Atragene giving Torr. & A. Gray (1838) authorship of the name.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) treat Atragene at the rank of genus.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) in Flora of Colorado accepts Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, placing Atragene columbiana Nutt. in synonomy.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis hirsutissima;  

Clematis hirsutissima Pursh “Hairy Clematis, Sugar Bowls”

(Syn: Coriflora hirsutissima (Pursh) W. A. Weber )

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Anemone patens var. multifida, Nuttall, 1818;  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 385) ...

Original Text Comments
9. C. erecta, simplex ; foliis hirsutissimis bipinnatifidis incisis, laciniis linearibus acutis, caulinis composite-multifidis, pedunculo terminali solitario, flore erecto campanulato, petalis 4. erectis ovatis obtusiusculis apice reflexis. hirsutissima. Pursh states that the flower is erect, as might be deduced from the Lewis & Clark specimen. However, the flower is nearly always nodding. This may have led to confusion with Nuttall's Anemone ludoviciana, for which the flowers are erect.
On the plains of Columbia river. ♃. May. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. The whole plant is covered with a close coat of long hairs like Anemone Pulsatilla, which it very much resembles in several respects. I consider all the division of Anemones with caudated seeds to belong to this genus, or at least to one separate from Anemone.   The original label states, “One of the most common plants on the plains of the Columbia — May 27th 1806,” see Moulton (1999).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis ligusticifolia;
• Kinney Run Trail:   near Eagle Ridge Drive;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1970, Clematis ligustifolia  

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. “Western White Clematis”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Published in Torrey & Gray (1838-1843, v. 1, p. 9) from a Nuttall manuscript.

Original Text Comments
8. C. ligusticifolia (Nutt. ! mss.): “plant somewhat pubescent ; flowers in paniculate corymbs, dioecious ; leaves pinnate ternate ; leaflets oblong, acute, mostly somewhat lanceolate-cuneate, incisely toothed and trifid ; petals and stamens equal in length ; carpels with long plumose tails. — C. Virginiana, Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1. (in part). It appears that this entire description is a quote from Nuttall's manuscript.
β. brevifolia : leaves smoother, shorter and broader.  
“Plains of the Rocky Mountains, in open and in bushy places, near streams. β in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the Oregon. — Very similar to C. Virginiana, but the leaves are mostly 5-foliolate, and almost lucidly coriaceous ; They are also much smaller, and in the var. α much narrower and longer. The tails of the carpels are also longer and more densely plumose in C. Virginiana. Flowers white and fragrant.” Nutt.  

There are two vouchers of Nuttall collections of Clematis ligusticifolia at NY. One of them (NY233134) gives the location of “R. Mts. Lewis' River” in Nuttall's hand and was designated the holotype by Arnold Tiehm, December 1985. The Lewis River of the time is today's Snake River. The other (NY233159) is from the Torrey Herbarium and gives the location as the Columbia River. This has been designated as the holotype of C. ligusticifolia var. brevifolia Torr. & A. Gray found in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the Oregon.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis orientalis;  

Clematis orientalis L. “Oriental Virginsbower”


Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 543) ...

4. CLEMATIS foliis compofitis : foliolis incifis angulatis lobatis cuneiformibus. orientalis.
Clematis orientalis, apii folio, flore e viridi-flavefcente pofterius reflexo. Tournef. cor. 20.  
Flammula fcandens, apii folio glauco. Dill. elth. 144. t. 119. f. 145.  
Habitat in Oriente.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium carolinianum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1440, 15 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 2359, 12 Jun 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2359, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1440, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens  

Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks. “Plains Larkspur”


Literature Cited:
- Walter, Thomas, 1788.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Walter, 1788, Flora Caroliniana, publication details;  

Walter (1788, p. 155)

Original Text Comments
T R I G Y N I A  
220. DELPHINIUM. Cal. nullus. Petala 6. Nectarium 2-phyllum, cornutum. Silique 3.  
carolinianum 1. nectario diphyllo, quam flos longiori, labellis integris, floribus fpicatis purpureis macula lutea, petalis duobus bifidis barbatis.  

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described the Plains Larkspur from his collection on the plains of the Missouri.

Original Text
371. DELPHINIUM. L. (Larkspur.)
Calix none. Petals 5. Lepanthium (nectary) bifid, cornutely produced behind. Siliques 3 or 1.
Herbaceous, lower leaves digitate or palmate, upper ones often undivided; flowers spiked or paniculate, blue, violaceous or yellowish.
Species. 1. D. tricorne 2. azureum 3. exaltatum. 4. consolida. Naturalized.
5. *virescens. Perennial, pubescent; lepanthium 4-leaves, shorter than the 5 calicine petals, interior laminae densely bearded; leaves 3-parted, segments linear, subtrifid, lower ones divaricate.
Hab. On the Plains of the Missouri.
Obs. Stem simple about 8 to 12 inches, pubescent; leaves upon long petioles, partly digitate or 5-parted, 10 to 15 lines wide; spike few-flowered, flowers greenish white, petalois calix, 5-leaved, leaves oblong, spur longer than the flower, nearly straight. Petals of lenanthium 4; the 2 internal ones irregularly concave, small, the 2 lateral larger, flat, and unguiculate, bearded, claw sending out a short spur at the base; capsules 3. Flowering in June.
A genus almost equally divided betwixt Siberia and the south of Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 32) accepted Nuttall's D. virescens.

Original Text Comments
8. D. virescens (Nutt.): pubescent ; petioles scarecely dilated at the base ; leaves 3-5-parted, the middle division mostly undivided, lateral ones 2-3-cleft ; lobes lanceolate ; raceme loose, few-flowered ; sepals oblong or lanceolate ; spur longer than the sepals, ascending ; lower petals deeply 2-cleft ; claw gibbous at the base. — Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 14; DC. prodr. 1. p. 53.  
Plains of Missouri and Arkansas, Nuttall ! North Carolina, Schweinitz ! Georgia, Le Conte ! June. — Stem 8-12 inches high. Raceme simple. Pedicels longer than the flowers. Bracts subulate. Flowers large, yellowish or greenish white, minutely pubescent. Sepals marked with a brownish spot near the apex, much longer than the petals. Spur straight or somewhat incurved. Lower petals rather densely bearded. Ovaries 3. It is possible that the collections of D. virescens should carry the name D. carolinianum.

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 32) treat D. carolinanum Walt. as a synonym of D. azureum Michx.


Rydberg (1899) supports acceptance of D. virescens, although on somewhat flimsy evidence. Not sure why he did not mention the taxon as found in Colorado or Wyoming.

Literature Cited:
- Brooks, Ralph E., 1982.
- Warnock, M. J., 1981.  

Original Text Comments
Delphinium carolinianum Walt. subsp. virescens R. E. Brooks, comb. nov. Basionym: D. virescens Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 14. 1818.  
Warnock (1981) treated virescens as a synonym of D. carolinanum subsp. pernardii (Huth) Warnock. Field examinations of numerous individuals combined with mor[hological evaluations, including SEM studies of the seeds, indicate that virescens is sufficiently distinct from pernardii to warrant taxonomic recognition of virescens. Warnock's (op. cit.) concept of subspecies in this group is new, however, and one with which I agree. Subsp. virescens has mostly equally distributed cauline leaves with a few basal leaves and the upper stem and rachis are covered with basally yellow, pustualte (sic) trichomes. It occurs in the eastern Great Plains and adjacent eastern areas from North Dakota south to northeast Texas and Missouri. Subsp. pernardii usually has a distinct basal rosette of leaves with a few cauline leaves, the upper spem is canescent and sparsely pustulate hairy, and the rachis is canescent. The subspecies occurs in the western Great Plains from western Nebraska south to Texas.  

Literature Cited:
- Warnock, M. J., 1995.  


Literature Cited:
- Jabbour, Florian, and Susanne S. Renner, 2012.  

Jabbour and Renner (2011) studied the global phylogeny of tribe Delphineae that comprises Aconitum and Delphinium. The only studied taxon found in Golden s.l. was Delphinium nuttallianum, so there is nothing to say about D. carolinianum subsp. virescens. The study showed that some re-arrangement of names in Delphineae is required though none that will affect names in Colorado. Molecular clock dating suggests that Delphinium arrived in North American from Asia in the Pliocene.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium geyeri;  

Delphinium geyeri Greene “Geyer's Larkspur”


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1894b.  

Greene (1894, v. 2, p. 189-190) ...

Delphinium Geyeri. Rootl woody-fibrous : stem stoutish, 10 to 20 inches high: leaves mostly near the base of the stem and forming a considerable tuft, but in taller specimens many cauline also, these diminishing upwards; the whole plant, especially the calyx, pedicels, and upper part of stem, canescently tomentulose: leaves slightly fleshy, cut into many linear segments, each of these tipped with a white callosity : flowers rather large, very deep azure, in a narrow simple and strict raceme; spur stoutish, horizontal or ascending, curving downwards from near the tip.
Common plant of the very high plains toward the head-waters of the Platte River in Wyoming and northern Colorado. First collected by Nuttall, whose specimen (Herb. Brit. Mus.) is ticketed "D. hicolor? collected in Rocky Mts. by myself," though it is far enough from being his D. bicolor. It is also Geyer's n. 163 of “Slopes of undulating plains between the Kansas and Platte rivers, with Oenothera serrulata.” It is one of several easily distinguishable plants, from widely sundered, and very different climatic regions, which Dr. Gray referred to D. azureum.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium nuttallianum;

Locations: Schweich Hill.  

Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz. “Twolobe Larkspur”

One our two common larkspurs in Golden s.l., Delphinium nuttallianum Pritz. “Twolobe Larkspur” in every open space except Schweich Hill. Found mostly along the base of the Front Range in Jefferson County, with a few collections up into the foothills. Colorado state collections are from the Front Range to the west, sparingly in the large valleys and parks, such as San Luis Valley and South Park.

The first name applied was D. pauciflorum Nutt. From a manuscript by Nuttall in Torrey & Gray (1838-1843). However, this name was previously used for a larkspur in Nepal and therefore nom. Illeg. This was corrected by Pritzel in a manuscript published by Walpers (1843).

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838-1840, v. 1, p. 33) ...

11. D. Pauciflorum (Nutt.l mss.) : “somewhat hirsutely pilose ; petioles scarcely dilated ; leaves reniform, lobes bifid or trifid, linear and entire; bracts simple, minute ; raceme 3-5-flowered ; spur subulate, straight, about the length of the oblong acutish petals ; stigmas and styles smooth; root grumous. “petals” has been crossed out, and “sepals” written in the margin.
“Rocky Mountains and Blue Mountains of the Oregon. — Scarcely a foot high, slender ; the lower part and the stem more or less minutely and roughly pubescent. Leaves nearly smooth on the upper surface ; two or three divided ones on the stem, the uppermost beneath the flowers simple. Flowers 2-3, large, blue. Lower petals with a central line of pubescence ; upper ones hirsute externally. Carpels pubescent.” Nutt.  

Literature Cited:
- Walpers, Wilhelm Gerhard, 1842-1847.  

Walpers (1843, t. 2. p. 744) ...

13. *D. PAUCIFLORUM Nutt. mss. in Torr. et Gr. Fl. of North Am. I. p. 33. — (Wlprs. Rep. 1. p. 56.) accipiat nomen : D. Nuttallianum Pritz. mss.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Myosurus minimus;  

Myosurus minimus L. “Tiny Mousetail”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Myosurus minimus was first published by Linnaeus (1753), and some other previous works. It's still an accepted name.

Original Text
minimus. 1. MYOSURUS.
Myofurus foliis integerrimis. Hort. Cliff. 177. Fl. Fuet. 261. Roy. Lugdb. 492.
Holofteo affinis Cauda mirus. Bauh. Pin. 190.
Cauda muris. Dod. Pempt 112.
Habitat in Europae collibus apricis aridis. ☉


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pulsatilla nuttalliana;  

Pulsatilla nuttalliana (DC.) Spreng. “Nuttall's Pasque Flower”


Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1818.  

DeCandolle (1818, v. 1, p. 193) ...

7. Anemone Nuttalliana.
A. foliis palmati-sectis , segmentis tribus multifidis , lobis linearibus elongatis , involucralibus in lobos lineares multi-sectis, flore erecto, sepalis 6 erecto-conniventibus.
Hab. in Louisiana. Nuttall. ♃ ( v. s. sp. in H. Lamb.).
Species distinctissima ob habitum oninino Puisatiiiae et folia radicalia palmatim trisecta , nec pinnatim multisecta ; petioli adpresse pubescentes , 3 poll. longi; limbus trisectus, segmentis petiolulatis multifidis, lobulis linearibus , elongatis , acutis , minime dentatis , superne et imprimis subtus subvillosis ; scapus 6-12 poll. longus, plus minusve villosus , interdiim glabratus ; involucri folia in lobos lineares multisecta, basi hirsuto-villosa ; pedicellus iongitudine varins; flos purpurascens erectus , sepalis 6,oblongis, acutis, erecto-conniventibus , extus villosis, 8-10 lin. longis ; fructus A. pulsatillae !

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Clematis hirsutissima, Pursh, 1814;  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 20) ...

1. A[nemone] * ludoviciana.
Hab. Commencing near the confluence of the river Platte and Missouri; on gravelly hills; flowering about April. Clematis hirsutissima. Pursh 2. p. 385. Obs. A species related to A. patens and A. Pulsatilla, and much about the size of the latter. ...

While Nuttall was describing Pulsatilla nuttalliana, he placed Pursh's Clematis hirsutissima in synonomy, an error, thus rendering his name of A. ludoviciana illegitimate.

Literature Cited:
- Berchtold, Bedrich (Friedrich) Všemír (Wssemjr) von, and Jan Svatopluk (Swatopluk) Presl, 1823.
Full Size ImageBrechtold & Presl (1823) publication of Pulsatilla nuttalliana.  

Bercht. & J.Presl (1823) published Pulsatilla nuttalliana without much comment. They did, however, establish a specific epithet for our plant as a North American entity.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1825.  

Nuttall (1825, v. 5, p. 158) ...

Observations on a species of Anemone, of the section Pulsatilla, indigenous to the United States. By Thomas Nuttall. Read October 11, 1825.
That the genus Anemone, as constituted by Linnaeus and his successors, even after the judicious separation of Hepatica by Willdenow, still requires revision, must, I conceive, be apparent to all who have ever compared the Pulsatillas with such other assumed species of the genus, as A. virginiana, A. caroliniana, or A. thalictroides : the last, indeed, with strict propriety, has been referred by De Candolle to Thalictrum, and the Pulsatillas are sectioually divided by Persoon, from his Anemonoides, being distinguished remarkably from the latter by the long plumose appendages of their spreading carpelles, in which particular, though remote in habit, they bear so marked an affinity to the genus Clematis, that Pursh, deceived by imperfect specimens of our plant, named it Clematis hirsutissima, (2. p. 385) and by this name he marked the specimen in Mr. Lambert's herbarium which I had collected. In the work on the Genera of North American plants and the rarer species, Vol. II. p. 20, I have attempted to describe it as Anemone *ludoviciana, having a 1 -flowered involucrate scape, remarkably soft and lanuginous (no ways hirsute) with the segments subulately divided ; the leaves pseudo-digitate, multifid, and smooth on the upper surface, the segments entire, linear and acute; the petals 6, oblong-ovate, and nearly erect.
This species has also been introduced into the Systema Vegetabilium of De Candolle, by the name of Anemone Nuttallii ; and the better to illustrate it, I have now added a figure from a sketch made on the spot (vid. Pl. viii.) Like most of the section to which it appertains, it grows on exposed bare hills, and flowers early in the month of April. The colour of the flower is a grayish sombre blue. We found it growing in considerable tufts, on hills near the confluence of the Missouri and Platte rivers. It would be highly acceptable to the flower garden from its early and showy appearance.

Unfortunately, Plate viii is missing from the online volume on Biodiversity Heritage Library.


Hooker (1840, v. 1, p. 4-5) ...

1. A. patens; molliter sericea, foliis serotinis tripartitis ternatisve, segmentis cuneatis trifidis incisis, lobis lineari-lanceolatis, involucro lineari-multifido, flore erecto, sepalis 5-6, aristis longis barbatis. — Linn. Sp. Pl. p. 759. Gmel. Siber. v. 4. p. 195. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 16. — (β. ochroleuca.) Sims, in Bot. Mag. t. 1994. — Clematis hirsutissima. Pursh, Fl. Am. v. 2. p. 285. — Anemone ludoviciana. Nutt. N. Am. Fl. v. 2. p. 26. — A. Nuttalliana. De Cand. Prodr. v. 1. p. 17. Nutt. in Journ. of Acad. of Nat. Sc. of Philad. v. 5, p, 158. t 8. (A. Nuttallii,) excellent. Rich. in Frankl. 1st Journ. ed. 2. App. p. 21.
Hab. Profusely in the eastern prairie district ; and, more scattered, in the central limestone tracts from lat. 45° to 67° on the Mackenzie. Dr. Richardson. Valleys in the Rocky Mountains. Drummond. Douglas. — There is no difference whatever between this American plant and the A.patens which I possess from the Russian Empire, gathered by Dr. Goldbach, and from Silesia on the borders of Poland, by Professor Treviranus. Both are liable to vary in the breadth of the segments of their leaves, and in the colour of their flowers. Mostly, however, these are purple. The pale yellow-flowered variety from Siberia, is cultivated in England; and the fresh juice of that kind, Gmeliu tells us, is employed by the inhabitants of Irkutsck to cure deafness, and newly gathered leaves for pain in the head, as vesicatories. The plant affects sandy soils, and its blossoms appear among the earliest of the season. The young buds are eaten by the Marmots, inhabitants of the plains of N. America. — A. Halleri comes too near to this species. Its flowers I have often gathered in Switzerland before the leaves have appeared; but since, in both, the flowers continue a long time, they and the leaves are sometimes gathered in perfection together, I possess specimens from Moscow, in which the former year's leaves are present with the vernal flower ; quite dead, indeed, and brown, but perfect in form and shape.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1840, v. 1, p. 11) ...

§ 1. Carpels with long bearded tails : leaves of the involucre sessile, palmately divided, with linear lobes. — Pulsatilla, DC.
1. A. patens (Linn.): silky-villous ; leaves 3-parted or ternate; segments cuneiform, 3-cleft, incised; lobes linear-lanceolate; involucre linearly many-cleft; sepals 5-6.— DC. prodr. 1. p. 16. – (β. ochroleuca); Hook ! f.. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 4. A. Ludoviciana, Nutt. ! gen. 2. p. 26. A. Nuttalliana, DC. prodr. l. c. p. 17; Nutt. in jour. acad. Philad. 5. p. 158. t. 8. and 7. p. 7 ; Richards. ! app. Frankl. journ. (ed. 2.) p. 21. Clematis hirsutissima, Pursh, fl. 2. p. 385.
British America as far north as lat., 67° ! Valleys of the Rocky Mountains, Drummond, Nuttall! On the Missouri and Platte, Nuttall! Galena, lllinois ! — About a span high. Sepals an inch or more in length, dull blue or purple. Tail of the carpels nearly two inches long. — Appears to be identical with the European plant.

Literature Cited:
- Pritzel, Georg A., 1842.  

Anemone patens var. multifida Pritz., Linnaea 15(6): 581 (1842). Georg August Pritzel (2 September 1815, Carolath – 14 June 1874) was a German librarian and botanical writer. He studied in Breslau, graduating with a dissertation titled Anemonarum revisio. In 1851 he began work as a Hülfsarbeiter at the royal library in Berlin, a post which eventually led to curator duties. From 1855 onwards, he served as archivist at the Prussian Academy of Sciences.

Pritzel (1842, v. 15, n. 6, p. 581) …

A. patens L. sp. 759. … Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. I. p. 4 Torrey & Gray Fl . Of North-Am. I. p. 11. …  
Anemone Nuttalliana DC. Syst. I. 193. Prodr. I. 17. Pulsatilla Nuttalliana Spr. Syst. 11. p. 663. (Clematis hirsutissima Pursh, Anemone Ludoviciana Nutt. Gen. am. Et Journ. Of the Academy of nat. sc. Of Philadelphia vol. V. (a. 1825.) p. 158. et icon tab. 8. ex auctoritate Hookeri, Gray et Torrey! (Hab. as confl. Platt et Missouri, 39° lat. — secundrum DC., quod tacent Illustr. Viri Hooker, Torrey et Gray, in Louisiana; 29°-33° lat. (?!) — ad flum. Columbia, 33° lat. Sprengel!)  
4. var. multifida, segmento intermedio petiolato, lateralibus subsessilibus, omnibus bi-tripartitisva ; laciniis profunde incisis: lacinulis saepe iterum incisis. (var. 3. ft. alt.) — in Sibiria frequenter. While Pritzel publishes the the variety name of multifida, he does not make a connection to the North American plants.
In America boreali copiose in planitiebus orientalibus, rarius in interioribus regionibus calcareis inter lat. 45-67° (1) ad Mackenzie flumen, Dr. Richardson! Vallibus montium rupestrium (Rocky-Mountains, Felsengebirge), Drummond et Dougas! — ad confl. Platte et Missouri, 39° lat. Nuttall! — prope Galena civitatis Illinois, Torrey et Gray! 42° 50' lat. — In Louisiana, (29-33° lat.!) DC. Teste Nuttall! (locus, scriptoribus Americanis non laudatus!). Si recta res se habet. A. patens in American a lat. 29° (?!) ad lat. 67° distributa est! —  

Literature Cited:
- Hoot, Sara B., Kyle Meyer, and John C. Manning, 2012.  

The only reference made by Hoot, et al. (2012) to A. patens is to place it in section Pulsatilla (Mill.) DC. 1817:193.

Literature Cited:
- Mosyakin, Sergei L., 2016.  

Mosyakin (2016) proposed ...

... a nomenclatural and taxonomic update to the treatment of Anemone in the Flora of North America North of Mexico (Dutton et al., 1997). The taxa placed in Anemone in that treatment should not be placed in at least four genera: Anemone sensu stricto, Hepatica, Pulsatilla, and Anemonastrum.

That explains the proposed treatment as Pulsatilla. What about adoption of the specific name of nuttalliana in preference to multifida. Mosyakin (2016) summarizes ...

Native North American plants of the Pulsatilla patens aggregate were recognized by [FNANM] as Anemone patens var. multifida Pritzel, which was described from Siberia (Pritzel 1841). The North American taxon has a very complicated synonymy and it is definitely not identical with the typical European–Western Asian P. patens sensu stricto (subsp. patens). Its correct name as a species of Pulsatilla is P. nuttalliana (DC.) Bercht. & J. Presl.

Literature Cited:
- Sramko, Gabor, Leventa Laczko, Polina A. Volkova, Richard M. Bateman, and Jelena Mlinarec, 2019.  

Sramko, et al. (2019) ...

Genus Pulsatilla Mill.
Subgenus Pulsatilla
Section Pulsatilla
Series Patentes (Aichele & Schweg.) Juz. ex Tamura
species: P. integrifolia (Miyabe & Tatew.) Vorosch., P. patens (L.) Mill. [incl. subsp. flavencens (Zucc.) Zamelis, subsp. multifida (E. Pritz.) Zamelis, subsp. nuttalliana (DC.) Grey-Wilson], P. vernalis Mill.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus acriformis;  

Ranunculus acriformis A. Gray “Sharpleaf Buttercup”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1886.  

A.Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 21: 374 (1886) ...

R. acriformis. A foot high, strict, with pubescence in good part appressed : leaves all palmately or pedately and deeply 3-5-parted or even divided, and often again 2-3-cleft into narrower lanceolate or linear segments and lobes : petals orbicular-obovate, one fourth inch long, hardly double the length of the spreading calyx : akenes over a line long; beak of half their length. — R. acris, Hook. Fl. i. 18, partly, & Lond. Jour. Bot. vi, 66, not L. — Northern Rocky Mountains, lat. 58°, Drummond. Wyoming, Parry (distrib. as R. affinis). Wind River, Dr. Forwood, and near Cheyenne, Greene.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus acris;  

Ranunculus acris L. “Tall Buttercup”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus;  

Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With. “Threadleaf Crowfoot”

(Syn: Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. capillaceus (Thuill.) DC.)

Literature Cited:
- Withering, William, 1796.  

Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus With., Arr. Brit. Pl., ed. 3. 2: 507 (1796).
Withering, William (1741-1799)
An Arrangement of British Plants ..., Edition 3


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus cymbalaria;  

Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh “Alkali Buttercup”

(Syn: Halerpestes cymbalaria (Pursh) Greene , R. cymbalaria Pursh var. saximontanus Fernald )


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus glaberrimus ellipticus;  

Ranunculus glaberrimus Hook. var. ellipticus (Greene) Greene “Sagebrush Buttercup”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.

Locations: Kettle Falls (historical).  

Hooker (1829, v. 1, p. 12) ...

6. R. glaberrimus ; foliis omnibus petiolatis, radicalibus subrotundis integerrimls vel grosse tridentatis, caulinis subcuneatis trifidis, calyce patente petalis dimidio breviore, fructibus globosis. (Tab. V. A.)
Radix fasciculato-fibrosa. Tota planta hirsutie destituta. Caulis erectus, subspithamieus, superne uni-bitriflorus. Folia omnia (nisi supernum quod subsessile,) petiolata, subsucculenta : radicalia subrotunda, integra, atque oranino iutegerrima vel apice dentibus trlbus grossis obtusis : caulina cuneata, fere ad medium trifidum : segmentis lanceolatis, obtusis, integris. Pedunculus et calyx etiam glaberrimi. Sepala ovalia, concava, patentia, non reflexa, corolla duplo breviora. Petala 5, ovalia, flava. Fructus, vix maturus, globosus.
Hab. Common on the mountains around the Kettle Falls, and on the Rocky Mountains, near the limits of perpetual snow. Douglas. — This differs from all its congeners by its entirely glabrous stem, leaves, and calyx, by its entire or only 3-toothed, rounded, radical leaves, and by the petiolated, never more than trifid, cauline ones. The whole plant has a succulent appearance, and turns almost black in drying. I have seen it in no collection but that of the indefatigable Douglas.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1890.  

Greene (1890, v. 2, p. 110-111) ...

R. ellipticus. R. glaberrimus, Gray, Am. Journ. Sci. 2d Ser. xxx. 241; Port. & Coult. Fl. Colo. 7; Coult. Man. 7; Brew. & Wats. Bot. Calif. i. 7 mainly; Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. xxi. 369 in part, not of Hooker. R. brevicaulis, Hook. Lond. Journ. vi. 66, not of Fl. Bor.-Am. (teste Gray, l. c.). R. alismaefolius, Gray, Am. Journ. l. c. 404, not of Geyer. Very glabrous : stems several, 2 or 3 inches. high, from a large fascicle of perennial fleshy-fibrous roots : radical leaves elliptical, entire, acutish at both ends, the petiole equalling the blade ; cauline narrower, often cleft into two or three linear divisions : petals often wanting, sometimes 1 only, or 5, large, broadly obovate or more rounded, bright yellow : achenes very numerous, plump, smooth, tipped with a short curved style and disposed in a large globose head.
Lower and middle mountain districts of Colorado, Utah and Nevada to eastern California. Very nearly allied to R. glaberrimus, though a smaller plant, and inhabiting a different climatic belt. There is a difference in the achenes ; those of the true glaberrimus having a slender beak. The order of leaf-division is, moreover, inverted in the two species. In R. ellipticus the cauline are 3-cleft while the radical are entire and even acute. In R. glaberrimus the radical ones are broad and broadly 3-lobed while the cauline are entire. The herbage of the latter invariably blackens in drying. In the former it undergoes no change of color.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1891-97.  

Greene (1892, p. 298) in Flora Franciscana ...

8. R. glaberrimus, Hook. Fl. i. 12 t. 5. A (1829). Glabrous, flaccid but rather fleshy, 3—6 in. high: leaves all petiolate; radical rounded, 3-lobed or coarsely toothed; cauline subcuneate, trifid or entire: fi. several, large ; sepals spreading; petals 3-4 lines long, obovoid: achenes plump, smooth, puberulent, with a short curved beak, and disposed in a large globose head. Var. ellipticus. R. ellipticus, Greene, Pitt. ii. 110 (1890). Radical leaves elliptical, acute, entire: stems shorter; fl. fewer, often apetalous. — The type, a plant of the far north and east, reaches our borders on the eastern slope of the Sierra northward. The variety, a plant of different aspect, and with very dissimilar foliage, is found not far from Truckee, Mr. Sonne, where it appears as if confluent with the type.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus ranunculinus;  

Ranunculus ranunculinus (Nutt.) Rydb. “Tadpole Buttercup”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Locations: Independence Rock.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838-1840, v. 1, p. 26) worked from Nuttall's manuscript.

7. CYRTORHYNCHA. Nutt. mss.
" Sepals 5, petaloid, narrow, spreading. Petals 5, narrow and unguiculate ; the claw nearly the length of the lamina, with a projecting scaly callosity at its summit. Stamens rather numerous: anthers rounded. Stigmas short and subulate, strongly incurved. Achenia oblong-cylindrical, somewhat conspicuously grooved (not carinated), collected into a spheroidal head. Seed suspended. — A small perennial herbaceous plant. Leaves mostly arising from a short caudex, ternate and bipinnately divided. Panicle loose and cymose. Calyx petaloid and, like the corolla, bright yellow. In the fruit it resembles Thalictrum; in the flower, both Anemone and Ranunculus."
C. ranunculina (Nutt.! mss.)
" By the sides of gravelly brooks in the eastern range of the Rocky Mountains, around the place known by the name of Independence Rock on the banks of the Sweet Water of the Platte, but not further to the westward. Flowers in June. — Caudex clothed with numerous brown vestiges of sheathing petioles. The whole plant quite smooth. Leaves somewhat coriaceous and shining ; radical ones on long petioles, the subdivisions pinnatifid ; laciniae entire or 2-3-toothed. Stem, or scape, about a span high, cymosely branched above ; bearing at the lowest division a single sessile 3-parted leaf, and at the upper divisions minute and undivided leaves. Sepals oblong-ovate, spreading but not reflexed. Petals somewhat longer than the sepals, oblong, obtuse, very conspicuously narrowed below into a long claw, (almost like the nectaries of Coptis) ; the upper part of the claw thickened bv a scale-like process. Stamens 20 or more : anthers adnate. Carpels 10-15, quite glabrous, cylindrical-oblong, grooved (as in Thalictrum). Stigma subulate, shorter than the ovary, inflexed so as to be almost concealed in the mature fruit."

Rydberg (1984, p. 23) ...

Ranunculus ranunculinus (Nutt.)
Cyrtorrhynca ranunculina Nutt. in Torrey & Gray's Fl. N. Am. I., 26. (1838)

Literature Cited:
- Emadzade, Khatere, Carlos Lehnebach, Peter Lockhart, and Elvira Horandl, 2010.  

Emadzade, et al. (2010) ...

Clade II-a, Arcteranthis-Beckwithia-Cyrtirhyncha-Halerpestes-Oxygraphis-Trautvetteria clade.
Achenes of Cyrtorhyncha have long triangular hooked beaks and almost parallel longitudinal veins (Fig. 4H) which are unique within the tribe. Although there are no obvious morphological synapomorphic characters shared between Cyrtorhyncha ranunculina and Beckwithia andersonii, these two taxa form a clade with 100% BS in tree topologies based on combined nuclear and chloroplast data (Figs. 1, 2) and have a similar distribution area.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus repens;  

Ranunculus repens L. “Creeping Buttercup”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus sceleratus;  

Ranunculus sceleratus L. “Cursed Buttercup”

(Syn: Hecatonia scelerata (L.) Fourr.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ranunculus testiculatus;  

Ranunculus testiculatus Crantz “Bur Buttercup”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Berberis repens;  

Berberis repens Lindl. “Creeping Barberry”


Literature Cited:
- Lindley, John, 1828.
Full Size ImageLindley's (1828) figure of Berberis repens  

Lindley (1828, t. 1176) ...

BERBERIS* repens
Creeping-rooted Berberry.

Nat. ord. Berberideae.
BERBERIS. — Supra, vol 6. fo. 487.

B. repens; foliis pinnatis 2-3-jugis; foliolis subrotundo-ovatis opacis spinoso-dentatis glaucis, fasciculis diffusis, radice repente.
Frutex humilis, ramosus, erectus. Folia sempervirentia, nunc ternata, saepius bi-trijuga, cum impare ; foliolis glabris, ovato-subrotundisy spinoso-dentatis, utrinque glaucis, nulla modo lucidis. Racemi terminales. fasciculati, diffusi, e gemmis squamaceis orti. Flores lutei.

A native of the north-western part of North America, where it was originally found by the party accompanying Captains Lewis and Clarke in their expedition across the continent of America.
From seeds procured on that occasion plants were raised in America, which have lately been sold into Europe at the rate of twenty-five dollars each. One of these now growing in the Garden of the Horticultural Society afforded our figure and the opportunity of examining the species : it had been purchased of Mr. Michael Floy, Nurseryman at New York, under the name of Berberis aquifolium.
It appears, however, from the researches of Mr. Douglas, that this is not the true B. aquifolium. That species was described by Pursh, in part from an inspection of specimens in the collection of Captain Lewis, but chiefly from the Banksian Herbarium, in which it had been placed by Mr. Menzies, who discovered it on the north-west coast of America. From this last source the drawing in the Flora Americae Septentrionalis was also taken. It is probable that the specimens in Captain Lewis's Herbarium were of the plant now under consideration; but it is also certain that those of Mr. Menzies belong to very distinct species. Hence it seems that Pursh founded two plants under the same name That he intended to call Captain Lewis's plant B. aquifolium, there can be no doubt; but it is equally certain, that in consequence of his having figured Menzies' species, the world now applies the name to the latter. This being the case, it has become necessary to distinguish the former by a new name, which has been suggested by its singular property of creeping at the root; a habit peculiar to this species among Berberries.
A hardy, evergreen shrub, flowering in April ; propagated, but with difficulty, by its creeping roots. Branches short, stiff, erect. Leaves evergreen, sometimes ternate, more frequently of two or three pairs, with an odd one ; leaflets ovate, roundish, with spiny teeth, glaucous on each side, in no degree shining. Racemes terminal, fascicled, diffuse, arising out of scaly buds. Flowers yellow.
J. L. [John Lindley]

* Berberys, according to Golius, as quoted by De Theis, is the Arabic name of the fruit.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Argemone hispida;  

Argemone hispida A. Gray “Rough Prickly Poppy”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

Gray (1849, p. 5) ...

16. Argemone hispida (sp. nov.) : radice perenni ; caule crasso foliisque profunde pinnatifidis pube brevi cinerea undique tectis et (nervis marginibusque praesertim) setosissimis ; calyce aculeato ; corolla alba maxima ; capsula cylindrica (2-unciali) acutata spinis validis setisque horrida. — Low, sandy places around Santa Fe ; the stems 1 to 2 feet high, growing socially in great numbers ; June, July. (Also on the Upper Arkansas, &c., Fremont, Wislizenus.) — The flower is 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and accords with Dr. Lindley's figure of A. grandiflora, excepting the prickly calyx. That is a glabrous plant, while ours is not only densely setose, but is hoary throughout with a short and close hirsute pubescence. The pod is covered with very strong spines, of which the larger are often branched, and also with smaller prickles and a hoary and bristly pubescence. A. Mexicana was also collected, in two forms.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Argemone polyanthemos;  

Argemone polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey “Crested Prickly Poppy”


Literature Cited:
- Horneman, Jens Wilkin, 1815.  

Hornemann (1815, p. 489) is the first publication of A. albiflora

Original Text
1. A. mexicana Lin.: capsulis sexvalvibus sessilibus, foliis spinosis.
Hab. in Mexico, Charibaeis. ☉ {the Sun}. D.
2. A. albiflora mihi: capsulis 5-6-valvibus pedunculatis, foliis subspinosis.
Hab. — — ☉. D. intr. 1812.

Hornemann does not explain his use of the sun symbol (☉). However, most publications of this age use it to mean annual, or monocarpic. Also, it is unclear the meaning of Hornemann's two dashes, whether they mean “ditto” or “unknown.”

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1817.  

Rafinesque (1817, p. 83, no. 266) is the first publication of Argemone alba. It is now treated as a synonym of A. mexicana. So the name was not available to James (1823), see below.

Original Text
Order II.—Papaveracea.
266. Argemone alba Raf. Caule foliisque spinosis, foliis runcinatis, capsulis oblongis pentagonis spinosis semi-5-valvis Raf.—Argemone Rob. p. 464. A beautiful plant introduced in the gardens of Louisiana from Mexico, with snow-white petals, yellow stamina and violet stigma, stem three feet high. The variety of A. mexicana with white flowers mentioned by Pursh, is perhaps this species.

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.

Other articles:
• Interstate 80:   at Exit 211;

Locations: Gothenburg.  

James (1823, p. 460-1), describes a new prickly poppy encountered just west of the Sand Hills of Nebraska.

Original Text
On Monday [June] 19th, we moved on, and ascending the Platte about 30 miles, arrived in the evenong at a place where the hills on the north side close in, quite to the bed of the river. On both sides they became more broken and elevated, and on the north, they approached so near to the bed of the Platte, that we were under the necessity of travelling across them. We were glad, however, of any change of scene. The monotony of a vast unbroken plain, like that in which we had now travelled, nearly one hundred and fifty miles, is little less tiresome to the eye, and fatiguing to the spirit, than the dreary solitude of the ocean.
With this change of the surface, some change is observed in the vegetable products of the soil. Here we first saw a new species of prickly poppy,* with a spreading white flower, as large as that of the common poppy of the gardens. The aspect of this plant is very similar to that of the common poppy, except that the leaves are covered with innumerable large and strong prickles. When wounded it exudes a thick yellowish sap, intensely bitter to the taste. ...

* Argemone alba, a large plant very distinct from A. mexicana.

Goodman and Lawson (1995, p. 14) place the Long party camp on June 20th (erroneously dated June 19th) slightly west of Gothenburg, Dawson County, Nebraska, just beyond the area where the Nebraska Sand Hills make their easternmost approach to the Platte River.

Literature Cited:
- Sweet, Robert, 1830, 2nd ed..  

Argemone intermedia was published in Sweet's Hortus Britannicus (Sweet, 1838, 2nd ed., p. 585)

Original Text
ARGEM`ONE. p. 19.
5 intermèdia. (wh.)
Mexico. 1828. 7. 10. H.♃

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1878.  

Watson (1878, part 1, p. 41) summarizes the bibliography of Argemone and places our plant as A. mexicana var. albiflora.

Original Text
A. Mexicana. Linn. Spec. 508. See syn. in DC. Syst. 2. 85. Pursh, 366. Nutt. Genera, 2, 9. James, Catalogue, 183. Elliott, 2. 13. Hook. Jour. Bot. 1. 189. Torr. & Gray, Fl. 1. 61; Pac. R. Rep. 159. Gray, Genera, 1. 112, t. 47; Pl. Fendl. 5; Manual, 59. Engelm. Wisliz. Rep. 28. Tottey, Emory's Rep. 406; Marcy's Rep. 280; Pac. R. Rep. 4. 64; Mex. Bound. 31. Scheele. Roemer's Texas, 436. Chapman, 21. Porter, Fl. Col. 6.
Var. Albiflora. DC. Syst. 2. 86; Prodr. 1. 120. Torrey, Ann. Lyc. N. Y. 2. 166; Frem. Rep. 87. Torr. & Gray, Pac. R. Rep. 2. 125. Gray, same, 12. 40.
A. albiflora. Hornem. Hort. Hafn. 489. Bot. Mag. t. 2342.
A. alba. Raf. Fl. Lud. 83. James, Long's Exp. 2. 149.
A. grandiflora. Sweet, Brit. Fl. Gard. t. 226. Lindl. Bot. Reg. T. 1264.
A. Georgiana. Croom. Am. Jour. Sci. 1. 25. 75.
A. vulgaris, var. albiflora. Spach, Hist. Veg. 7. 26.

Literature Cited:
- Fedde, Friedrich Karl Georg, 1909.  

Fedde (1909, heft (fascicle) 40, p. 283) described polyanthemos as a new variety of A. intermedia Sweet.

Original Text
Var. polyanthemos Fedde nov.var. — Herba valde, at noncompacte, sed diffuse ramosa, non corymbosa. FOlia obovata vel obovato-oblonga irregulariter et subpinnatim dentata, ad apicem late cuneata, superiora ad basim semiamplexicaulia. Flores minores valde numerosi cymis non corymbosis dispositi. Petala 2-2,5 cm longa.
Oklahoma: Kiowa Reservation (James Mooney 1895!).
Nota. Sine dubio sepalorum et imprimis fructum conditione A. intermediae valde affinis, sed differt inflorescentiis multifloria et foliis minus incisis, quibus notis valde ad var. corymbosam appropinquat.

Fedde also placed A. alba James in Long's Exp. II. (1823) 149 sec. Prain. in synonomy with A. intermedia Sweet.

Literature Cited:
- Ownbey, Gerald B., 1958.  

Ownbey (1958, p. 131) explains why A. intermedia is a confused name and a new name is introduced for our species.

Original Text
It is regrettable that a new name must be introduced for the well-known plant of the western plains which for many decades has been called A.intermedia Sweet by American botanists. The exact identity of A. intermedia has yet to be determined, but it seems certain that it is not con-specific with A. polyanthemos. The former was described from plants grown from seeds from Mexico; the latter is not found outside the United States. The presence in Mexico of argemones which in the past have been lumped with A. polyanthemos under the binomial A. intermedia, even when the original application of A. intermedia was unclear has led to much confusion. The important fact to be emphasized here is that the name A. intermedia is a nomen confusum which cannot be applied to any species of Argemone with assurance. Even though its true identity may ultimately be determined the name cannot be applied, on distributional grounds, to the taxon native to the western Great Plains and foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

Ownbey (1958, p.131) also considers and rejects A. alba James, placing it in synonomy with A. polyanthemos (Fedde) Ownbey.

Original Text
A. alba James is validly although very casually published. It applies without doubt to the same taxon as A. polyanthemos. A. alba James is, fortunately, a later homonym of A. alba Raf. which in turn is a synonym of A. albiflora Hornem. We are thereby freed from any eventuality which might require the revival of A. alba James, a step which would unavoidably lead to confusion.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Corydalis aurea;  

Corydalis aurea Willd. “Scrambled Eggs”


Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.  

Corydalis aurea was published by Willdenow (1809), in an enumeration of plants growing in the Berlin garden.

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
* 8. CORYDALIS aurea.  
C. caule ramoso erecto, siliquis linearibus pedunculo triplo longioribus, foliis glaucis, caulinis biternatis.  
Fumaria aurea. Muhlenberg. nom. inval., does not appear that Muhlenburg published this name.
Habitat in Canada. ♂ D. The Mars sign ♂ indicates the plant is a biennial. D indicates “planta semper sub dio vegetans” — the plant always grows in the open air (?)
Folia glaucescentia bipinnata, pinnis inferioribus alternis, pinnulis alternis sessilibusque simplicibus et partitis, brevibus angustis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque acutis. Flores aurei spicato-racemosi approximati.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fumaria vaillantii;  

Fumaria vaillantii Loisel. “Earthsmoke” in Desv. Journ. Bot. ii. (1809) 358.


Literature Cited:
- Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, J. L. A., 1809.  

Original Text Translation
FUMARIA VAILLANTII N. Fumaria vaillantii nov. sp.
F. caule ramoso erectiusculo , foliis bipinnatis , pinnis 2-5-laciniatis , laciniis linearibus planis , racemis brevibus oppositifoliis , pericarpiis globosis subtuberculatis vix mucronulatis monospermis. F. lobis longioribus et angustioribus sparsis. Vaill., Bot. Par. 56, tab. 10, fig. 6. F. stem branched erectiusculo leaves bipinnatis, 2-5-fringed wings, lobes linear planes on short stalks oppositifoliis, pericarpiis spherical subtuberculatus Scarcely mucronulate monospermis. f lobes a longer and narrower spread.
Cette plante a par ses caractères principaux beaucoup de rapports avec la Fumaria parviflora ; mais ses rameaux redressés au lieu d'être étales et presque couchés sur la terre , les découpures de ses feuilles plus alongées , planes et non canaliculées; enfin, ses fleurs reugeâtres au lieu d'être blanches , la font facilement distinguer. Je l'ai trouvée cette année , en herborisant avec M. Merat , entre Chanteloup et Poissy , à sept lieues de Paris , où elle est très - commune dans les champs sablonneux ; et après l'avoir recueillie , examinée et comparée avec la F. parviflora , qui étoit aussi très-abondante dans ce canton , nous reconnoissions sans nous tromper , et rien qu'au port, les deux plantes à plus de vingt pas de distance. Cette espèce fleurit en mai et juin (.). This plant has by its main characters many links with Fumaria parviflora; but its twigs straightened instead to be spread out and almost lying on the ground, the cutouts of its more elongated leaves, flat and not canaliculate; finally, her flowers red instead of white, make it easily distinguish. I found this year, while botanising with M. Merat, between Chanteloup and Poissy, seven leagues from Paris, where it is very - common in the fields sandy; and after having collected it, examined and compared with the F. parviflora, which was also very abundant in this canton, we recognize without being mistaken, and in the port alone, the two plants are over twenty paces away. This species blooms in May and June (.).
A l'article Fumaria offïcinalis , page 437 de ma Flore , les synonymes de Vaillant doivent être rayés, puisque je les ai rapportés aux deux nouvelles espèces que je viens de décrire. To the article Fumaria offïcinalis , page 437 of my Flora, the synonyms of Vaillant must be scratched, since I brought them back to the two new species that I come from to describe.

Sébastien Vaillant (1669-1722) was French botanist who was born at Vigny in present-day Val d'Oise. While a surgeon in 1691, he was in Paris when he took as his master of botany Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708). Vaillant devoted himself to the study of plants and worked for a time in the Jardin du Roi in Paris. He became ill and too poor to publish his Botanicon parisiensis (alphabetically or Enumeration of plants that grow in and around Paris) illustrated by Claude Aubriet. A fruit of 36 years of work, he left his work at Herman Boerhaave's home, Oud Poelgeest. The work contained engraved illustrations and was published in 1727. It is a work of particular importance in the history of botany and one of the first to describe the known flora. The standard author abbreviation Vaill. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Alliaria petiolata;  

Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande “Garlic Mustard”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Erysimum alliaria L., Sp. Pl. 2: 660 (-661) (1753).

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 660-661) ...

Original Text
Alliaria. 3. ERYSIMUM foliis cordatis. Hort. cliff. 338. Fl. fuec. 558. 334. Roy. lugdb. 342. Dalib. parif. 201.
  Alliaria. Bauh. pin. 110. Fuchf. hift. 104. Cam. epit. 589.
  Habitat in Europae fepibus, cultis, umbrofis. ♂

Arabis petiolata M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 126 (1808).


Alliaria petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Bull. Orto Bot. Regia Univ. Napoli 3: 418 (1913).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Arabis pycnocarpa;  

Arabis pycnocarpa M. Hopkins var. pycnocarpa “Cream Flower Rockcress”



Boechera Á.Löve & D.Löve. “Rockcress”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Boechera fendleri;  

Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber. “Fendler's Rockcress”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.
- Gray, Asa, 1878-1895.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  syntopical;  

Sereno Watson in his work on volume 1 of Gray (1878) Syntopical Flora of North America described our Boechera fendleri as Arabis holboellii var. fendleri.

Original Text
164 CRUCIFERAE Arabis.
A. Holboellii, Hornem. Biennial …
Var. Fendleri, Watson, n. var. Stems often several and ascending from a biennial root, a foot high, hirsute below with simple of branched hairs, glabrous above : lower leaves roughly stellate-pubescent and petioles ciliate ; the upper glabrous : pods somewhat curved.
— From Colorado, Parry, no. 94, Hall & Harbour, no. 36 ; N. Nevada to New Mexico, Fendler, no. 27, Palmer, Rusby ; and California, Tulare Co., Coville & Funston, no. 1388. (Chihuahua, Wright, no. 1313.)

Fendler no. 27 is not listed in Gray (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1895-1897.  

The variety fendleri was repeated in Robinson's edition of Gray (1895-1897, p. 186) Syntopical Flora of North America.

Original Text
A. Holboellii, Hornem. Biennial, …
Var. Fendleri, Watson, n. var. Stems often several and ascending from a biennial root, a foot high, hirsute below with simple or branched hairs, glabrous above; lower leaves roughly stellate-pubescent and petioles ciliate; the upper glabrous; pods somewhat curved. — From Colorado, Parry, no. 94, Hall & Harbour no. 36; N. Nevada to New Mexico, Fendler no. 27, Palmer, Rusby ; and California, Tulare Co., Coville & Funston, no. 1388. (Chihuahua, Wright, no. 1313.)

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1897.  

Two years later, Greene (1897) published Arabis fendleri differnentiating it mostly on the different pubescent compared to A. holbollii

Original Text
Arabis Fendleri. More slender than the above and less tall, mostly or wholly destitute of stellate hairs, only the lowest entire oblanceolate leaves very distinctly hirsute-ciliate, and with scattered trifurcated hairs on the lower face, all the upper parts of the plant, including all but the lower cauline leaves, glabrous and glaucus ; the sessile cauline leaves barely auricled, not sagittate : pods mostly less than 2 inches long, scarcely curved, acutish, on spreading or scarcely deflexed pedicels of 1/2 inch or more : seeds in 2 rows, small marginless.
A somewhat variable plant of subalpine situations in the Rocky Mountains from New Mexico to Wyoming ; but in none of its phases does it exhibit the pubescence of A. Holbollii, but always its own, which is chiefly conspicuous as a ciliation of the leaf-margin. The description here drawn mainly from Colorado specimens of my own collecting, which exactly match Fendler's n. 27 from New Mexico, which is the type of Mr. Watson's A. Holbollii Fendleri, in Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 164.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1982.  

Weber (1982) published Boechera fendleri after taking Rollins to task.

Original Text
Love & Love (1976) proposed the genus Boechera to accommodate species of Arabis having the chromosome base number x=7, the type species of Arabis (alpina) having x=8. Rollins (1977) certainly had the right to criticize the Love's for not pointing out morphological evidence to support their separation on cytogenetic grounds. But at the same time, the difference in basic chromosome number, especially when it continues to be borne out on examination of other species, does represent a divergent phylogenetic line, and the genetic barrier that it presents to interbreeding of the units is sufficient justification for thinking in terms of discrete genera. However, Rollins is not scientifically objective when he says that “their describing a new genus to accommodate perfectly ordinary species of Arabis has no merit and should not be followed.” Posterity, rather than appeal to authority, should be allowed to decide the wisdom of this.
Rollins himself says earlier that “those species of North America most closely to Arabis of Eurasia have the same basic chromosome number pattern, i.e., x=8, whereas those species with a somewhat different circle of close affinity [my italics] are based on x=7.” Even a cursory examination of Arabis in the herbarium results in fairly easy separations: the loose slender root systems, large and numerous cauline leaves, most commonly toothed in Arabis, versus the short clustered caudices, small or absent and almost always entire cauline leaves of Boechera. The often very dense indument of forked or stellate trichomes of Boechera is not a characteristic feature of Arabis.
Even with Boechera removed, Arabis in America remains a genus in need of additional fragmentation. One group in particular deserving attention is the purple-flowered species endemic in the ancient Siskiyou area of southwestern Oregon and northwestern California (cf. Rollins 1977). At present, however, I am confining transfers to those taxa in the Colorado flora.
BOECHERA FENDLERI (S. Wats.) W. A. Weber, comb. Nov. Arabis holboellii var. fendleri S. Wats. In Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. 1:164. 1895.
Love, Askell & Doris Love. 1976. Nomenclatural notes on Arctic plants. Bot. Not. 128:497-523.
Rollins, Reed C. 1973. Purple-flowered Arabis of the Pacific Coast of North America. Contrib. Gray Herb. 204:149-154.
Rollins, Reed C. & Lily Rudenberg. Chromosome numbers of Cruciferae III. Contrib. Gray Herb. 207:101-116. 1977,


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Descurainia incisa;  

Descurainia incisa (Engelm.) Britton “Mountain Tansy Mustard”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

Gray (1849, n.s. v. 4, p. 8) from a manuscript by George Engelmann ...

Original Text
29-31. Sisymbrium incisum (Engelm. Mss.) : "annuum vel bienne ; caule glabriusculo seu puberulo seu glanduloso-piloso ; foliis pinnatisectis, segmentis lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis inciso-serratis ; petalis flavis lanceolato-spathulatis calycem superantibus ; pedicellis calyce ter-quaterve longioribus, fructiferis (racemo fructifero elongato) patentibus capillaribus siliquas lineari-filiformes erecto-patentes subaequantibus ; valvis indistincte uninerviis." — Banks of streams in New Mexico ; Santa Fe Creek and Mora River ; June to August. Plant 1 to 2 feet high, blanching, at length almost glabrous. Silique about 5 lines long ; the valves with one indistinct middle nerve. Seeds linear-oblong, yellow, almost smooth, in one row. — Distinguished from S. Sophia by the longer petals, shorter silique on proportionally longer pedicels, and coarser, much less divided leaves. No. 29 and No. 31 are forms with large leaves, their lanceolate segments coarsely serrate or incised. No. 30 is a very imperfect and dubious specimen. — From Clear Water, Oregon, by Mr. Spalding, I have another form (β filipes) of the same species, with the divisions of the cauline leaves narrowly linear, sparingly incised or incisely pinnatifid, or some of them quite entire, and with fructiferous pedicels three fourths of an inch long and longer than the pods. The species would appear to stand between S. Sophia and S. tanacetifolium, L. (Hugueninia, Reichenbach), with which, like its allies, it accords in the barely one-nerved valves of the silique.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Descurainia pinnata;  

Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton “Western Tansymustard”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Draba reptans;  

Draba reptans (Lam.) Fernald “Carolina Whitlow Grass”


Literature Cited:
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 1783.
- Plukenet, Leonard, 1696.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  paronychia;  

Lamarck (1783, t. 1, p. 222) ...

Original Text Translation and Comments
21. Arabette rampante , Arabis reptans. Arabis foliis subrotundis . integerrimus , hirsutis , surculis reptantibus. N. B. Paronychia myosotis Virginiana, foliis subrotundis. Pluk. Alm. 281. Tab. 51. f. 5. Arabis with roundish, entire, hirsute leaves, with young branches creeping.

“N. B.” — unknown meaning.

“Pluk. Alm.” — Plukenet, Leonhart. 1696. Almagestum botanicum. London.

Cette plante, encore peu connue des Botaniftes, nous paroit devoir etre rapportee a ce genre. Sa racine eft fibreufe, & pouffe de fon collet quelques jet fteriles, feuilles & rampans. Ses feuilles font ovales-arrondies, retrecies vers leur bafe, tresentieres, & velues ou hifpides. Ses tiges font greles, nues, ou chargees d'une ou deux fleurs difpofees en grappes, auxquelles fuccedent des filiques pedonculees, d'une longueur mediocre. Cette plante paroit originaire de la Virginie. This plant, still little known to Botaniftes, seems to us to be related to this genus. Its root is fibrous, and its root pod has a few sterile streams, leaves & crawlers. Its leaves are oval-rounded, narrowed towards their base, presentieres, & hairy or hispid. Its stems are slender, bare, or loaded with one or two flowers arranged in clusters, to which follow pedunculate threads of mediocre length. This plant appears to be native to Virginia.

Literature Cited:
- Fernald, M. L., 1934.  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erysimum asperum;
• Glossary:  divaricate;  

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. “Prairie Wallflower”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Original Text
527. ERYSIMUM. Gen. pl. 1090.
lanceolatum. 3. E. foliis lanceolatis inferioribus dentatis, unguibus calyce longioribus,' laminis orbiculato-obovatis, stigmate sessili. Ait. Kew. Ed. 2. t. 4. p. 116.
Chieranthus erysimodes. Willd. Sp. Pl. 3. p. 514.
Icon. Jacq. Fl. Austr. 74.
On the banks of the Missouri. ♂. June. v. s.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  asperate;

Locations: White River.  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2., p. 69) …

Original Text
462. CHEIRANTHUS. L. (Wall-flower. Stock.)
Calix closed; 2 of the leaves gibbous at the base. Petals dilated. Disk of the germ biglandulous. Silique compressed or terete. Stigma bilobed. Seeds flat, sometimes marginated.
Herbaceous or suffruticose; leaves more or less pubescent, entire or pinnatifid; flowers yellow or purple, large, and often odorous. A genus very nearly allied to Hesperis and to the entire leaved species of Erysimum, excluding E. Alliaria.
Species. 1. C. Pallasii. Ph.—North West Coast. 2. *asper. Stem simple, and acutely angular; leaves canescently polise, sublinear, entire, margin acculeately and retrorsely asperate, radical fasciculated attenuated-sublanceolate, acute, retrorsely toothed; silique very long quadrangular and divaricate; claws of the petals longer, than the calix. Cheiranthus erysimoides. Ph. Hab. On the plains of the Missouri, commencing near the colfluence of the White river. Fl. June. Obs. Biennial. Stem 12 to 18 inches high, mostly simple, but now and then branching towards the summit. Leaves every where covered with white short, retrorse, strigose and appressed hairs; margin aculeolate, stem leaves crowded, 2 or 3 lines wide and 2 inches long. Flowers very similar to those of C. Cheiri, and almost equally odorous. Calix oblong, 2 of the leaves distinctly gibbous at the base. Petals dilated, claws long, limb broud obovate, bright yellow. Stigma bilobed. Silique 2 or 3 inches long, spreading, 4-sided, 2 of the angles asperate.
A genus of about 40 species, indigenous to Europe and the temperate and colder parts of Asia and Africa in both hemispheres.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  asper;  

DeCandolle (1821, v. 2, p. 505) ...

Original Text
29. Erysimum asperum.
E. foliis lineari-oblongis, inferioribus dentato-runcinatis, cauleque pubescentibus scabris, siliquis patentibus, stylo brevissimo crasso.

Erysimum lanceolatum. Pursh. fl. bor. am. 2. p. 436.
Cheiranthus asper. Nutt. gen. am. 2. p. 69. *
Hab. in campis Missouriensibus (Nutt.). (2). fl. jun. (v. s. sp. in h. Banks et Lamb.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erysimum capitatum;  

Erysimum capitatum (Hook.) Greene “Sanddune Wallflower”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1829, v. 1(1), p. 38) ...

Original Text
1. C. capitatus ; subasper, foliis lineari-lanceolatis magis minusve dentatis vel integris basi longe attenuatis cauleque pube bipartita arctissime appressa strigosis, floribus (majusculis) dense corymbosis, "siliquis pedicello triplo longioribus." — Douglas, MSS. C. asper. Schlecht. et Cham, in Linncaea, v. 1. p. 14.
[Latin diagnosis omitted.]
Hab. Common on rocky places of the Columbia, near the sea; and at Puget Sound, Douglas. Chamisso found it on the coast of California. — I regret that I do not possess the fruit of this plant ; but there can be no question of the accuracy of Chamisso and Schlechtendal, who assure us that the cotyledons are accumbent. It must therefore be separated from Erysimum, with the species of which, and especially with E. lanceolatum, as is well observed, it bears a very close affinity. It is quite a different plant from the Erysimum asperum, De Cand., the Cheiranthus asper of Nuttall, and which is also supposed to be the Erysimum lanceolatum of Pursh; but I know not upon what authority. I am indebted for specimens to M. de Chamisso, which agree in every respect with those from Mr. Douglas : both are remarkable for the great attenuation of the base of the leaves. It has been found by no other of our North American travellers : but is now cultivated in the gardens of the Horticultural Society, from seeds sent by Mr. Douglas from the Columbia.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1891-97.  

Greene (1891, p. 269) ....

Original Text
2. E. capitatum, Greene. Dougl.; Hook. Fl. i. 38 (1829), under Cheiranthus. Stout and low, ½ — l½ ft. high, spariugly pubescent with appressed bifid or 2-parted hairs; leaves narrow, entire, or sinuately or angularly toothed or lobed: fl. large, cream-color or yellowish, in a depressed terminal corymb, scarcely fragrant: pods in a short raceme; valves nearly flat, with a strong midvein, 1½ lines wide, the whole 1½ — 2½ in. long, abruptly and stoutly short-pointed: seeds flattened. — Among the sandy or rocky hills of the seaboard only, from Monterey northward to Mendocino Co.; easily mistaken for E. aspertum, but we have not seen it with even yellow, much less orange-colored flowers. The petals are broader than in that species, but at San Francisco they are invariably almost white. Feb. — May.


Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1888.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria montana, Watson, 1888;  

Lesquerella S.Watson

Watson (1888, v. 23, new ser. v. 15, p. 249) published a new genus Lesquerella saying:

Original Text
* The Old World genera of the Vesicaria and Alyssum group are variously understood by European botanists and are very troublesome. The species of Vesicaria upon which all are agreed (V. utriculata, V. Graeca and V. glabrescens, the first being one of the two original species) have stout erect leafy stems from a suffrutescent base, glabrous, or pubescent below with appressed 2-parted or somewhat stellate hairs, with large Erysimum-like flowers, very large globose coriaceous pods, nerveless septum, and wing-margined seeds. This is the genus as it is generally accepted on the continent, …
… [text omitted.] …
The American species differ from them all, more or less positively. In all our species there is a distinct nerve extending from the apex to the middle of the septum or beyond. The filaments are never toothed or appendaged; the petals are never narrowly unguiculate, and, except in one or two species, are yellow ; the ovules are never solitary in the cells, and the pubescence is always more or less stellate or lepidote.
… [text omitted.] …
To the species that have hitherto been placed in Vesicaria, I would, therefore, now give the generic name Lesquerella (in preference to reviving Lesquereuxia, the former name of a genus now merged in Siphonostegia), in honor of our venerable and in every way worthy veteran palaeontologist and bryologist, Leo Lesquereux. Our one flat-podded species that has been referred to Alyssum (A. Lescurii) appears to differ in no other respect than its less convex valves from a somewhat distinct group of species which can be separated, however, only as a section from the rest.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lunaria annua;  

Lunaria annua L. “Money Plant”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nasturtium officinale;  

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. “Watercress”


Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William T., 2nd. ed., 1810-13.  

W. T. Aiton (1812, v. 4, p. 110) noted that N. officinale was grown at Kew.

Original Text
officinale. 1. N. foliis pinnatis : foliolis ovatis subcordatis repandis.
Sisymbrium Nasturtium. Willden. sp. pl. 3. p. 489. Curtis lond. Engl. bot.855.
Nat. of Britain.
Fl. June–September. H. ♃

Literature Cited:
- Al-Shebaz, I. A., 2014.  



Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub “Fendler's Pennycress”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

Gray (1849, p. 10) referred Fendler's collection to Thlaspi cochleariforme

Original Text
44. Thlaspi cochleariforme, DC. Syst. 2. p. 381 ; Deless. Ic. Select. 2. t. 52. Santa Fe Creek, in the mountains ; March to June.

The image of the original publication, which came from George Engelmann's library, has several pencilled notations, such as “No!” and “Th. Fendleri Agr / Pl Wrightii 2. 14.”

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852-1853.  

Gray (1853, part 2, p. 14) published Thlaspi fendleri as a correction to his identification ...

Original Text
Thlaspi Fendleri: foliis carnosulis subintegerrimis, radicalibus petiolatis ovalibus, caulinis sagittato-oblongis amplexicaulibus ; racemo etiam fructifero brevi conferto ; floribus majusculis ; petalis calyce triplo longioribus; siliculis lato-obovatis subalatis basi acutis apice immaturis sinu aperto leviter obcordatis maturis truncato-subintegris, loculis 3-4-ovulatis ; stylo filiformi fructu dimidio breviore. — T. cochleariforme, Gray, Pl. Fendl p. 10, non DC, nec Hook. — On the Organ Mountains, northeast of El Paso ; May : mostly in fruit. (1322.) — Plant a span high, or lower ; the raceme an inch, or, even in full fruit, not over 2 inches, in length ; the pedicels closely approximate, spreading, in fruit 5 or 6 lines long. Petals (in Fendler's specimens) 4 lines long. Ovary obcordate by a broad and shallow sinus ; the cells 3 - 4-ovulate. Ripe silicles 4 lines long, with sharp but slightly winged edges, obscurely emarginate or even truncate at the broad summit ; the style a line and a half or two lines long. — The specimens of Fendler were mostly in flower only : mine with young fruit have the raceme more loose than in those gathered this spring by Mr. Wright ; which, being in fruit, plainly show that I was wrong in referring the New Mexican plant to T. cochleariforme. The latter has the fructiferous raceme long and loose, and has likewise smaller flowers, narrower pods, with a deep and narrow apical sinus, and a short style. Our plant is more like T. praecox ; which also has smaller flowers, and winged pods, with a very deep notch.

Literature Cited:
- Holub, Josef, 1998.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Thlaspi, Mummemhoff, 1997;  

Holub (1998, v. 70, n. 2, p. 108) published some names in Noccaea for American taxa to complete the genus. This is explained in a note to the first name proposed.

Original Text
N o t e : F. K. Meyer ( 1973) undertook a generic reform (or rather a radical revolution) of the earlier standing concept of the genus Thlaspi . It was shown, that - especially on the basis of the anatomical structure of the seed testa - the small group Thlaspi s.s. with the type species T. arvense L., differs substantially from other groups of Thlaspi s.l., including many species. In Central Europe (s.l.) a few representatives of Microthlaspi F. K. Meyer and numerous species of Noccaea Moench occur. F. K. Meyer's classification has not been followed very much by other authors. The present author (Holub 1983: 205). accepted the genus Noccaea in circumscription proposed by F. K. Meyer. Most recently Kerguelen and Cerepanov also supported this classification by some new proposals of nomenclatural combinations with Noccaea. Justification of the generic exclusion of Thlaspi s.s. from the remainder of that genus (Thlaspi s.l.) and by this the acceptance of the genus Noccaea, are indicated by the most recent studies based on modern methods of molecular research (Mummenhoff et al. 1997; chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation - Mummenhoff & Koch 1994, Zunk et al. 1996; isoelectric focusing analysis of Rubisco - Mummenhoff & Zunk 1991). Nomenclatural combinations for taxa of the genus Noccaea were proposed especially for European and Oriental species of that genus. Here also some new nomenclatural combinations for taxa from the American continent are proposed.
Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub, comb. nova. — Bas.: Thlaspi fendleri Asa Gray, Smithsonian Contrib. Knowl. 5(6): 14, [= Plantae Wrightianae 2: 14], Washington 1853 .


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Noccaea fendleri glauca;  

Noccaea fendleri (A. Gray) Holub ssp. glauca (A. Nelson) Al-Shehbaz & M. Koch “Alpine Pennycress”


Literature Cited:
- Nelson, Aven, 1896.  

Thlaspi alpestre var. glaucum A.Nelson, Wyoming Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 28: 84 (1896).

Nelson (1896, p. 84) ...

Original Text
Thlaspi alpestre glaucum, n. var.
The perennial basal part of stem rather freely branched, herbaceous stems simple and erect, 6-10 inches high; radical leaves broadly to narrowly elliptical, entire or obscurely repand-denticulate; cauline deltoid-auticulate entire. It also differs from the species in the glaucus hue of the leaves, the laxer inflorescence and will marked notch at the apex of the capsule as well as in its habitat. The species flowers in early speint on open hillsides; the variety was collected in the forest almost at timber line, growing in the thick beds of Spruce needles. La Plata Mines, August 21, 1895 (No. 1777).

Literature Cited:
- Nelson, Aven, 1898a.  

Nelson (1898, v. 25, p. 275) ...

Original Text
Thlaspi glaucum (A. Nelson).
Thlaspi alpestre glaucum A. Nelson, First Rep. Fl. Wyo. 84. 1896.
The perennial, basal part of stem freely branched, the several or many herbaceous stems simple, erect or ascending, 1-3 dm. high ; root leaves numerous, petioled, from oval to oblong or obovate, entire or obscurely repand-denticulate ; cauline leaves deltoid-auriculate or oblong, entire, 10-20 mm. long, smooth or even glaucous ; raceme dense in flower, much elongated in fruit (5-15 cm.) ; sepals greenish, thin, ovate ; petals white, spatulate, about 6 mm. long ; pods obovate, obtuse or emarginate ; pedicels divaricate, 10-14 mm - long.
In 1897 an abundance of material of this form was secured, an examination of which leads me to think that it is worthy of specific rank. Its habitat is sub-alpine in open parks or among open spruce timber. It is separated from T. alpestre by its uni- formly larger size, numerous stems, numerous and larger stem leaves, longer pedicels and raceme (in fruit), longer, greenish sepals, etc.
Type specimen in Herb. University of Wyoming, no. 4176, Battle Lake, August 16, 1897. Prof. Henderson's no. 2893 from Kendrick, Idaho seems to be nearly the same.

Literature Cited:
- Holub, Josef, 1998.  

Holub (1998, v. 70, n. 2, p. 108) published some names in Noccaea for American taxa to complete the genus. This is explained in a note to the first name proposed.

Original Text
Noccaea glauca (A. Nelson) Holub, comb. nova. — Bas.: Thlaspi alpestre glaucum A. Nelson, First Report Fl. Wyoming, 84, 1896 (n.v.). – Syn.: Thlaspi glaucum (A. Nelson) A. Nelson, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 275, New York 1898.


Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A., and Steve L. O'Kane, 2002.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria montana;
• Glossary:  cytology;  

Notes on Physaria

The taxonomic world knew for a long time that keeping Physaria and Lesquerella separate was very tenuous. More recently molecular data clearly showed that Physaria is nested within Lesquerella. Also, the data showed that Physaria evolved more than once from Lesquerella. Regardless of how many times Physaria evolved from Lesquerella, Physaria is polyphyletic and Lesquerella definitely paraphyletic. The two genera could no longer be maintained separately on either molecular, morphological, cytological, biogeographic, or ecological grounds. Therefore the two genera should be combined. Physaria is the older of the two names and thus has priority, but there are far more species in Lesquerella. It might make more sense to conserve Lesquerella and transfer the Physaria thereto. An proposal to conserve the name Lesquerella against Physaria was made to the Committee for Spermatophyta (2000). However, the proposal was denied. Therefore, names in Physaria were proposed for most of the former Lesquerella (Al-Shehbaz & O'Kane, 2004).

One of the taxa transferred to Physaria was P. montana a bladderpod found in Jefferson County, including Golden.

Seven taxa of Physaria have been reported for Jefferson County. Four of the taxa are unlikely to occur here, as the collections are misidentified or otherwise quesitonable data. The three confirmed Jefferson County taxa are:

  • P. bellii G. A. Mulligan
  • P. montana (A. Gray) Greene
  • P. vitulifera Rydb.
The four spurious reports of Physaria in Jefferson County are:
  • P. acutifolia Rydb. — there may be two collections of P. acutifolia from the Evergreen - Kittridge - Parmalee Gulch area. They are old records and a bit sketchy. Otherwise this is an western slope taxon.
  • P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray — misidentified, two vouchers at YU, duplicate at CS9266 determined P. vitulifera.
  • P. floribunda Rydb. — western slope taxon. Data point from NY showing P. floribunda in Golden is misidentified.
  • P. rollinsii G. A. Mulligan — generally known only from the Gunnison River basin, except for Rollins No. 5151, July 6, 1951, 2 miles west of Deckers, GH 01691383, which has been annotated P. rollinsii, date and name of annotator unknown.

The following key is abstracted from Ackerfield (2015).

(1b.) Fruit (and ovary) pubescent with stellate hairs … 4
(4b.) Plants not present in the alpine, found below 11,000 ft in elevation … 6
(6b.) Inflorescence usually obviously exceeding the leaves, or if included then the plants otherwise unlike the above; plants sometimes mound-forming, but the mounds usually not small and button-like … 8
(8b) Mature fruiting pedicels S-curved (sigmoid), ascending, or sometimes horizontal … 12
(12a) Plants of the eastern slope … 13

(13a) Fruit entire at the apex, not or only slightly inflated; ovules 4-20 per ovary … 14
(14a) Basal leaves suborbicular, obovate, or elliptic, mostly over 4 mm wide (rarely narrowly elliptic and 2-3 mm wide), usually with a well-defined petiole; stem leaves usually secund; ovules (8) 12-24 per ovary … P. montana

(13b) Fruit notched at the apex (didymous), usually inflated; ovules 4 per ovary … 16
(16b) Plants of the foothills, absent from the northeastern plains; fruit not conspicuously broader at the apex or appearing flared from the base … 17

(17a) At least some basal leaf margins deeply and broadly incised, rarely almost entire … P. vitulifera

(17b) Basal leaf margins shallowly dentate or entire … 18
(18a) Basal leaves gradually tapering to an ill-defined petiole; fruit 2-8 mm wide … P. bellii


Notes on Physaria bellii Mulligan


Literature Cited:
- Mulligan, Gerald A., 1966.  

10. Physaria bellii G. A. Mulligan, Canad. J. Bot. 44: 1662, fig. 1, plate 1, fig. 3. 1966.

Other articles:
• S. & W. Deer Creek Canyon Road:  74500;
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria vitulifera, Borland, 1988;
• Owens Street:  78000;  

Jim Borland collected Physaria bellii and P. vitulifera twice: 12 May 1988 and 22 June 1988.

Collections of P. bellii were:

  • Verbatim Date: 12 May 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, On north road cut as Deer Creek Canyon road enters the canyon. Habitat: Road cut. Reproductive Condition: Flr & Frt.
  • Verbatim Date: 22 June 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, 100 ft. S of junction of West Ute Ave. and Owens Street, west side of road. Habitat: On limestone/shale outcrop. Reproductive Condition: Frt.

Literature Cited:
- O'Kane, Steve L., 1988.  

O'Kane (1988, p. 463) ...

O'Kane, Steve L. (Colorado Natural Areas Program), Colorado's Rare Flora. Great Basin Naturalist. v. 48, n. 4, p. 433-484. 31 October 1988.

Original Text Comments
Physaria bellii Mulligan, Canadian J. Bot. 44: 1662-1663. 1966.  
Map 66  
Family. — Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).  
Federal status. — Category 2.  
Bells twinpod, endemic to the Niobrara Formation, grows on fine-textured soils derived from black shale high in calcium in the southern part of its range and from light- colored, limey shale in the north. The species is scattered along the foothills and hogbacks from Fourmile Canyon near Boulder to Box Elder Creek north of Owl Canyon. One old collection, however, exists from Cheyenne Mountain near Colorado Springs (Churchill s.n. MO), and a 1988 report (J. Borland, personal communication, specimen verified by W. A. Weber) places the species southwest of Denver in Jefferson County on a small outcrop of Niobrara shale at the mouth of Deer Creek Canyon. As Cheyenne Mountain is composed of Pikes Peak Granite, it is likely that the collection locality is in error unless a disjunct population occurred at the foot of the mountain on Pierre Shale. Bells twinpod is usually found in shrub communities dominated by Rhus trilobata and Cercocarpus montanus at elevations of 1,580 to 1,750 m. Oryzopsis and species of Stipa are common associates. Although not threatened everywhere in its range, threats to individual populations can be significant. Some populations are threatened by road construction and maintenance. The populations near LaPorte could be impacted by mining for cement products. The effects of grazing are not known. Two vouchers of J. Borland collections are at COLO.
    Boulder County: 
      TIN R70W: 
        Weber 3270, 4/10/47 (COLO, CS); 
      T2N R70W: 
        Naumann 2, 6/7/84 (CS); 
        Neely 2514, 5/5/85 (CS, UTC); 
      T2N R71W: 
        Denham & Denham 1315, 4/16/67 (COLO); 
        Gambill s.n., 5/7/84 (KHD);
        Mulligan & Crompton 2898, 8/24/64 (Isotype: COLO); 
        Ramaley 1016, 5/30/05 (COLO);
        Rolhns 7948, 5/24/79 (COLO, MO, RM);
        Weber 3372, 5/22/47 (COLO, CS); 
        Wiegand & Upton 3320, 6/12/22 (MO); 
        Wynn s.n. , 5/10/83 (KHD); 
      T3N R71W: 
        Wilken 12887, 5/18/77 (CS). 
    El Paso County: 
      T15S R67W:
        Churchill s.n., 6/22/12 (MO). 
    Larimer County: 
      Location obscure: 
        Osterhout 5616, 6/25/17 (COLO); 
      T4N R70W: 
        Popp s.n., 6/18/83 (CS); 
      T4S R69W: 
        Robinson s.n., 5/25/80 (COLO); 
      T5N R69W: 
        Naumann & Trout 4, 7/2/84 (CS); 
      T6N R70W: 
        Popp s.n., 6/29/83 (COLO); 
        Schromberg s.n., 5/8/83 (COLO); 
      T7N R69W: 
        Naumann & Trout 3, 5/6/84 (CS); 
        Popp s.n., 6/18/83 (CS); 
      T8N R69W: 
        Crandall 212, 5/14/1890 (CS); 
        Crandall 425, 5/2/1896 (CS, MO); 
        Crandall 427, 6/7/1898 (CS); 
        Crandall 426, 5/7/1898 (CS);
        Wilken 14302, 5/6/85 (CS); 
      T9N R69W: 
        Lanham s.n., 6/8/80 (COLO); 
        Neely 2734, 6/2/85 (CS, UTC); 
        Popp s.n., 6/17/83 (CS); 
      T10N R69W: 
        Ramaley 2743, 6/14/07 (COLO).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physaria montana;  Notes on Physaria;  

Physaria montana (A. Gray) Greene “Mountain Bladderpod”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1863.  

Gray (1863, v. 15, p. 58) article titled, “Enumeration of the Species of Plants collected by Dr. C. C. Parry, and Messrs. Elihu Hall and J. P. Harbour, during the Summer and Autumn of 1862, on and near the Rocky Mountains, in Colorado Territory,”

Original Text Comments
… 49. Vesicaria montana, n. sp.* from the middle mountains ; also collected last year at Eureka by Mr. Howard, but without fruit. … The asterisk (*) refers the reader to a footnote that is reproduced below.

The number 49 corresponds to a Hall & Harbour collection number 49 that is designated the holotype at GH (

I assume the Eureka place name is Eureka, San Juan County, Colorado, a former mining town 19 miles northeast of Silverton.

*Vesicaria Montana (sp. nov.): argenteo-incana : caulibus e radice perenni diffusus foliosis: foliis spathulatis, radicalibus subovatis petiolatis nunc 1-2-dentatis; racemo fructifero elongato; silicula ovali seu ellipsoidea cano-pubescente stylo gracili longiore pedicello patente sursum curvato paullo breviore. Habit of V. Ludoviciana, argyrea, and argentea; well-marked by the oval or oblong silicle (which is. in some specimens, 3 lines in length, but of scarcely half that breadth, while in others it is shorter and broader, barely oval in outline,) hoary, with a fine stellular pubescence, one-third longer than the style, commonly one-third or one-half longer than the pedicel, nearly terete; the valves of the same rather firm texture as those of V. Ludoviciana, more convex than those of V. alpina. Seeds four or six in each cell, wingless. Petals spatulate, light yellow. Filiments filiform.
This is a footnote at the bottom of page 58.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1888.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Lesquerella, Watson, 1888;  

Watson (1888, v. 23, new ser. v. 15, p. 249) placed V. montana A. Gray in Lesquerella saying:

Original Text
10. L. Montana. Pubescence often evidently stellate; caudex rarely branched: leaves oblanceolate, the radical often subovate on slender petioles and obscurely toothed: petals spatulate: pods 3 lines long, with long slender style; cells 4-8-ovuled. — V. montana, Gray. Northern Colorado and southern Wyoming, near and on the mountains.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1891-97.  

Greene (1891, p. 249) in his Flora Franciscana ...

Original Text Comments
3. PHYSARIA, A. Gray. Low herbs (our species perennial) silvery- canescent with a dense close stellate pubescence, entire or pinnatifid leaves, and racemose yellow flowers of middle size; calyx more or less persistent as in Alyssum. Pods globose or ovoid, or the valves more inflated and distended, nerveless. Style long, persistent. Seeds few, in 2 rows, flattened, rarely somewhat margined: cotyledons accumbent.  
* Pods didymous. — Typical Physaria.  
1. P. didymocarpa, Gray, Gen. Ill. i. 162 (1849); Hook. Fl. i. 49. t. 16 (1829), under Vesicaria. Leaves rosulately crowded on a short crown or caudex, broadly spatulate, occasionally somewhat lyrate, those of the decumbent flowering branches oblanceolate, entire: racemes short: pods 2 — 6 lines broad, i. e., more or less widely didymously-inflated, the partition narrow or nearly obsolete. — East of the Sierra, thence common to Colorado. While there are collections from Colorado, including Jefferson County, that are determined P. didymocarpa, I think they are mis-identified specimens of P. vitulifera.

The species is known to occur in Wyoming.

* * Pod globose or ovate. — Genus Lesquerella, Wats.  
2. P. montana, Greene. Gray, Proc. Philad. Acad. 58 (1868), under Vesicaria. Habit of the preceding: rosulate radical leaves orbicular or obovate, long-petioled, those of the branches oblanceolate or spatulate, entire, or with few teeth : fl. 3 lines long: pods oblong-ovoid, 2½ lines long, on slender recurved pedicels; style a third shorter. — On Lassen's Peak, Lemmon, thence eastward and northward.  


Literature Cited:
- Mulligan, Gerald A., 1966.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physaria vitulifera;  Physaria vitulifera;  

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. “Roundtip Twinpod”

It appears to me that, in addition to Rydberg's type with two vouchers, there are two “approximate topotypes:” Ripley & Barneby (1950) #10475 (GH 1691622, CAS 303257) and Mulligan (1963, GH 1691620).

Mulligan's collection was likely in connection of his study of the genus (Mulligan, 1966).

Other articles:
• Interstate 70:   in Clear Creek Canyon;  

Physaria vitulifera, Parry, 1861

The oldest known collection of P. vitulifera was made by C. C. Parry, in his first expedition to the Rocky Mountains. We know that he collected in upper Clear Creek and traveled in the direction of Pikes Peak, but he did not keep a diary or detailed itinerary.

Plants of Colorado

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 278. 1901.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Clear Creek Headwaters, Clear Creek County, Colorado. United States of America, Colorado, From the head-waters of Clear Creek, and the alpine ridges lying east of "Middle Park," Colorado Territory.

C. C. Parry 101. 1861

There are three existing vouchers of Parry's collection. They were all initially determined P. didymocarpa Gray. Several indicate that they may be an undescribed variety. One of them, GH1639631, was annotated P. vitulifera by Rollins in 1938. Mulligan agreed in 1966 and stamped the voucher “STET.”

The other two vouchers, PBRU39332 and YU137402, remain determined P. didymocarpa.

Other articles:
• Interstate 70:  Idaho Springs;  

Physaria vitulifera, Rydberg, 1895


Physaria vitulifera Rydb.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Idaho Springs, Clear Creek County, Colorado. United States of America, Colorado, Clear Creek Co., Idaho Springs 39.7425°N, 105.5136°W. WGS 1984

P. A. Rydberg 26-Aug-1895

Vouchers: NY3188335, RM29916.

There are 11 other collections at NY by Rydberg with the same date and location of Idaho Springs.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1901.  

Physaria vitulifera, Rydberg, 1901

Rydberg (1901) described a new Physaria that he called P. vitulifera from a collection he made at Idaho Springs. An image of this specimen at NY is available through SEINet. Rydberg (1895) also cited a collection by Parry made in 1861 in the headwaters of Clear Creek. An image of this voucher at GH is also available through SEINet.

Original Text Interpretation
Physaria vitulifera sp. nov.  
A densely tufted finely stellate-pubescent perennial with deep tap-root. Basal leaves numerous, fiddle-shaped, the larger 4-5 cm. long ; terminal lobe nearly orbicular to broadly obovate, subentire, obtuse ; upper sinuses rounded : lateral lobes 1-2 pairs, much smaller : stems ascending, or decumbent, 1-2 dm. high : stem-leaves 1-2 cm. long, obovate or oblanceolate, entire : pedicels short, usually curved in fruit : sepals about 4 mm. long, oblong, acute : petals clawed, 8-9 mm. long : fruit obtuse at the base, deeply divided above ; cells much inflated, round-obovate, divergent, about 5 mm. in diameter : style about 5 mm. long.  
This species, as well as the two following, differs from P. didymocarpa in the smaller fruit, which is divided only above, not at the base. In this respect they resemble P. Newberryi ; but the fruit is much smaller and not flattened on the sides. P. vitulifera differs from the following in the form of the leaves and the curved pedicels. It grows in dry places at an altitude of about 2500 m. The "following" are Physaria floribunda and Physaria acutifolia.
Colorado : Idaho Springs, 1895, P. A. Rydberg (type); Middle Park, 1861, C. C. Parry, 101.  

Rydberg's (1901) description of P. floribunda cites “Hills about Golden, 1892, Crandall, 53.” This collection can be found by searching SEINet for collections of Physaria by Crandall in 1892. Vouchers at CS and GH have been determined P. vitulifera. A voucher at YU has two specimens, determined as P. didymocarpa, one labelled as “Hills about Golden” and the other as “Hills about Dolores.” The Golden specimen looks more like Physaria montana than either P. vitulifera, P. floribunda, or P. didymocarpa.


Physaria vitulifera, Ripley & Barneby, 1950

On July 14, 1950, Ripley and Barneby made 9 collections from Breckenridge, Dillon, Loveland Pass, and Idaho Springs.

Plantae Occidentales Selectae

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 278. 1901.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Idaho Springs, Clear Creek County, Colorado. United States of America, Colorado, Clear Creek County, Idaho Springs Habitat: steep banks of granite gravel. (approx. topotype)

H. D. Ripley & R. C. Barneby 10475. 14-Jul-1950

The label notation of “(approx. topotype)” suggests they were looking for P. vitulifera at its type location of Idaho Springs. While there, they also collected two Astragalus, A. flexuosus and A. parryi. Voucher: GH16911622, CAS303257.


Physaria vitulifera, Mulligan, 1963


Physaria vitulifera Rydb.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Idaho Springs, Clear Creek County, Colorado. United States of America, Colorado, Clear Creek County, Northwest outskirts of Idaho Springs Elev. 2178 m.

Collected by permit: Permit Unspecified, issued: , to: .

G. A. Mulligan 2765. 18-Jun-1963

Voucher: GH1691620

Other articles:
• CO Highway 119:   near Russell Gulch;  

Physaria vitulifera, Higgins, 1968

The Higgins collection is probably not an “approximate topotype.” There is one voucher of P. vitulifera that incorrectly implies that Higgins collected the plant at or near Idaho Springs. The label of RM343593 states the collection was made in Clear Creek County, 4 miles south of Black Hawk. However, Higgins other collections on this day were made 7 miles west of Boulder and 4 miles south of Black Hawk. Of the collections 4 miles south of Black Hawk, only RM343593 gives the county as Clear Creek County, whereas the other seven vouchers of collections at that location give the county as Gilpin County. I think it is far more likely that Higgins was 4 miles southwest of Black Hawk on CO Highway 119. This would place his collection in Clear Creek Canyon approximately at the mouth of Russell Gulch. This location is 4 miles northeast of Idaho Springs.

Plants of Colorado

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 278. 1901.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Clear Creek Canyon, Gilpin County, Colorado. U.S.A., Colorado, Clear Creek, Ca 4 mi S of Black Hawk. Reproductive Condition: flowering and fruiting Habitat: Sandy soil; growing in the bottom of creek bed with Astragalus parryi.

Larry C. Higgins 1494. 4-Jun-1968

Voucher: RM343593, UTC176647

Other articles:
• U. S. Highway 6:  near CO Hwy 119;  

Physaria vitulifera, Mellichamp & Neson, 1968

This Mellichamp and Nesom collection is not an “approximate topotype” Being made 2.3 miles east of the junction of US Hwy 40 and US Hwy 6, it would be very close to the junction with CO Highway 119, and thus about 7 miles east of Idaho Springs.

Plants of Colorado

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 278. 1901.  Roundtip Twinpod.

Clear Creek Canyon, Clear Creek County, Colorado. Rocky roadbank, 2.3 mi. east of jct US 40 & US 6. Elev. 7600 ft.

T. L. Mellichamp & Guy Nesom 11-Jun-1968

Vouchers: UNCC19620

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Physaria bellii, Borland, 1988;  

Jim Borland collected Physaria bellii and P. vitulifera twice: 12 May 1988 and 22 June 1988.

Collections of P. vitulifera were:

  • Verbatim Date: 12 May 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, Along west Alameda Ave. (rte. 26) above Rooney Road. Reproductive Condition: Flr & Frt.
  • Verbatim Date: 12 May 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, Across street from coke oven along Rooney Road. Habitat: On mineralized soil. Reproductive Condition: Flr & Frt.
  • Verbatim Date: 12 May 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, Becket Street, ¼ mi. E of junction Rte. 26. Habitat: On mineralized soil (not shale). Reproductive Condition: Flr & Frt.
  • Verbatim Date: 22 June 1988. Locality: United States, Colorado, Jefferson, Becket Street, 1/4 mi. E. of junction Rte. 26 (W. Alameda Parkway) and Becket Street. Habitat: On mineralized soil (not shale). Reproductive Condition: Frt.

Literature Cited:
- Wichmann, Brenda L., 2023.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physaria vitulifera;  

Jennifer Ackerfield, with assistance from Sami Naibauer (population genetics lab coordinator and field botanist at the University of Northern Colorado’s (UNC’s) School of Biological Sciences), updated the group on a collaborative effort to elucidate the taxonomic status of a plant referred to as Physaria ×1, a suspected hybrid of Bell’s twinpod (Physaria bellii) and fiddleleaf twinpod (Physaria vitulifera). The suspected hybrid has now been determined to be within the species concept of Physaria vitulifera.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rorippa palustris;  

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser “Bog Yellow-Cress”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 657) ...

Original Text
3. SISYMBRIUM filiquis, declinatis oblongo-ovatis, foliis pinnatifidis ferratis. amphibium.
α. Sifymbrium foliis pinnatifidis ferratis. Fl. fuec..
Sifymbrium foliis infomis capillaceis, fummis pinnatifidis. Hort. cliff. 337. Roy. lugdb. 341. Dalib. parif. 203.
Raphanus aquaticus, foliis in profundas lacinias divifis. Bauh. pin. 97. prodr. 38. t. 38. Fl. lapp. 262
β. Sifymbrium foliis fimplicibus dentatis ferratis. Hort. cliff. 336. Fl. fuec. 350. Roy. lugdb. 341. Hall. helv. 548.
Raphanus aquaticus, rapiftri folio. Bauh. pin. 97.
Raphanus aquaticus alter. Bauh. prodr. 38. t. 38.
δ. Sifymbrium aquaticum, foliis variis. Vaill. parif. 185.
Sifymbrium foliis imis integris ovatis ferratis, fuperioribus pinnatis. Hall. helv. 548.
Habitat in Europae feptentrionalioris aquofis.  

Literature Cited:
- Leysser, Friedrich Wilhelm von, 1761.  

Leysser (1761, p. 126) in his first edition of Flora Halensis accepted Linnaeus' treatment of R. palustris as a variety of S. amphibium.

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
603. Sisymbrium (amphibium) filiquis declinatis oblongo-ouatis, foliis pinnatifidis ferratis. Linn. fpec. 657.  
α. Sifymbrium (paluftre) foliis pinnatifidis ferratis. Linn. fuec. 2. n. 593. β. Icon. orig. cent. 3.  
β. Sifymbrium (aquaticum) foliis simplicibus dentatis ferratis. Linn. fuec. 2. n. 593. α.  
H. ad foffas circa Paffenforf, & alibi paffin: fl. Maio & feqq.  

Literature Cited:
- Leysser, Friedrich Wilhelm von, 1783.  

In his second edition of Flora Halensis, Leysser (1783, p. 166) treated our plant at the rank of species without comment regarding why he elevated it to that rank.

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
679. Sisymbrivm paluftre filiquis declinatis oblongo-ouatis, foliis pinnatifidis ferratis, (petalis calyce breuioribus.) L. f. 3. p. 250. n. 3. α. In this edition, Leysser seems to have interchanged the letters ‘u’ and ‘v.’ For example, the description of the silique as “oblongo-ouatis,” would otherwise be written as “oblongo-ovatis.”
Ad foffas, aquas, pifinas paffim, rarior tamen praecedente; Maio et feqq.  

Literature Cited:
- Besser, Wilibald S., 1822.  

Besser (1822, p. 27) writing in an enumeration of plants in a section of eastern Europe, placed our plant in Rorripa.

Original Text
CCCXII. Roripa Scop. Nasturtium H. Kew. Sisymbrium L.
824. palustris.
825. amphibia.
826. sylvestris.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rorippa sinuata;  

Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Spreading Yellowcress”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 73) proposed Nasturtium sinuatum from a manuscript by Thomas Nuttall describing plants he had seen in Oregon Territory and in the Arkansas.

Original Text Comments
5. N. sinuatum (Nutt.! mss.): “ decumbent ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments lanceolate, subserrtat or toothed on the lower margin ; pedicels spreading or recurved, longer than the oblong acute silique ; style nearly one-third the length of the silique.  
“Banks of the Oregon and its tributaries ; also in Arkansas. — Glabrous. Leaves all rqually pinnatifid ; the terminal segments more or less confluent. Flowers rather large, bright yellow. Sepals ovate. Petals oblong-ovate. Silique about one-tird of an inch long, slightly curved.” Nutt. Cotyledons o== “… the Oregon …” is a synonym for the Columbia River.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rorippa tenerrima;  

Rorippa tenerrima Greene “Modoc Yellowcress”


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1895.  

Greene (1895b, v. 3, p. 46) published R. tenerrima from collections in Modoc County, California by Mrs. R. M. Austin.

Original Text
Roripa tenerrima. Annual, weak and decumbent, very sparingly branching, 6 to 10 inches high, of delicate texture and glabrous: leaves few, lyrate-pinnatifid, the terminal lobe acutish: rachis of the few racemes almost capillary: pods rather distant, subconical, slightly curved, the tapering apex surmounted by a considerable beak-like style; valves and septum both very thin: seeds many, in 2 rows under each valve.
Collected sparingly, in Modoc Co., California, 1894, by Mrs. R. M. Austin.


Thlaspi L. “Pennycress”

Thlaspi L. s.s. is not known from Colorado, the only representative being Thlaspi arvense L. “Field Pennycress,” an introduced species.

Literature Cited:
- Mummenhoff, Klaus, Andreas Franzke, and Marcus Koch, 1997.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Notes on Noccaea fendleri, Holub, 1998;  

Mummenhoff, et al. (1997) examined phylogenetics of Thlaspi s.l. using primarily European material. The main lineages recognized are Thlaspi s.s., Noccaea (Raparia) included, and Microthlaspi. Noccaea includes by far the highest number of species formerly classified in Thlaspi s.l. It will be up to Holub to propose names for the American Noccaea.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Turritis glabra;  

Turritis glabra L. “Tower Rockcress”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 666) ...

Original Text
glabra. 1. TURRITIS foliis radicalibus dentatis hifpidis, caulinis integerrimus amplexicaulibus glabris. Hort. cliff. 339. Fl. fuec. 544. Roy. lugdb. 339. Hall. helv. 5600. Dalib. parif. 203
  Braffica fylveftris, foliis circa radicem cichoraceis. Bauh. pin. 112.
  Habitat in Sueciae, Germaniae, Angliae pafcuis fylvaticis.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cleomella serrulata;  

Cleomella serrulata (Pursh) Roalson & J. C. Hall “Rocky Mountain Beeplant”

[Syn: Cleome serrulata Pursh, Peritoma serrulata (Pursh) DC.]

Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Locations: Vermillion River.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 441) ...

Original Text Comments
2. C. glabra ; floribus hexandris, foliis ternatis, foliolis lanceolatis tenuissime serrulatis, racemo elongato, bracteis linearibus. serrulata.  
On the banks of the Missouri. ☉. Aug. v . s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers pale purple or white.   Mouth of the Vermillion River, Clay County, South Dakota, or Cedar or Dixon County, Nebraska, August 25, 1804 (Moulton, 1999).

Literature Cited:
- Roalson, Eric C., Jocelyn C. Hall, James P. Riser II, Warren M. Cardinal-McTeague, Theodore S. Cochrane & Kenneth J. Sytsma, 2015.  

Cleomella serrulata (Pursh) Roalson & J.C.Hall, Phytotaxa 205(3): 140 (2015).

There is really nothing specific about Cleomella serrulata in this paper that focuses on the North American cleomids, except perhaps, that it fits into alternatives of Peritoma s.l., Peritoma s.s., and Cleomella s.l., along P. jonesii and P. lutea.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Polanisia dodecandra;  

Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. “Sandyseed Clammyweed”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sedum lanceolatum;  

Sedum lanceolatum Torr. “Spearleaf Stonecrop”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

172. S. lanceolatum, foliis planis, subalternis, inferioribus confertis, oblongo-lanceolatis, acutiusculis, glabris, margine glanduloso-serrulatis ; caule ramoso, assurgente ; floribus cymoso-corymbosis ; petalis lanceolatis, patentibus.
Desc. Stem a little branched at the base, creeping. Leaves about half an inch long, rather crowded, oblong-lanceolate, obscurely 3-nerved, smooth, except on the margin, which is glandularly serrate under a lens. Cyme corymbose, the branches spreading, or reflexed. Flowers white ? decandrous ? Segments of the calyx lanceolate. Petals 7, lanceolate, acute. Stamens — .
Hab. Near the Rocky Mountains.

Literature Cited:
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.  

Original Text
James could have collected the type (NY) of S. lanceolatum in early July along his route from the chasm of the Platte, Jefferson County, south to Manitou Springs and Pikes Peak, El Paso County, Colorado.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Jamesia americana;  

Jamesia americana Torr. & A. Gray “Fivepetal Cliffbush”


Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1832.  

Rafinesque (1832, p. 145) published a Jamesia

8. Jamesia Raf. differs from Psoralea, calyx not glandular, hairy, 5 subulate clefts nearly equal, stamens Monadelphous, pod acuminate by style, stigma smooth. J. obovata Raf. Psoralea jamessi T. Sp. 75.
Psoralea jamesii is now treated as a synonym of Dalea jamesii (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray. Jamesia obovata is treated as nom. superfl, whereas Jamesia Raf. is treated as nom. rej.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1840, v. 1(4), p. 594) published Jamesia americana with a tribute to the work of Dr. Edwin James. They placed our plant in Order LXVI. Saxifragaceae Juss., Suborder III. Hydrangeae DC.

J. Americana.
Dr. James ! — Shrub erect? With terete branches. Leaves, including the petioles, 1-2 inches long, ovate, simply serrate with broad mucronate teeth. Cymes shorter than the leaves : bracts subulate. Calyx persistent, cleft rather below the middle ; the segments mostly acute, two of them somewhat narrower ; one of the broader ones sometimes minutely 3-toothed at the apex. Petals twice or more the length of the calyx. Stamens deciduous. Styles more than twice the length of the ovary, much exserted beyond the calyx. Ovary free, except the base, the parieties rather thick and firm ; the dissepiments very short ; the placentae lunate, at first distinct, many-ovuled. — We much regret that we have not more adequate materials for describing this plant. Our specimens were collected by Dr. Edwin James (in Long's Expedition), but the particular locality is not recorded. It is probably rare or very local, as no other botanist seems to have met with it. It appears to be an entirely distinct genus, to which we have applied the present name in commemoration of the scientific services of its worthy discoverer, the botanist and historian of ‘Major Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, in the year 1820,’ and who, during that journey, made an excellent collection of plants under the most unfavorable circumstances.

Literature Cited:
- Bentham, George, and Joseph Dalton Hooker, 1862.  

Bentham and Hooker (1862) ...GH

Tribus III. Hydrangese.
** Ovarium supernum
32.JAMESIA. Petals 5, Convoluta. Stamina 10. Stylii 3-5. — Nov. Mexico.

Interesting to me that sister genera are Fendlera, Carpenteria, and Whipplea.

Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Porter & Coulter, 1874, publication details;  

Porter and Coulter (1874) treat Jamesia americana as a member of the Saxifrage family (Saxifragaceae).

Jamesia1 Americana, T. & G. Cymes often longer than the leaves, 5-10 flowered; petals white, 3"-5" long, glabrous or slightly hairy within; calyx-lobes shorter than the petals, enlarged and foliaceous in fruit. — Hll & Harbour, 568; Parry. Georgetown, Dr. Smith; Canby. Chiann Cañon and Glen Eyrie, Porter. James's Peak and Clear Creek Cañon, Coulter; Redfield.

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Joseph Dalton, 1875.
Full Size ImageHooker, J. D., 1875 illustration of Jamesia americana.  

Hooker, J. D. (1875, Tab. 6142) ...

TAB. 6142.
JAMESIA americana.
Native of The Rocky Mountains..

Nat. Ord. Saxifrageae. — Tribe Hydrangeae.
Genus Jamesia, Torr. and Gray ; — (Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Plant., vol. i. p. 643).

JAMESIA americana ; ramulis junioribus petiolis foliis subtus et inflorescentia laxe villosis, foliis ovatis obtusis crenato-dentatis supra glabris, paniculis brevibus terminalibus basi foliosis, calycis lobis rotundatis, petalis oblongis.
JAMESIA americana, Torr. & Gray Flor. N. Am., vol. ii. p. 593; Walp. Ann., vol. ii. p. 614; A. Gray Plant. Fendl., p. 55 in nota ; Carriére in Rev. Hortic., October, 1874, p. 389 cum ic xylog.

First described from imperfect specimens by Torrey and Gray, in 1540, and named by them “in commemoration of the scientific services of Dr. Edwin James, its worthy discoverer, the botanist and historian of Major Long’s expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1820, and who during the journey made an excellent collection of plants under the most unfavourable circumstances.” Those were the days when every traveller in the Rocky Mountains carried his life in his hand, and when to hold it fast required the subtlety of the savage, plus the pluck of the white man. Little was known of this plant for many subsequent years, not until it was gathered by Fendler in 1847, and after another long interval by C. C. Parry, in 1861, in the very spot where James had discovered it – namely, the head-waters of Clear Creek, and on Alpine ridges east of Middle Park, in the Colorado territory, lat. 40° N. Considering the numerous collections that have been made in other parts of the Rocky Mountains, and that do not contain the Jamesia, it is evident that it is a very rare and local plant.
Though so much more like a Rosaceous plant in habit and inflorescence, Jamesia is truly saxifragaceous, and closely allied to Hydrangea ; it is quite hardy, and was raised at Kew about twelve years ago, from seed received, I believe, from Dr. Asa Gray, where, however, it has not flowered. For the plant here figured I am indebted to the Rev. Mr. Ellacombe, of Bitton, near Bristol, who flowered it in October last.
Descr. A branching shrub; branches opposite, covered with a loose, papery bark ; branchlets, petioles, leaves beneath, and inflorescence clothed with soft villous pubescence. Leaves opposite, petioled, one to two inches long, ovate, obtuse, crenate-toothed, glabrous, but not shining above, with impressed veins; petiole one-quarter to one-third inch long. Cymes terminal, erect, shortly pyramidal, many-flowered, the lower branches leafy at the base. Flowers half an inch diameter ; white, pedicels one-sixth inch long. Calyx villous, turbinate, 5-lobed, lobes rounded or broadly ovate, acute, white. Petals 5, spreading, oblong, obtuse. Stamens 10, the alternate shorter; filaments linear, flattened; anthers broadly oblong. Ovary conical; styles 3-5, stout, erect, stigmas subcapitate. — J. D. H.

Fig. 1, Flower ; 2, the same, with the petals removed ; 3, long and short stamens; 4, ovary : — all magnified.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John Merle, 1885.  

Coulter (1885) published his Manual of the Botany of the Rocky mountain Region. By this time the known distribution of Jamesia americana has expanded to include Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico.

10. JAMESIA, Torr. & Gray.
Calyx-lobes sometimes bifid. Petals 5, obovate. Alternate stamens shorter; filaments linear, flattened acuminate. Capsule included. Seeds striate-reticulate. — Low, diffusely branching, 2 to 3 feet high: leaves ovate, mucronately serrate, canescent beneath, as well as the petioles, calyx, and branchlets, with a soft hairy pubescence : flowers cymose, in terminal panicles.
1. J. Americana, Torr. & Gray. Cymes often longer than the leaves, 5 to 10-flowered : petals white, glabrous or softly hairy within : calyx-lobes shorter than the petals, enlarged and foliaceous in fruit. Fl. i. 593. Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico.

Literature Cited:
- Heller, A. A., 1897.  

Heller (1897, v. 24, n. 10, pp. 477-478) proposed a new genus, Edwinia, because the genus name Jamesia had been previously used by Rafinesque. Heller also noted that Fendler found our plant to be plentiful along Santa Fe Creek (now Santa Fe River). No higher rank was specified.

EDWINIA nom. Nov.
[Jamesia T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1: 593. 1840. Not Raf. 1832.]
Edwinia Americana (T. & G.).
Jamesia Americana T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1: 593. 1840.
The specimen upon which the genus was founded was imperfect and scanty, and the exact locality from which it was obtained is not known, but it is supposed to have come from “along the Platte or the Canadian River.” Fendler re-discovered it on the “banks of Santa Fe Creek, near the water, where the stream is walled in on both sides by high rocks.” It is plentiful along Santa Fe Creek in favorable situations, usually growing on rocks or on talus. No. 3710.
Heller also listed Edwinia Wrightii (Engelm. & Gray), placing in synonomy, Fendlera rupicola var. Wrightti Engelm. & Gray, Pl. Wright. 1:77, pl. 5.f. 2. 1852.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1906.  

Rydberg (1906, p. 176) placed our plant in the family Hydrangeaceae Dumort., though still as Edwinia.

2. EDWINIA Heller
1. Edwinia americana (T. & G.) Heller. (Jamesia americana T. & G.) On cliffs, mountain sides and in cañons, from Wyo. And Utah to N. M. — Alt. 5000-7000 ft. — Rist Cañon; Minnehaha; Pikes Peak; Rock Mountain Pass, Ward; West Spanish Peak; Central City; Engelmann's Cañon; North Cheyenne Cañon; Green Mountain Falls. Foorthills, Larimer Co.; Georgetown; Cañon City; headwaters of Clear Creek and alpine ridges east of Middle Park; Manitou; Graymont; Narrows, Moon's Ranch; Horsetooth Gulch; Soldier Cañon; Howe's Gulch; Pennock's mountain ranch; Mountains between Sunshine and Ward; Eldora to Baltimore.

Literature Cited:
- Fernald, M. L., and C. A. Weatherby, 1929.  

Fernald & Weatherby (1929). Proposed Amendments to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature Rhodora. v. 31 (1929).

II. To add to the list of Nomina Generica Conservanda the following, in case the amendment to Art. 50 proposed by Dr. A. S. Hitchcock (“Eliminate the words: or because of the existence of an earlier homonym which is universally regarded as non-valif”) is adopted:
No. Fam. Nomina conservanda Nomina rejicienda
3209 Saxifragac. Jamesis T. & G. Fl. N. Am. i. 593 (1840); not Raf. Atl. Journ. (1832), 145. Standard-species: J. americana T. & G. Edwinia Heller, Bull. Torr. Bot. Cl. xxiv. 477 (1897).

Amendment I.

3209 Jamesia T. & G. Fl. N. Am. i. 593 (1840).
Jamesia Raf. (1832) was based on Psoralea Jamesii Torr., which is generally kept in the genus Dalea Juss. (1789) or Parosela Cav. (1802) — see No. 3709. Rafinesque's Jamesia has been taken up by no subsequent author; but Jamesia T. & G. (1840) is a generally used name for a genus of shrubs of North America with one species widely known in cultivation as Jamesia. If Jamesia T. & G. is to be maintained it will be necessary specially to conserve it, at least if Dr. Hitchcock's amendment as to homonyms is adopted. In that case we should move the conservation of Jamesia T. & G.

Literature Cited:
- Rickett, H. W. , & F. A. Stafleu, 1959c.
- Rickett, H. W., and F. A. Stafleu, 1959.  

Rickett, H. W., and F. A. Stafleu (1959c) presented Jamesia Torrey & Gray as a conserved name over Jamesia Rafinesque.

3209 Jamesia Torrey et Gray, Fl. N. Am. 1: 593. Jun 1840
T.: J. americana Torrey et Gray.
(H) Jamesia Rafinesque, Atl. Journ. 145. 1832 sero. [LEGUM.].
T.: J. obovata Rafinesque, nom. illeg. (Psoralea jamesii Torrey).

Literature Cited:
- Holmgren, N. H., & P. K. Holmgren, 1989.
Full Size ImageDistribution of herbarium vouchers of Jamesia americana.  

Holmgren & Holmgren (1989) …

Jamesia, an easily distinguished of Hydrangeaceae, is endemic to western North America from the southern Rocky Mountains in southeastern Wyoming, south through Colorado, New Mexico, and the mountains further south to southeastern Arizona, Chihuahua, and Nuevo Leon, and west across the Great Basin to southern Sierra Nevada.
Fernald and Weatherby's (1929) proposal to conserve Jamesia Torr. & Gray over Jamesia Raf. was accepted by the Nomenclatural Section of the Cambridge International Botanical Cogress in 1930 (Briquet, 1935).
Jamesia has been identified by Axelrod (1987) from Oligocene fossil floras in southwestern Colorado (Creede flora, 26.5 million years ago) and southwestern Montana (Ruby flora, 29 million years ago). The fossil beds near Creede, Mineral County, Colorado, consist of shales that were produced from sediments deposited in a caldera lake. The Jamesia leaves are found in thin-bedded, tuffaceous, silty shales and fine sandstone. The Creede lake was a moat circling a large dome (today's Showshoe Mountain); it was surrounded by steep caldera walls 900 to 1200 meters high. The Creede formation has been exposed by erosion by the Rio Grande.

Axelrod based his description of J. caplanii on 15 leaf specimens from four different sites. Five of these are pictured in his monograph (1987, pl. 30, figs. 12-16). The venation, margins, and petiole are a good match for modern-day J. americana var. americana; the only noticeable different is a proportionally slightly narrower blade with a more acute tip.

Axelrod and Raven (1985) suggested that Jamesia originated in the southern Rocky Mountains in the late Eocene along with the monotypic and small rosaceous genera Chamaebatiaria (Porter) Maxim., Fallugia Endl., Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim., and Peraphyllum Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray, giving it a Madrean affinity.
That all Jamesia taxa seem to have a fine-tuned adaptation to cliff and rock habitats suggests that the ancestral form giving rise to them very likely did as well.
Another possible explanation for today's spotty occurrence could be that under present climatic conditions Jamesia survives the dry summers better where it is exposed to the cold moist air that descends nightly from the higher mountain peaks.
Selected Literature

Briquet, J., editor. 1935. International rules of botanical nomenclature (Cambridge Rules). Gustav Fischer, Jena.

Fernald, M. L. & C. A. Weatherby. 1929. Proposed amendments to the international rules of botanical nomenclature. Rhodora 31: 91-96.


Holmgren & Holmgren (1989) accept the following taxa:

  1. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray
  2. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. americana
  3. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. zionis N. Holmgren & P. Holmgren
  4. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. macrocalyx (Small) Engl.
  5. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. rosea Purpus ex C. Schneider
  6. Jamesia tetrapetala N. Holmgren & P. Holmgren

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) ...

JAMESIA Torrey & Gray 1840 [for Edwin James, its discoverer]. Waxflower
One species, J. americana Torrey & Gray. Common in canyons of the foothills, up to the subalpine on warm, southern exposures. Some years ago while visiting Boulder, Guido Pontecorvo, a famous geneticist, was taken by this species as a potential cultivar and took seed to Glascow, where he patiently germinated them. One day in 1957 I visited him and he proudly showed me these plants, which he was to be the first yo introduce to Scottish gardens, growing nicely in his lath-houses. Shortly afterward, we walked across the campus to lunch and, turning a corner, we discovered a beautiful bush, many years old, in full flower! Embarassing, yes, but a tribute to the fact that very little escaped the Scottish gardeners of the last century.
Jamesia is evidently a Tertiary (Oligocene) relict, for it occurs as a fossil in the Creede formation. (See Axelrod 1987.)

Axelrod, D. I. 1987. The late Oligocene Creede flora, Colorado. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 130: 1-235.


Freeman (2017) in Flora of North America followed Holmgren & Holmgren (1989) in accepting the following taxa:

  1. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray
  2. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. americana
  3. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. zionis N. Holmgren & P. Holmgren
  4. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. macrocalyx (Small) Engl.
  5. Jamesia americana Torr. & Gray var. rosea Purpus ex C. Schneider
  6. Jamesia tetrapetala N. Holmgren & P. Holmgren


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heuchera bracteata;  

Heuchera bracteata (Torr.) Ser. “Bracted Alumroot”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heuchera parvifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1655, Heuchera parvifolia  

Heuchera parvifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray. “Littleleaf Alumroot”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 581) published H. parvifolia in the section Heucherella.

§ 4. Filaments and styles subulate, very short : calyx obconic at the base, rotate, equal : petals small, fugacious : flowers small : panicles narrow, loose. — Heucherella.  
13. H. parvifolia (Nutt.! mss.): scabrous-puberulent ; scape naked ; leaves forming a small radical cluster, roundish-cordate, crenately 5-7-lobed, at length glabrous, ciliate ; the lobes short and rounded ; panicle racemose, rather loose ; bracts small, laciniate-ciliate ; flowers very small ; limb of the calys flat, dilated ; petals minute, caducous ; stamens shorter than the lobes of the calyx ; styles very short, conical. Typically when quoting a Nuttall manuscript, Torrey & A. Gray will place double quotes around the description. They did not do so in this case. I assume that was a printer's oversight in this case, and is not significant.
Rocky Mountains, Dr. James! Blue Mountains of Oregon, Nuttall! — Caudex somewhat ligneous, thick. Leaves an inch or more in diameter ; the lobes with one or two crenatures, not mucronate. Scape 8-12 inches : panicle branching below. Calyx-tube obconic, adherent nearly to the summit of the ovary. Filaments very short and thick, subulate : anthers large for the size of the flower. Seeds hispid. — Mr. Nuttall supposes this species to be nearly allied to H. Richardsonii. It seems to us, however, to form, with the succeeding species, a very well-marked section. The succeeding was “14. H. hirtiflora …”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Micranthes rhomboidea;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2262, 6 May 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2262, Micranthes rhomboidea  

Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small. “Diamondleaf Saxifrage”


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1898.  

Greene (1898, v. 3, n. 19, p. 343) ...

Saxifraga rhomboidea. Stem leafless and scapiform, stoutish, 5 to 10 inches high, pubescent : leaves all in a radical tuft, usually depressed and rosulate, the earliest ones rhombic-ovate, the later more oval, 1 to 2½ inches long including the broad short petiole, variously toothed, often crenate, sometimes repand-dentate, glabrous or the margins short-hairy: flowers small, white, in a commonly dense ovoid capitate-terminal cluster, but this in fruit becoming somewhat obviously branched and thyrsiform : petals white, spatulate-obovate, usually emarginate.
Common species of dry open slopes, chiefly in the belt of Pinus ponderosa, in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, thence northward to Montana and southward to New Mexico; long referred to the Old World S. nivalis, a very different alpine or subarctic species. Mr. Holm, who has independently made a careful anatomical study of S. nivalis and its allies, informs me that this Rocky Mountain plant bears internal evidence of a closer relationship to S. integrifolia by far, than to S. nivalis. S. rhomboidea has an American but high-northern ally in S. radulina of page 308 preceding.

Literature Cited:
- New York Botanical Garden, 1905-1949.  

Small (1905, v. 22, pt. 2, p. 136) ...

9. Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small.
Saxifraga nivalis Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1 : 248, in part. 1832. Not S. nivalis L.
Saxifraga rhomboidea Greene, Pittonia3: 343. 1898.
? Saxifraga rhomboidea austrina A. Nelson, Bot. Gaz. 31 : 394. 1901.
Leaves spreading or ascending, 2-6 cm. long, the blades mainly ovoid or rhombic- ovoid, sometimes oblong-ovoid, obtuse, crenate or dentate-serrate, nearly glabrous except the more or less ciliate margins, mainly green, sometimes purplish beneath, abruptly or gradually narrowed into petiole-like bases which are occasionally longer than the blade itself; scapes mainly erect, 8-31 cm. high, green, copiously glandular-pubescent, simple or Sparingly paniculate above ; cymules aggregated into a terminal head or in several heads terminating the short branches of the inflorescence; bracts subtending the peduncles narrow, green; sepals ovate to triangular, 1.5-3.5 mm. long, barely if at all ciliate, 3- veined; petals white, obovate to oblong-obovate, 2.5-4 mm. long, longer than the sepals, commonly notched at the apex, often contracted into broad claw-like bases ; filaments subulate ; follicles 3-3.5 mm. high, green or purple-tinged, the stout tips widely spreading.
Type locality : Mountains of Colorado.
Distribution: Montana, Wyoming and Colorado.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ribes aureum;  

Ribes aureum Pursh “Golden Currant”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, p. 164) published Ribes aureum from collections by Lewis & Clark, and from garden-grown specimens he had seen.

Original Text
aureum. 8. R. inerme, glaberrimum ; foliis trilobis : lobis divaricatis inciso-pauci-dentatis petiolo basi ciliato brevioribus, racemis laxis dense-mujiifloris, calycibus tubulatis pedicellis longioribus : tubo gracili : laciniis oblongis obtusis, petalis linearibus laciniis calycis duplo brevioribus, bracteis linearibus longitudine pedicellorum, baccis glabris.
  On the banks of the rivers Missouri and Columbia M. Lewis. ♄ April, v. s. in Herb. Lewis. ; v. v. in Hort. Flowers in close racemes, beautiful golden-yellow ; berries red or brown, of an exquisitely fine taste, and considerably larger size than any of garden currants. The shrub before flowering has the appearance of a species of Crataegus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ribes cereum;  

Ribes cereum Douglas “Wax Currant”


Literature Cited:
- Douglas, David, 1830.  

Original Text
I brought seeds of this species to England in October 1827. The plants flowered last April, in the Garden of the Society, but rather weakly, being only one year old.*
3. R. cereum : inerme, foliis subrotundis obtuse trilobis crenatis viscidis, racemis 3-5-floris pendulis pubescentibus longitudine foliorum, calycibus tubulatis laciniis ovatis reflexis : petala subreniformia duplo excedentibus, bracteis cuneiformibus apice dentatis, baccis rubris glabris.
This bush is of more humble stature and slender habit than the one last mentioned, growing erect, about five or six feet high, with white smooth bark on the old branches. The young shoots which are curved and flexible, are covered with a brown viscid scentless glutinous substance, which when exposed to the sun, acquires a rough, hardened, waxy, warty appearance. The leaves are nearly round, bluntly three-lobed, crenate, scarcely an inch long, of a leathery texture and almost veinless, clothed on the upper surface with white and (in dry weather) hardened waxy minute granulations, quite smooth below ; footstalks somewhat longer than the leaves. The clusters are dense, of the same length as the leaves, three or five-flowered, slightly pubescent, hanging in great profusion below the branches, with scarcely any partial footstalks ; bracteas wedge-shaped, glandular and toothed at the apex. The calyx is tubular, imperfectly four-sided, white, pink at the base, three-fourths of an inch long, with rounded, short, reflected segments double the length of the minute somewhat kidney shaped petals. Filaments, same length as the petals ; style slightly cloven. Berry spherical, small, red and glossy, thin-skinned, rarely containing more than three large seeds and a great quantity of insipid, viscid, red juice.
This species in point of beauty cannot be compared to the fragrant flowered R. aureum, and its varieties, nor can it vie with the gaudy inflorescence of R. sanguineum. It blossoms at the same season and with equal profusion, is equally hardy and as readily cultivated.
On dry exposed decayed granite rocks or schist, throughout the chain of the river Columbia from the Great Falls 45° 46' 17" N. Lat. to the source of that stream in the Rocky Mountains, 52° 07' 09" this is a common shrub, flowering in March and April, and ripening its fruit in June.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saskatoon Serviceberry;  

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. “Saskatoon Serviceberry”


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

Collected by Lewis & Clark on April 15, 1806 at The Dalles of the Columbia River. However, it was not published by Pursh.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageNuttall (1818) description of Aronia alnifolia.  

Order IV. — Pentagynia

340. Aronia. Persoon. Mespilus. L.

Calix 5-toothed. Petals 5. Berry inferior 5 to 10-celled; cells 1 or 2-seeded. Seeds cartilaginous.

Shrubs without spines, having alternate undivided leaves, and flowers which are corymbose or racemose, generally white; fruit a small black purple or scarlet pomois berry, containing seeds similar to those of apples.

Species. 1. … 6. * Alnifolia. Smooth: leaves roundish, upperpart toothed, pinnately nerved, under side somewhat glaucous; raceme simple, elongated; fruit black and sweet. Habitat. In ravines and on the elevated margins of small streams from Fort Mandan to the Northern Andes. Observation. A shrub 4 or 5 feet high; leaves roundish and retuse, somewhat attenuated at the base, toothed towards the summit; fruit dark purple, somewhat pruinose, very agreeable and saccharine; ripening about July and August.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1834) use of the name Amelanchier alnifolia  

In 1834, Nuttall referred to Amelanchier alnifolia in his review of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth:

37. Amelanchier alnifolia. Source of the Missouri.

Unfortunately this possible publication of a new name for the taxon is invalid because there is no reference (either direct or indirect) to the intended basionym Aronia alnifolia Nutt. (1818).

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.
Full Size ImageRoemer (1847) description of A. alnifolia  

Roemer validly published Amelanchier alnifolia in 1847, referring to Nuttall's 1834 use of the name.

3) prope apicem tantum serrata, subrotunda v. late elliptica, utrinque obtusissima v. retusa ; racemi densiflori ; petala lineari-oblonga, calyce 3–4plo longiora; stamina brevissima.

18. A. alnifolia Nutt. In Joun. Acad. Philad. VII. 22

A. ovalis β semiintegrifolia Hook. L. c. 201. – G.Don l. c.

A. canadensis δ alnifolia Torr. & A.Gr. l. c.

Aronia alnifolia Nutt. gen. I. 306

Pyrus alnifolia Ser. l. c. 637. 39.G.Don l. c. 649. 56.

Ad flum. Columbia pr. Fort Vancouver et ad “the grand Rapids,” in editoribus ad flumen Multnomah. 5 5.


There is one collection of A. utahensis made June 1, 1913 on Lookout Mountain. The name of the collector is unknown. This is one of 13 collections made that day on Lookout Mountain or at its base. The Lookout Mountain Road was under construction on that day, and opened to public use August 21, 1913, but not completed until December 1913 (Colorado Transcript, multiple dates).


J. H. Ehlers collected A. utahensis on a rocky slope of a hogback near Golden (COLO662346). There are three possible hog backs which may be this location. There is Dakota Ridge (North Hogback) at the very north of Golden. There is a small hogback informally named Eagle Ridge near the intersection of US Highway 6 and Heritage Road. Finally, at the very south end of Golden is Tin Cup Ridge, the northward extension of Dinosaur Ridge into Golden. There are three other vouchers of Ehlers collections made the same day, though none of them give any more details on the actual location.

Literature Cited:
- Jones, George Neville, 1946.  


Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Some authors, such as Ackerfield (2015), treat A. utahensis as a variety of A. alnifolia, explaining that the two taxa overlap in morphology and distribution, and that it can be difficult, if not impossible, to assign one name or the other to some specimens. Then we would have:

  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. var. alnifolia “Saskatoon Serviceberry” and
  • Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. Ex M. Roem. Var. utahensis (Koehne) M. E. Jones “Utah Serviceberry”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amelanchier utahensis;  

Amelanchier utahensis Koehne “Utah Service-Berry”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cercocarpus montanus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2270.1, 9 May 2020;
Full Size ImageMountain Mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus) on South Table Mountain.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2184, Cercocarpus montanus in fruit.  

Cercocarpus montanus Raf. “Alder-Leaf Mountain Mahogany”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2270.1, Cercocarpus montanus in bloom.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cotoneaster lucidus;  

Cotoneaster lucidus Schltdl. “Hairy Stem Cotoneaster”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crataegus erythropoda;

Locations: Magpie Gulch.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2930, Crataegus erythropoda.  

Crataegus erythropoda Ashe “Cerro Hawthorn”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crataegus succulenta;  

Crataegus succulenta Schrad. ex Link “Fleshy Hawthorn”

(Syn: Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe, Crataegus erythropoda Ashe, Crataegus macrantha Britton var. occidentalis (Britton) Eggl.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fragaria virginiana;  

Fragaria virginiana Mill. “Virginia Strawberry”


Literature Cited:
- Miller, Philip, 1768.  

Miller (8th ed., 1768, p. FOEN-FRA) ...

2. Fragaria (Virginiana) foliis oblongo-ovatis ferratis, inferne incanis, calycibus longioribus, fructu fubrotundo. Strawberry with oblong, oval, fawed leaved, hoary ontheir under fide, longer empalements,and a roundifh fruit. Fragaria Virginia fructu Coccineo. Hift. Ox. 2. 186. Virginia Strawberry with a fcarlet fruit, commonly called the Scarlet Strawberry.

Hift. Ox. Rob. Morifoni Hiftoria Plantarum Univerfalis Oxonienfis. Pars ada, Oxoniae, 1680; Pars 3, abfoluta a Bobarto ; Oxon. 1699, fol.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Holodiscus dumosus;  

Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray) A.Heller. “Rock Spirea”


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

There are two collections of Holodiscus discolor in the Lewis & Clark herbarium both collected May 29, 1806 on the Clearwater (Kooskooske) River, Camp Chopunnish, Kamiah, Idaho County, Idaho (Moulton, 1999).

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 341-342) ...

Original Text

413. SPIRÆA. Gen. pl.862.

* Fruticosæ

discolor 8. S. foliis ovatis lobatis dentatis subplicatis subtus niveotomentosis, paniculatis terminalibus pedunculatis ramosissimis.

On the banks of the Kooskoosky. ♄. June, July. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. A shrub about five feet high.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 416) ...

Original Text
5. SPIRÆA. Linn. ; Gærth. fr. t. 69 ; DC. prodr. 2 p. 541.
§ 2. Flowers perfect : disk free at the margin, mostly crenate or with glandular teeth or lobes : carpels distinct, not inflated : ovules mostly several, pendulous : seeds mostly with a loose membranous testa, attenuate at each end : shrubs with entire or serrate exstipulate leaves. — Euspiraea.
* * * * Flowers in large and loose compound panicles : calyx deeply 5-cleft, spreading : disk sholly coherent, entire ; ovules 2, collateral !
8. S. ariæfolia (Smith): leaves broadly ovate, petioled, obtuse, pinnatifidly incised or somewhat lobed, dentate with mucronate teeth, almost glabrous above, canescently hairy or tomentose beneath ; panicle large and loose, much branched, and, with the calyx, tomentose-pubescent ; segments of the calyx acute, apreading ; carpels 5. broad, compressed, margined, very hirsute. — Smith ! in Rees, cycl. ; Seringe in DC. l.c. ; Lindl.! bot. reg. t. 1365 ; Hook.! fl. Bor-Am. 1 p. 173 ; & bot. Beechey, suppl. p. 338.
β discolor : leaves much smaller, cuneiform at the base, the serratures scarcely mucronate, silvery-tomentose beneath. — S. discolor, Pursh. ! fl. 1. p.342 ; Seringe, l. c. ; Torr. ! in ann. lyc. New York, 2. p. 195. S. dumosa, Nutt. ! mss.
N. W. Coast ! Oregon ! and California ! (Menzies ! Douglas ! Dr. Scouler ! Nuttall!) β. In the Rocky Mountains, Dr. James ! Nuttall ! and on the Kooskoosky River, Lewis ! June-July. — The ordinary forms is frequently somewhat arborescent, according to Nuttall, with a stout trunk, rising to the height of 12-14 feet. His S. dumosa is said to tbe a low shrub, confined to mountain regions. Douglas's Californian specimens are quite intermediate between the two, and probably came from the back country : the young leaves agree well with the description of Pursh.

Literature Cited:
- Geyer, Charles A., 1846.
- Hooker, Sir William J., 1847.  

Hooker (1847, v. 6., p. 217) published Nuttall's H. dumosa in his Catalogue of Geyer's collections of plants in the upper Missouri, Oregon Territory, and the intervening portion of the Rocky Mountains. IPNI judges this name as illegitimate.

Original Text
4. S. dumosa, Nutt. — S. discolor, Ph. (fide Torr. et Gr.) — S. ariæfolia, β. discolor, Torr. et Gr. Am. 1. p. 416.
Hab. Stony and sandy places of Platte River; a shrub, from 2-10 feet high : and at the mouth of Walla-Walla River, Upper Oregon. June. (n. 228.) — These are specimens of a dwarf shrub, with leaves smaller than those of a gooseberry, and the foliage and panicles very different from those of S. ariæfolia, with which Torrey and Gray unite it. Nuttall's, Geyer's and Gordon's specimens (the latter from the Upper Platte) are uniform.
Geyer (1846) published an account of his travels in Hooker's London Journal of Botany.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

A. Gray (1849, p. 40) in Planteæ Fendlerianæ ...

Original Text
188. S. dumosa, Nutt ! Mss. ; Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 6. p. 217. Steep mountain-sides, upper part of Santa Fé Creek ; July. Shrub about 4 feet high. — This is the S. discolor of Torrey in Ann. Lyc. New York (James's Collection), and a good species ; but the original S. discolor, Pursh, I believe to be only S. ariæfolia ; as certainly is a plant of Menzies so named by Pursh in Herb. Lambert.

Remarks in the International Plant Names Index

A. Gray used: S. Dumosa, Nutt! Mss.; Hook. Land. Jour. Bot. 6. p. 217. … This is the S. discolor of Torrey in Ann. Lye. New York (James's Collection), and a good species; but the original S. discolor, Pursh, I believe to be only S. ariaefolia; as certainly is a plant of Menzies so named by Pursh in Herb. Lambert. S. dumosa Nutt. ex Hook. (1847) is an illegitimate superfluous name for S. discolor Pursh (1813). Since A. Gray used S. dumosa Nutt. ex Hook., but excluded its illegitimacy causing synonymy (i.e., S. discolor Pursh), he created a later homonym (see Vienna Code Art. 48.1).

Literature Cited:
- Heller, A. A., 1898.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heller, 1898;  

Heller (1898, p. 4) published Holodiscus dumosa with Spiraea dumosa as the basionym.

Original Text
Holodiscus dumosa (Nutt.)
   Spiraea dumosa Nutt.: T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 416. 1840. as synonym.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed., p. 309) accepts Holodiscus microphyllus Rydb. and H. dumosus (Nutt.) Heller.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012, p. 338) accept only Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maximovicz and include H. dumosus and H. microphyllus therein.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts only Holodiscus dumosus (Nutt. ex Hook.) A. Heller.

Literature Cited:
- Lis, Richard, 2015.  

Lis (2015) accepts the following names in Holodiscus ...

  • Holodiscus discolor (Pursh) Maximowicz
    • Holodiscus discolor var. discolor
    • Holodiscus discolor var. dumosus (S. Watson) Maximowicz ex J. M. Coulter
  • Holodiscus microphyllus Rydberg
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. glabrescens (Greenman) F. A. Ley
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. microphyllus
    • Holodiscus microphyllus var. sericeus F. A. Ley


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Malus pumila;  

Malus pumila Mill. “Common Apple; Crabapple”



Physocarpus Maxim.


Literature Cited:
- Maximowicz, C. J., 1879.  

Maximowicz (1879, p. 219) is credited with publishing Physocarpus, though he credits "Camb." for the name, and notes Neilliae sectio Physocarpus Hook. F. Gen. pl. I 612. Names published were Ph. opulifolia L. Cod. 3724. (sub Spiraea), Ph. Torrey Wats., and Ph. Amurensis Maxim.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physocarpus monogynus;  

Physocarpus monogynus (Torr.) J.M. Coult. “Mountain Ninebark”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, p. 194) describes ...

Original Text
119. S. monogyna, foliis lato-ovatis, subtrilobis, inciso-serratis, glabris ; floribus corymboso-umbellatis, monogynis ; pedicellis glabris ; calycis lobis erecto-patentibus, ovariis villosis.
Desc. Fruticose. Branches alternate, covered with a loose bark as in S. opulifolia. Leaves roundish-ovate, broad and subcordate at the base, somewhat 3-lobed, incisely toothed, slightly pubescent beneath, smooth above ; petioles without stipules. Umbels corymbose, few-flowered, on short peduncles ; pedicels filiform, about half an inch long. Flowers perfect. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed ; lobes ovate-obtuse, somewhat spreading, pubescent. Petals —. Stamens 20 ; filaments inserted on a torus, which is free at the margin. Germen solitary, stipulate, ovate, compressed, villous, 3-seeded, acuminate with the persistent filiform style ; stigma small, capitate.
Hab. On the Rocky Mountains.
Obs. This species, so far as I have examined it, is constantly monogynous. In many respects if resembles the genus Neillia of Don prod. fl. Nep.

Literature Cited:
- Maximowicz, C. J., 1879.  

Maximowicz (1879, p. 219) ... chooses to use Watson's name over Torrey's basionym.

2 Ph. Torreyi Wats. in Proceed. Amer. Acad. New ser. XI. 136. (sub Neillia). Foliis parvulis obtuse trilobis; corymbis plurifloris; staminibus 30 petala glabra, carpellis 1-2 stellatotomentosis calycem vix superantibus. Spiraea monogyna Torr. in Ann. Lyc. N. Y. II. 194. S. opulifolia var. γ. pauciflora Torr. et Gray l. c.
Hab in America boreali occidentali : montibus Colorado et occidentem versus ad Sierram Nevadam, ex Watson. Vidi specc. Fendler pl. Neo-Mexic. n. 187. et Parry pl. Colorado .207
Staminum circiter 30 series 3 : 10 per paria sepalis, 10 paulo breviora petalis et sepalis opposita, cum praecedentibus igitur alterna, 40 intima omnium breviora cum serie secunda alternantia. Ovula suturae ventrali prope apicem inserta, summa horizontalis, infima pendula.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., 1891.  

John M. Coulter (1891, p. 104) published P. monogyna from the Guadalupe Mountains of west Texas.

Original Text
Diffuse shrubs, with palmately lobed leaves, corymbose flowers, and 1 to 5 divergent inflated membranaceous dehiscent 2 to several-seeded carpels.
1. P. monogyna. A small shrub : leaves ovate or often cordate, 3-lobed and toothed, sometimes densely white-tomentose beneath : flowers on short pedicels in simple umbel-like corymbs : ovaries densely tomentose and but 1 or 2. (Spiraea monogyna Torr. Neillia Torreyi Watson. Physocarpus Torreyi Maxim.) — In the Guadalupe Mountains.

Literature Cited:
- Oh, Sang-Hun, and Daniel Potter, 2005.  

“ … in Physocarpus one dispersal event from western North America to eastern Asia occurred.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla fissa;  

Potentilla fissa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray. “Bigflower Cinquefoil”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, 446) published Potentilla fissa from Nuttall and Wyeth collections on the plains of the Rocky Mountains towards Oregon.

Original Text
34. P. fissa (Nutt.! mss.): “viscidly pubescent ; stem erect, branching, leafy ; leaves pinnately 9-11-foliolate, on shory petioles ; leaflets unequal, roundish or oval, deeply incised or incisely toothed, the teeth entire ; stipules entire or toothed ; flowers rather crowded ; segments of the calys ovate, acute, shorter than the roundish (sulphur-yellow) petals.”
β. major : larger in all its parts ; flowers more crowded. — P. arguta, Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 21, not of Pursh. P. glutinosa, Nutt.! July.
Plains of the Rocky Mountains towards the Oregon, Nuttall! July. β Headwaters of the Oregon, Capt. Wyeth! — “Stem about a span high. Leaflets small, the lower ones roundish ; those of the upper cauline leaves ovate. External sepals much smaller, often toothed. Flowers rather large.” Nutt. — The plant which we have joined as a variety of this species seems to be a larger plant, and bears more resemblance to P. arguta.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla gracilis;  

Potentilla gracilis Hook. “Slender Cinquefoil”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, William J., 1830a.
Full Size ImageHooker's Plate 2984 of Potentilla gracilis  

Hooker (1830, v. 57, t. 2984) ...

( 2984 )
Class and Order.
Icosandria Polygynia.
( Nat. Ord. — Rosaceae. )
Generic Character.
Cal. 10-fidus, laciniis alternis minoribus. Pet. 5. Caryopses nudae, plurimae, in receptaculo sicco, saepe piloso. Spr.
Specific Character and Synonym.
Potentilla gracilis ; caule erecto elato superne corymboso-paniculato molliter hirsuto, foliis longe petiolatis 5-natis superioribus solummodo sessilibus, foliolis lanceolatis profunde pinnatifido-serratis subtus albo-tomentosis, stipulis magnis lanceolatis, calyce senceo petalis obcordatis longiore.
Potentilla gracilis. Douglas MSS.

Descr. Root perennial, with many brown scales at its summit, from which arises a stem, a foot to a foot and a half high, rounded and slender in the wild specimens, more robust when cultivated, every where clothed with rather long, more or less patent, soft and silky hairs, pamculato- corymbose upwards. Leaves few upon the stem, the upper ones sessile and ternate, the uppermost ones laciniated and bracteiform, the rest, and especially the radical ones, upon long hairy stalks, quinate : the leaflets three to tour inches long, cut into very deep pinnatifid segments or serratures, pointing upwards, varying somewhat in breadth, dark green above with a few scattered hairs, beneath clothed with a dense, white, somewhat downy substance, mixed with silky hairs. The stipules are particularly large, lanceolate, acuminate, hairy, especially at the margin and beneath, where they are whitish. Flowers in the wild state almost corymbose, in the cultivated plant paniculated, but still nearly level-topped, peduncles forked, with generally a single flower between the forks. Cal. of five broadly-lanceolate, and five alternate, smaller, almost subulate segments, all of them clothed with rather long and silky hairs. Petals broadly obcordate, wavy, longer than the calyx.
This is a handsome, and, in our gardens, a strong-growing species of the Genus, but much better deserving the name of gracilis, as seen on the banks of the Columbia and the plains of the Multnomah rivers, where it was discovered by Mr. Douglas, than as it appears after cultivation. I cannot refer it to any described species, nor does it appear to have been gathered by any other Naturalist, except by Dr. Scouler, who accompanied Mr. Douglas as far as Fort Vancouver ; unless it be the same as a Rocky Mountain species, collected by Mr. Drummond, as I suspect it will prove to be.
The seeds were introduced to the Horticultural Society, and the plants, from which the annexed figure was taken, flowered there in the month of July, 1829.
Fig. 1. A Panicle, with the upper part of the Stem. 2. An upper Stem-leaf. 3. A radical Leaf, nat. size. 4. Petal, and 5. Calyx. — Slightly magnified.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838-1840, v. 1, p. 440) ...

13. P. fastigiata (Nutt. ! mss.) : “canescently silky-tomentose ; stem erect, leafy ; leaves palmately 5-7-foliolate ; leaflets cuneate-oblong, incisely or pinnatifid-serrate ; stipules mostly entire ; flowers crowded, fastigiate ; segments of the calyx lanceolate, the outer ones much smaller ; petals obovate, a little longer than the calyx ; achenia smooth.
&beta. “larger, more densely clothed with soft silky hairs.
“Plains of the Rocky Mountains. — Plant 7-8 inches high. Flowers much smaller than in P. rigida.” Nuttall.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1873.  

Watson (1873, v. 8, p. 557) ...

15. P. gracilis, Dougl. (P. Blaschkeana, Turcz.) Villous and more or less tomentose ; stems 2-3° high ; stipules ovate or lanceolate, entire or subincised ; leaflets mostly 7, sometimes 5, very rarely but 3, cuneate-oblong, obtuse, incisely serrate or pinnatifid, tomentose beneath, green above and subvillous or appressed-silky, 1 - 2½' long ; flowers in a loose subfastigiate cyme, the pedicels at length elongated and slender ; calyx with the narrow bractlets shorter than the broad acute or lanceolate sepals ; petals broadly obcordate, 3 - 4" long, a little exceeding the calyx; carpels very numerous (40 or more). — From the Saskatchewan to Southern Alaska, and southward to New Mexico, Utah, and California. The leaflets occasionally show a tendency to a pinnate arrangement, and the species is distinguishable from the digitate form of P. Hippiana, var. pulcherrima, only by the more numerous carpels and the usually fewer and more deeply incised leaflets. Specimens like 159 Hall & Harbour tend to unite the two species.
Var. fastigiata (P. fastigiata, Nutt., P. olopetala, Lehm.) is a form, often low, with a shorter and more crowded cyme, the pubescence more dense and silky, especially upon the calyx and short pedicels.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla norvegica;  

Potentilla norvegica L. “Norwegian Cinquefoil”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla pensylvanica;  

Potentilla pensylvanica L. “Prairie Cinquefoil”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla recta;  

Potentilla recta L. “Sulphur Cinquefoil”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla rivalis;  

Potentilla rivalis Nutt. “Brook Cinquefoil”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis
Full Size ImageTernate leaf of Coll. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 437) published P. rivalis from a Nuttall manuscript.

Original Text
2. P. rivalis (Nutt.! mss.) : “clothed with soft somewhat viscous pubescence ; stem erect, much branched ; radical leaves pinnately 5-foliate ; the leaflets crowded, and the 3 upper ones confluent ; those of the cauline leaves 3, often confluent, oblong, cuneiform at the base, coarsely serrate ; stipules ovate, nearly entire ; flowers numerous, small, on rather short pedicels ; calyx-segments acute ; petals inconspicuous; achenia smooth and even.
“In alluvial soil along the Lewis River.&rdquo July. — A very distinct species, allied to P. Norvegica. Cauline leaves small. Flowers inconspicuous.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Prunus americana;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2443, 4 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2443, Prunus americana
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2443, Prunus americana  

Prunus americana Marshall. “American Plum”

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 2443, Prunus americana

Literature Cited:
- Marshall, Humphry, 1785.  

Marshall (1785, p. 111) ...

1. Prunus americana. Large Yellow Sweet Plumb.
This generally rifes to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, fpreading into many ftiff branches. The leaves are oblong, oval, acute pointed, fharpiy fawed on their edges and much veined. The flowers generally come out very thick round the branches, often upon thick fhort fpurs; and are fucceeded by large oval fruit, with a fweet fucculent pulp. We have a great variety of thefe, growing naturally in a good, moift foil, with reddifh and yellowifhi fruit, but differing much in fize, tafte, and confiftence.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Prunus domestica;  

Prunus domestica L. “European Plum”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Prunus pensylvanica;  

Prunus pensylvanica L. f. “Pin Cherry”

(Syn: Cerasus pensylvanica (L. f.) Loiseleur)

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1782.  

Linnaeus (1782, p.252-253) ...

Original Text
PRUNUS umbellis feffilibus, foliis ovato-lanceolatis, ramulis pallide punctatis.
  Habitat in America feptentrionali. ♄. H. U.
  Facies P. Cerali, fed ramuli punctis albidis adfperli, up in P. Virginiana.
  Folia P. Cerafi, lanceolato-ovata, ferrulata, laevia, bafi glandulus duabus, faepe rubris.
  Umbellae feffiles.
  Flores P. Cerafi minores.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Prunus virginiana;  

Prunus virginiana L. “Chokecherry”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rosa acicularis ssp. sayi;  

Rosa acicularis Lindl. ssp. sayi (Schwein.) W. H. Lewis “Say's Acicular Rose”

(Syn: Rosa acicularis Lindl., Rosa sayi Schweinitz )

Literature Cited:
- Schweinitz, Lewis D., 1824.
- Schweinitz, Lewis D. de, 1824.  

Schweinitz (1824, pp. 388-389) ...

50. Rosa *Sayi, L. v. Schw.
This appears to me a Rose quite distinct from any American one, although it is past flowering; the germen being manifestly not globose, (which is the case with all the rest except laevigata,) nor do I find any European one sufficiently agreeing. I describe it thus:
Germen oblong ovate, perfectly smooth, and proportionably large, crowned by erect calyx leaves, exceeding it in length, which are villous, and expand at summit. Peduncle smooth, or somewhat glandularly hispid, rigid. Common petiole villous and aculeate on the back, with three pairs of ovate, sessile, deeply serrate, small leaflets, and a single one on the lengthened petiole, furnished at base with clasping, glandulosely villous stipules. Upper side of the leaflets smooth, the underside glaucously villous. The young branches thickly set with thin, unequal, hispid spines.

Literature Cited:
- Lewis, Walter H., 1959.  

Rosa acicularis subsp. sayi (Schwein.) W.H.Lewis, Brittonia 11(1): 19 (1959).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rosa arkansana;  

Rosa arkansana Porter “Prairie Rose”


Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.  

Porter & Coulter (1874, p. 38) ...

Rosa Arkansana, Porter (n. sp.) Stem stout, erect, leafy, 1° high, glabrous and glaucous, armed with weak, deciduous, bristly prickles ; leaflets 9-11, ovate and oblong-ovate, 1' or more in length, acute or obtuse, glabrous, sharply serrate; midrib and long stiipules somewhat prickly and minutely glandular; flowers numerous, termmal, corymbed, on peduncles about 1' long; fruit globose, smooth, glaucous; calyx-segments ovate, reflexed in fruit, with terminal and sometimes lateral appendages, more or less glandular and tomentose pubescent on the margins; petals broadly obcordate or emarginate, longer than the calyx-segments, rose-color; flowers 2' in diameter. — This rose may possibly be an extreme form of R. blanda, but it differs in so many points that I have ventured to describe it as new. — Banks of the Arkansas near Cañon City, Brandegee. Raton Mountains, Dr. Bell. Texas, Wright.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rosa woodsii;  

Rosa woodsii Lindl. “Mountain Rose”


Literature Cited:
- Lindley, John, 1820.  

Lindley (1820, pp. 21-22) ...

14. ROSA Woodsii.
R. stipulis sepalisque conniventibus, foliolis oblongis obtusis glabris.

R. lutea nigra Promv. nomencl. 24.

Hab. juxta flumen Missouri Americae septentrionalis (v. v. c hort. Sabine.)

In honorem cel. Josephi Woods qui primus veris Rosarum characteribus ad species distinguendas usus est.

A low shrub with upright, dull, dark branches, having very numerous, straight, slender, scattered prickles, with a few setae at their base, the former becoming stipulary towards the extremities ; branchlets often unarmed. Leaves without pubescence ; stipules very narrow and acute, convolute and fringed with glands ; stalks armed with straight unequal prickles ; leaflets 7-9, shaped like those of R. rubella, shining, flat, simply serrated, paler beneath. Flowers pink, appearing in the spring. Fruit naked, ovate, with short, connivent, entire sepals which are free from glands as is the peduncle.
As it is scarcely probable that any new British rose will be detected, worthy of bearing the name of Mr. Woods, of whose high merit I have already had occasion to speak, the present species has been selected by Mr. Sabine and myself for that purpose. That it is essentially distinct from every other is very evident even from the incomplete account I have been able to give of it. I first saw it growing in Mr. Sabine's garden at North Mimms late in the month of November ; most of the leaves had fallen, but a few heps still remained on the bush. Its habit without foliage bears more resemblance to that of a stunted cinnamomea than to any thing else. In character it approaches R. carolina, particularly in the remarkable convolution of stipulae. From this its numerous ramifications, weak prickles and short shining leaves sufficiently distinguish it. It moreover flowers in the spring and has naked fruit with conniving sepals.
I am assured by Mr. Sabine that this is the plant which was sent to France from a nursery here as a new American Rose with black and yellow flowers, and noticed as such in Promvillie's book.
Said to be a native of the country near the Missouri.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rubus deliciosus;  

Rubus deliciosus Torr. “Delicious Raspberry”

(Syn: Oreobatus deliciosus Torr. (E. James ex Torr.) Rydb.)

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, v. 2, p. 196) ...

125. R. deliciosus, caule fruticoso, ramosissimo, inermi; ramis petiolisque pubescentibus; foliis simplicibus, rotundato-cordatis, breve 3-5-lobis, villoso-pubescentibus, rugosis; bracteis lanceolatis, unidentatis ; floribus subcorymbosis, terminalibus ; laciniis calycinis ovato-oblongis, acuminatis, apice foliaceis, petalis brevioribus.
Desc. Shrub much branched ; branches flexuous, terete, pubescent. Leaves suborbicular-cordate, 2-2½ inches in diameter, villously pubescent, rugous beneath, 3-5-lobed and serrate ; texture firm; petioles half an inch in length, terete, pubescent ; stipules lanceolate, acuminate, shorter than the petioles, with a single tooth near the base. Flowers 4-6 in a terminal corymbose panicle, rather smaller than those of R. odoratus, purple. Pedicels 6-8 lines long, not glandular. Calyx about two-thirds as long as the corolla, pubescent ; sepals ovate-oblong, acuminate, somewhat foliaceous at the extremity. Petals ovate, obtuse.
Hab. On the Rocky Mountains.
Obs. This species resembles R. odoratus, but is more nearly allied to R. nutkanus. It differs from the latter, particularly in not being glutinous, and in the smooth calyx, which is longer than the petals. Dr. James states, that the fruit is large and delicious.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rubus idaeus var. strigosus;  

Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. “American Red Raspberry”


Rubus strigosus Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux) 1: 297 (1803).


Rubus idaeus var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 17: 161 (1872).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Sanguisorba minor;  

Sanguisorba minor Scop. “Burnet”


Literature Cited:
- Scopoli, Giovanni Antonio, 1772.  

Scopoli (1772, t. 1, p. 110-111) ...

168. Sanguisorba Minor.
Sanguiforba fpicis fubrotundis ; floribus polygamis. Fl. Carniol. p. 279. n. 1.
Ptterium inerme caulibus fubangulofis. LINN. Syft. Nat. p. 629. Spec. Plant. p. 994. n. 1.
Pimpinella polyftemon. HALL. Hift. n. 706.
Sanguiforba polyanthera, foliis ovatis ; fpica brevi. BOEHM> Lipf. 17.
Pimpinella fanguiforba, minor. MATTHIOL. Diofc. p. 657.
Diagn. Spicae fubrotundae. Flores polygami, polyandri, digyni.
Habitat in aridis et apricis.
Pinnarum paria (ad 12). Flores feminei fuperiores digyni. Hermaphrodidi plures, ftaminibus longis (ad 40), pariter digyni. His addit HAMMERUS Mafculos, etiam a me vifos.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sorbus aucuparia;  

Sorbus aucuparia L. “European Mountain Ash”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 477) ...

Original Text
1. SORBUS foliis pinnatis utrinque glabris. Hall. helv. 250. aucuparia.
Sorbus foliis pinnatis. Hort. cliff. 188. Fl. fuec. 400. Mat. med. 235. Roy. lugdb. 274.  
Sorbus fylvefttis (sic), foliis domefticae fimilis. Bauh. pin. 415.  
Sorbus fylveftris. Cam. epit. 161.  
Habitat in Europae frigidioribus.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus agrestis;  

Astragalus agrestis Douglas ex G. Don. “Purple Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.  

Don, George [1798-1856] A general history of the dichlamydeous plants :comprising complete descriptions of the different orders...the whole arranged according to the natural system. London : J.G. and F. Rivington, 1831-1838. p. 258

64. A. agrestis (Dougl. mss.) stem erect, smooth ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, beset with adpressed hairs ; peduncles elongated, longer than the leaves ; spikes of flowers capitate ; calyx villous ; breacteas lnceolate, not half so long as the calyx. ♃ H. Native of North America, near the Columbia river in fields. Flowers purple.
Field Milk-Vetch. Pl. 1 foot.

H. = Hardy
♃. = Perennial herbaceous.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus crassicarpus;  

Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. “Groundplum Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Nuttall (1813, No. 6) published his Astragalus crassicarpus ...

Original Text
6. * Astragalus crassicarpus. ‡ Fruit about the size and form of A. physodes, but thick and succulent. Collected above the River Platte.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus drummondii;  

Astragalus drummondii Dougl. ex Hook. “Drummond's Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1831) 1(3): 153-4 ...

Original Text
16. A. Drummondii ; elatus, erectus, caulibus sulcatis foliisque subtus pedunculisque valde molliter hirsutis, stipulis ovatis valde acuminatis, foliolis 13-15-jugis liueari-oblongis oblongisve obtusis basi in petiolulum perbrevem attenuatis, pedunculis folio longioribus, racemis elongatis laxis, bracteis subulatis pedicello longioribus, floribus pendulis, calycibus nigro-hirsutis, legumiuibus stipltatis subsecundis cylindraceis glabris paululum falcatis semibilocularibus, sutura superiore obtusa, inferiore introflexa profunde canaliculata. (Tab. LVII.) — Douglas, MSS. in Herb. Hert. Soc.
Longer Latin diagnosis omitted.
Hab. First, I believe, gathered by Mr. Wright, very many years ago, in Hudson's Bay. (Herb. nostr.) Eagle and Red-Deer Hills of the Saskatchawan. Douglas. Carlton-House. Dr. Richardson. — The present very fine species, which Mr. Douglas wishes should bear the name of the indefatigable Drummond, has been long known to me from a specimen gathered more than thirty years ago, by Mr. Wright, son of the late eminent Dr. Wright of Edinburgh, in Hudson's Bay, but which, from its habit, (and being destitute of fruit,) I was led to refer to the genus Phaca. Its nearest affinity seems to be with the A. galegoides, Nutt., (A. racemosus, Pursh and De Cand.) : but that, besides being an inhabitant of more southern latitudes, is described as only subpubescent, whereas our plant is so remarkable for its hairiness, that Mr. Douglas in his MSS. has aptly compared it to the Oxytropis pilosa of the Old Worid.*
Tab. LVII Astragalus Drummondii. Fig. 1, Flower; fig. 2, Alae and carina, including the stamens and pistil; fig. 3, Pistil ; fig. 4, Raceme, with fruit: —natural size. Fig, 5, Section of a legume; fig. 6, Seed : — all but fig. 4 more or less magnified.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus flexuosus;  

Astragalus flexuosus G. Don “Flexible Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.  

George Don (1832, v. 2, p. 256) ...

Original Text
33. A. flexuosus (Doug. mss.) plant erect, flexuous, downy in a young state ; stipulas distinct ; leaflets distant, linear, obtuse, beset with close-pressed hairs beneath ; flowers distant, racemose; calyx smoothish ; beateas not much longer than the pedicels. ♃ H. Native of North America, near the Columbia river. Flowers purple. Plant with the habit of Vicia cracca.
Var. β, alba (Dougl. mss.) flowers white.
Flexuous-stemmed Milk-Vetch. Pl. 1 foot.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus laxmannii robustior;  

Astragalus laxmannii Jacq. var. robustior (Hook.) Barneby & S. L. Welsh “Prairie Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Jacquin, Nicolaus Joseph van, 1776.  

Jacquin, Nicolaus(Nicolaas) Joseph von (1727-1817), Hort. Bot. Vindob. 3: 22 (t. 37) (1776). [Botanical Garden of Vienna.]

Original Text Comments
Numerofas inter planta Imperii Ruffici, quas hortus acceptas referre debet liberalitati illuftris Erici Laxmanni, etiam hicce Altragalus eft, ex feminibus Sibiricis enatus. Ex radice perenni ... [Latin diagnosis omitted] ... nitida. Floret Junio & Julio. Ad latus feorfim vexillum, ala, carina, legumen & femen fifuntur. Among the numerous plants of the Russian Empire, these gardens must be appreciated for your generosity the illustrious Eric Laxmannus, who is also here Astragalus, sprung from the seeds of the Siberians. Perennial root ... [Latin diagnosis omitted] ... sharp. Flowers June & July. The flag, wing, keel, pod and seed are presented separately.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  dolabriform;  

(Syn: Astragalus adsurgens Pall. ) Pallas, Peter Simon von, 1800-1803, Species Astragalorum Descriptae et Iconibus Coloratis Illustratae a P. S. Pallas, Eq... cum Appendice. Lipsiae [Leipzig]. p. 40. and Tab XXXI.

Original Text Translation
XLIV. ASTRAGALUS adfurgens. Tab. XXXI. XLIV. ASTRAGALUS adsurgens. Tab. XXXI.
Latin diagnosis omitted. I don't see any reference to attachment of the hairs, i.e., dolabriform or medifixed.
Crefcit hic Aftragalus tantun in regionibus Trans-Baicalenfibus, cim A. Laxmanni promifcue, frequens ad Selengam, Ononem, circa Tarei-noor et ufque in Mongoliae defertum. Planta tota, etiam foliis, duriufcula, ut Glycirrhizae, minunque tenera cum generibus plerisque. Astragalus grows here only in the regions of the Trans-Baicalans, and promiscuously to[with] A. Laxmannus, frequent to the Selengam, Ononem, around the Tarei-noor, and it was carried all the way into Mongolia. The whole plant, including its leaves, is quite hard, as in most species of Glycirrhiza and less tender.
  Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia, or Dauria is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Far Eastern Russia.

Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1831, v. 1, -. 149-150) ... publication of vaeirty robustior

Original Text
Leguminibus rectis.
4. A, adsurgens; elongatus, adscendens vel prostratus, glabriusculus, foliolis 8-12-jugis oblongis, stipulis ovatis acuminatis membranaceis, pedunculis folio longioribus, spicis oblongis ovatis rotundatisve, floribus densis erectis, vexillo alis vix 1-3 longiore, leguminibus erectis compactis oblongis subtriquetris hinc sulcatis appresso-pubescentibus vix calyce nigro-hirsuto longioribus. — “Pall. Astr. n. 44. t 31.De Cand, Prodr, v. 2. p. 287. — A. Laxmanni. Pall. Astr. t. 30? (fide DC.) Jacq. Hort. Vind. v. 3. t 37? (sed spicis elongatis et foliolis angustioribus.) De Cand. Prodr. v. 2. p. 287. — β. robustior ; calycibus albido-pilosis, pilis nigris perpaucis. A. nitidus. Douglas, MSS. in Herb. Hort. Soc.
Hab. α. Plains of the Assinaboin and Saskatchawan Rivers, as for as the mountains. Dr. Richardson; Drummond; Douglas. β. Common in the mountain-vallies, from the Kettle Falls to the sources of the Columbia, on the West side of the Rocky Mountains. Douglas. — l possess the Asiatic A. adsurgens and A. Laxmanni from Dr. Fischer and Mr. Prescott ; but I am unable to distinguish them specifically. Our specimens from America seem to be identical with them. Flowers purple-blue.

Literature Cited:
- Barneby, R. C. and S. L. Welsh, 1996.  

Astragalus laxmannii Jacq.(1776) has priority over A. adsurgens Pall. (1800), Barneby and Welsh (1996) published the required name to recognize this:

Original Text
Astragalus laxmannii var. robustior (Hooker) Barneby & Welsh, comb. nov., based on A. adsurgens var. robustior Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1:149. 1831.
Astragalus nitidus var. robustior (Hooker) M. E. Jones, Contr. W. Bot. 10:64. 1902.
Astragalus adsurgens ssp. robustior (Hooker) Welsh, Iowa State J. Sci. 37: 357. 1963.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus parryi;  

Astragalus parryi A. Gray “Parry's Milkvetch”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Astragalus shortianus;  

Astragalus shortianus Torr. & A. Gray “Short's Milkvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & A. Gray (1840, v. 1, p. 331) ...

Original Text
12. A. Shortianus (Nutt. m.s.): “ " stemless, canescent with appressed shining hairs; leaflets 5-7 pairs, roundish-elliptical or ovate, very obtuse ; stipules ovate, obtuse; peduncles shorter than the leaves ; raceme oblong ; calyx clothed with white hairs, with rather long subulate teeth ; legume large and turgid, cymbiform, with a short curved point, black and tranversely wrinkled.
“Rocky Mountains, towards the plains of the Oregon. — Almost entirely silvery white. Leaflets nearly as broad as long, twice as large as in the preceding species, which it nearly resembles. Flowers ochroleucous ?” Nuttall.

Named for Charles Wilkins Short, friend of Nuttall and Gray (Weber & Wittmann, 2012).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Colutea arborescens;  

Colutea arborescens L. “Bladder Senna”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 723) ...

Original Text
1. COLUTEA arborea, foliolis obcordatis. Hort. cliff. 365. Roy. lugdb. 374. Sauv. monfp. 238. arborefcens.
Colutea veficaria. Bauh. pin. 396.  
Colutea. Dod. pempt. 784.  
β. Colutea africana, fenne foliis, flore fangvineo. Comm. rar. 11. t. 11.  
Habitat in Auftria, G. Narbonenfi, Italia praecipue ad Vefuzium.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dalea candida;  

Dalea candida Willd. “White Prairie Clover”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dalea purpurea;  

Dalea purpurea Vent. “Purple Prairie Clover”


Literature Cited:
- Ventenat, Etienne P., Jacques M. Cels, and Henri J. Redoute, 1801.  

Described by Ventenat (1800, Pl. 40) ...

Original Text
(Short excerpt.)
Plante herbacee, vivace, remarquable par l'elegance de son port et par l'eclat de ses fleurs, decouverte par Michaux dans le pays des Illinois. Elle a ete introduite chez Cels en l'an 5, et elle fleurit en fructidor. Herbaceous plant, perennial, remarkable for the elegance of its habit and the brilliance of its flowers, discovered by Michaux in the Illinois country. It was introduced to the garden of J. M. Cels in year 5 [1794?], and it flowers in Fructidor [late August to early September].


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Glycyrrhiza lepidota;  

Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh “American Licorice”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Nuttall (1813) writing in Fraser's Catalogue

Original Text
45 *Liquiritia lepidota. ‡ Met from the source to the confluence of the Missourie ; and is probably the liquorice mentioned by Sir Alexander M'Kenzie, as found on the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean.

IPNI (2021) annotates this name as nom. inval.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (1814, v. 2., p. 480) validly published Glycyrrhiza lepidota indicating Fraser's Catalogue as a source of the name and that he had seen it dried, alive, and in flower.

Original Text Comments
  579. GLYCYRRHIZA. Gen. pl. 1197.  
lepidota. 1. G. foliolis oblongis acutis sericeo-villosis, leguminibus racemosis oblongis hispidis. &mdash. Fraser. catal.

On the banks of the Missouri. ♄ July, Aug. v. s. v. v. s. fl.

I have seen it dry; I have seen it alive or in flower.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  vexillum;  

Nuttall (1818, v. 2, p. 106) also published Glycyrrhiza lepidota. He does not indicate it is a new name. Nevertheless, it is treated as an isonym. Nuttall does give credit to Bradbury for first detecting the species around St. Louis.

Original Text
Calix mostly bilabiate, gibbous at the base. Vexillum including the wings and carina. Legume subovate or oblong, compressed, and mostly hispid, 2 to 6-seeded.
Herbaceous; leaves pinnate, stipules cauline; flowers capitate, spiked or racemose.
Species. 1. G. lepidota. T. N. in Fras. Catal. Ph. 2, p. 480. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate, acute, everywhere squamulose, under surface covered with glandulose atoms; spikes axillary, acute, flowers crowded; legume oblong, many-seeded, echinate, setæ uncinate.
Hab. Abundant around St. Louis, where it was first detected by Mr. John Bradbury, F. L. S.; it is also common on the alluvial banks of the Missouri to the Mountains, and is in all probablity the Liquorice mentioned by Sir A. Mackenzie as indigenous to the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean.
Obs. Roots flagelliform, creeping, and very long, possessing in no inconsiderable degree the taste of liquorice. Stem erect, 3 to 5 feet high; spikes pedunculate; flowers whitish, dense, sessile; calix almost equally 5-parted, segments subulate. Vexillum ovate-oblong, nearly straight. Legume oblong, compressed, hispid, 5 or 6-seeded, much resembling the fruit of Xanthium spinulosum, not spontaneously opening. Nearly allied to G. foetida, and like that species emitting a somewhat disagreeable resinous odor. This plant appears to destroy the artificial distinction by which Glycyrrhiza and Liquiritia have been separated; as it can be equally referred to either one or the other.
The South of Europe, Tartary and the Levant furnish the other 6 species of this genus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hedysarum boreale;  

Hedysarum boreale Nutt. “Utah Sweetvetch”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Calix 5-cleft. Carina transversely obtuse. Loment of several articulations: joints i-seeded, compressed, and mostly hispid.
Herbaceous or suffruticose; leaves simple, ternate, or pinnate; stipules cauline, often bath general and partial; flowers mosth racemose, rarely solitary, racemes axillary or terminal, often paniculate; flowers (in all the North American species) by pairs, or by 3's, each pair or aggregate subtendtd by 3 unequal and deciduous bractes, the 2 lateral ones minute, calix naked at the base, the lowest segment of the border often elongated; flowers violaceous, rarely, white, the carina often expanding and ejecting the stamina; the leaves in a few species exhibit a spontaneous motion.
18. * boreale. Caulescent, subdecumbent, leaves pinnate (7 or 8 pair), leaflets oblong-obovate, partly villous; racemes long pedunculate, axillary, stipules sheathing, subulate; articulations of the loment nearly round, and rugose. H. alpinum? Mich. Fl. Am. 2. p. 74. Hab. In arid and denudated soils around Fort Mandan, on the banks of the Missouri. Flowering in June and July. Flowers of a fine red and numerous; common petiole very short; calix subulate, wings of the corolla short.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ladeania lanceolata;  

Ladeania lanceolata (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal “Dune Scurfpea”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Syn: Psoralea lanceolata Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 475) ...

Original Text
4. P. pubescens ; foliis ternatis : foliolis elongato-lanceolatis, petiolis crassis, spicis axillaribus folio vix longioribus densifloris, floribus pedicellatis, bracteis pedicello vix longioribus, dentibus calycis coloratis. lanceolata.
On the banks of the Missouri. ♃. July, Aug. v. s. Flowers bright blue, small.  

“Collected at an unknown place and date, probably on the Missouri River (Moulton, 1999).”

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1915.  

Syn: Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydberg (1919, v. 24, p. 13)

Original Text
1. Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydberg.

Psoralea lanccolata Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. 475. 1814
Psoralea elliptica Pursh. Fl. Am. Sept. 741. 1814.
Psoralea arenaria Nutt. Gen. 2: 103. 1818.
Psoralea laxiflora Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1: 299. 1838.
? Psoralea scabra Nutt.; T. & G. Fl. N. Am. 1: 300. 1838.
Lotodes ellipticum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 193. 1891.
Lotodes ellipticum angustissimum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 193. 1891.
A perennial, with a creeping branched rootstock; stem 1.5-4 dm. high, aromatic, glandular- punctate throughout, sparingly strigose; leaves palmately 3-foliolate; stipules linear-lanceolate to subulate, 3-10 mm. long; petioles 1-2 cm. long; leaflets 1-4 cm. long, oblanceolate to linear or those of the earlier leaves obovate-oblanceolate, acute to rounded and mucronate at the apex, sparingly strigose, especially along the veins beneath, and conspicuously punctate; peduncles 2-5 cm. long; racemes short, 1-2.5 cm. long; bracts minute; calyx campanulate, sparingly strigose, 2 mm. long; lobes nearly equal, obtuse, glandular-punctate; corolla white or slightly purple-tinged, 5-6 mm. long; banner almost orbicular; blades of the wings obliquely oblong- oblanceolate; keel-petals scarcely lobed at the base and usually purple-tipped; stigma capitate; pod globose, 5 mm. long, conspicuously glandular-warty, sparingly strigose or glabrate, the beak short, erect.

Type locality: Banks of the Missouri [probably Montana]
Distribution: Missouri to Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Arizona
Illustrations: Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. pl. 51; Britt. & Brown, Ill. Fl. f. 2086; ed. 2. f. 2491.

Literature Cited:
- Egan, Ashley N., and James L. Reveal, 2009.  

Egan & Reveal (2009, v. 19, p. 310-314) ...

1. Ladeania lanceolata (Pursh) A. N. Egan & Reveal, comb. nov. Basionym: Psoralea lanceolata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 475. 1814 [actual date, Dec. 1813]. Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydbergm N. Amer. Fl. 24: 13. 1919. TYPE. U. S. A. Along the Missouri River, 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. (lectotype, designated by Grimes, 1989: 22, PH-LC 182; duplicate, NY [PH-LC fragm.]). Figure 1.
Although traditionally the type was considered to have been collected by Meriwether Lewis in 1804, Reveal et al. (1999:42) showed that this sheet could only have been gathered by Thomas Nuttall in 1811. If indeed Pursh had Lewis 42 prior to 1813, that specimen is now lost and Grimes' typification is an effective lectotypification (Barbeby, 1989). ...


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lathyrus eucosmus;  

Lathyrus eucosmus Butters & H. St. John “Bush Vetchling”


Literature Cited:
- Butters, Freferick K., and Harold St. John, 1917.  

Butters, Frederick K., and Harold St. John, Studies in certain North American Species of Lathyrus Rhodora. 19(224): 156-163. August, 1917.

Lathyrus eucosmus, n. sp. — L. polymorphus of Torrey and Gray in part, and of later American authors, not of Nuttall; L. decaphyllus of Britton, Mem. Torr. Bot. Club. v. 207 (1894), not of Pursh or Hooker — humilis, ramosus saepe decumbens pilosus vel saepius basim versus glabratus, 1.5-3.5 dm. altus; caule 1-3 mm. crasso striato 4-angulato haud alato; stipulis lineari-lanceolatis attenuatis semi- sagittatis 5-22 mm. longis, 1-4 mm. latis, nervosis; foliolis 4-12 subalternis elliptico-lanceolatis mucronatis 1.5-6 cm. longis, 3-13 mm. latis, nervosis; cirrhis simplicibus vel 2-3-fidis; ramis cum pedunculis 1-3 folia superantibus 2-5-floriferis instructis; floribus magnis pulchris purpureis 1.8-3 cm. longis; calyce campanulato oblique 5-dentato, dentibus superioribus brevibus adscendentibus, inferioribus attenuatis patentibus.
Plant low and branching, often decumbent, pilose, or more frequently glabrate towards the base, 1.5-3.5 dm. tall: stem striate and 4-angled, not at all winged, 1-3 mm. in thickness: stipules linear- lanceolate, attenuate semisagittate, 5-22 mm. in length, 1-4 mm. in breadth, with prominent raised nerves; leaflets 4-12 in number, sub-alternate, elliptic-lanceolate and mucronate, the longitudinal nerves raised and prominent, leaflets 1.5-6 cm. long, 3-13 mm. wide; tendrils unbranched, or 2-3-parted: branches of the stem bearing 1-3 peduncles, which are 2-5-flowered, and exceed the leaves : flowers beautiful, large and purple, 1.8-3 cm. long; calyx campanulate obliquely 5-toothed, the upper teeth short and ascending, the lower elongate and divergent.
Specimens examined: Colorado: Rocky Mountains, 1862, E. Hall & J. P. Harbour, no. 111; low lands by streams on the plains, Golden City etc., May 25, 1870, E. L. Greene, no. 94; Gunnison, altitude 7680 ft., July 7, 1901, C. F. Baker, no. 355; Sapinero, altitude 7250 ft., June 19, 1901, C. F. Baker, no. 181; clay hillside, altitude 5400 ft. Naturita, May 16, 1914, Edwin Payson, no. 312; Gato, June 18, 1899, C. F. Baker, no. 432; roadsides below Mancos, July 8, 1898, C. F. Baker, F. S. Earle and S. M. Tracy, no. 413; collected on Long's 1st expedition, Dr. James. New Mexico: altitude 7044 ft., Santa Fe, June, 1874, J. T. Rothrock, no. 3; altitude 7200 ft., Santa Fe, May 4, 1897, A. A. & E. Gertrude Heller, no. 3658 (type in Gray Herb.); 1847, A. Fendler, no. 115; Gray, altitude 6000 ft., June 13, 1898, Josephine Skehan, no. 24; Fort Wingate, 1882, W. Matthews, no. 18. Arizona: Little Colorado, Dr. Newberry; 1880, Mr. & Mrs. J. G. Lemmon.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lathyrus lanszwertii;  

Lathyrus lanszwertii Kellogg “Lanszwert's Pea”

Lathyrus lanszwertii Kellogg, Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences, v. 2, p. 150 (1863). Note the title of this journal includes “Natural” which was dropped in 1869.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lupinus argenteus;  

Lupinus argenteus Pursh “Loosely Flowered Silver Lupine”


Harrington (1954) and Ackerfield (2015) neither use keel decoration as a key character nor do they describe the decoration of the keel. California floras, e.g., Munz (1965) and Baldwin (2012), use a ciliate keel, as a key character to identify L. argenteus. Welch, et al. (1993) note that the keel can be glabrous or variously ciliate.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 468) ...

Original Text
argenteus. 4. L. perennis ; foliis digitatis : foliolis (5-7) lineari-lanceolatis acutis supra glabris subtus argenteo-sericeis, calycibus alternis inappendiculatis : lapio superiore ontusa ; inferiore integro.
  On the banks of the Kooskoosky. M. Lewis. ♃. June, July. v. s. in Herb. Lambert. Flowers small, cream-coloured.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Lupinus caudatus;  

Lupinus caudatus Kellogg “Kellogg's Spurred Lupine”

Of those collections of Lupinus caudatus in Jefferson County determined to an infraspecific name, nearly all are determined var. argophyllus.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

The first use of the name argophyllus was by Gray (1848) in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.

Original Text
166. Lupinus decumbens, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. New York, 2. p. 191. Var. argophyllus; caule foliisque argyreo-sericeis, supra viridiusculis. &mdash: A foot high, a silvery white species; more so than in the original specimens of L. decumbens, which imperfect as they are, I am confident belong to the same species with ours. It is a very handsome plant, with flowers as large as in L. perennis, and apparently light blue. A characteristic of the species is the saccate, almost spurred base of the calyx, which is quite a conspicuous as in L. laxiflorus, next to which it should be placed. The same plant was gathered near the sources of the Platte in the first expedition of Col. Fremont, and forms part of what was called L. ornatus in the Botanical catalogue of that expedition.

Literature Cited:
- Kellogg, Albert, 1863.  

Kellogg, Albert. 1863. Lupinus caudatus. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences. v. 2 (1858-1862), p. 197.

Original Text
Lupinus caudatus (Kellogg). Fig. 61.
Stem persistent, somewhat decumbent ; leafy and branching, silvery or satiny, appressed pubescent throughout.
Leaflets five to seven, linear-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, narrowed towards the base, about as long as the petiole.
Stipules persistent, small lance-acumuinte.
Flowers blue, scattered and sub-verticillate, floral portion about twice the length of the peduncle, or two or three times the length of the petioles.
Bracts caducous, twice the length of the pedicels ; calyx tubular campanulate, upper lip straight, two-toothed, (not colored) short and somewhat subulately spurred at the base, (spur erect nearly half the length of the pedicel) ; lower lip entire, elongated, carinate ; linear bracts conspicuous ; banner satiny pubescent on the back, chiefly along the middle portion ; wings with an erect claw.
Keel, silky-ciliate.
Stigma, naked.
Legumes (embryo) linear, silky ; seeded.
Closely allied to L. calcaratus (Kellogg). But the general appearance is quite distinct, being very silvery sericeous, with blue flowers. The calyx is not colored ; the upper lip straight ; the spur short, sharp and erect ; the leaflets straight and radiating, only five or six in number ; the flowers also fewer, and the spike less crowded. Found in the same localities, but more rare.

Literature Cited:
- Cockerell, T. D. A., 1902.  

Cockerell, T. D. A., 1902. Notes on Southwestern Plants. Torreya. v. 2, n. 3 (March 1902)

Original Text
Lupinus Helleri Greene, Pittonia, 4 : 1 34. Santa Fe, N. M. This name may be objected to on account of the prior L. Hellerae Heller, though I do not consider the names identical. However, it appears to me that L. Helleri is L. decumbens argophyllus, A. Gray (Pl. Fendl. 37. 1849), so its proper name will be Lupinus argophyllus. The type locality of argophyllus is “around Santa Fe,” where, in fact, it is abundant.

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., 1978.  

Lupinus caudatus var. argophyllus (A.Gray) S.L.Welsh, Great Basin Naturalist 38(3): 327 (1978).

Original Text
Three rather weak varieties are known from Utah. They are separable only arbitrarily, but seem to represent at least trends within variation.
Var. argophyllus (A. Gray) Welsh stat. nov. based on Lupinus decumbens var. argophyllus A. Gray Mem. Amer. Acad. 4:37. 1849. [L. caudatus ssp. argophyllus (A. Gray) Phillips; L. argophyllus (A. Gray) Cockerell; L. laxiflorus var. argophyllus (A. Gray) M. E. Jones; L. helleri Greene; L. aduncus Greene]. Pinyon-juniper, mountain brush, ponderosa pine, and grassland communities at 1570 to 2430 feet in Beaver, Garfield, Kane, and San Juan cos.; Wyoming south to New Mexico; 7 (iii).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not accept infraspecific names for Lupinus caudatus Kellogg.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts two varieties of Lupinus caudatus in Colorado: var. argophyllus (A. Gray) L. Philips (sic), and var. utahensis (S. Watson) S. L. Welsh.


The Jepson Manual of California treats Lupinus caudatus as a synonym of L. argenteus var. heteranthus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Medicago;  

Medicago L.

Please summarize the phylogeny of medicago and the development of alfalfa as an agricultural crop.


Medicago is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, which includes more than 80 species, some of which are used as forage crops. Alfalfa, also known as lucerne, is the most widely cultivated species in the genus and is a major forage crop in many parts of the world.

Alfalfa is believed to have originated in central Asia, and its cultivation dates back at least 2,000 years. It was introduced to Europe by the Arabs in the eighth century and was later brought to the Americas by Spanish colonizers in the sixteenth century. The plant was valued for its high protein content, drought tolerance, and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it an important crop in areas with poor soils.

In terms of phylogeny, Medicago is a member of the tribe Trifolieae, which also includes clovers and other forage legumes. Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the genus Medicago is monophyletic, meaning that all species in the genus share a common ancestor, and that it is most closely related to the genus Melilotus.

Alfalfa is a tetraploid species, meaning that it has four sets of chromosomes, and its genome is quite large, with an estimated size of around 800 million base pairs. This complexity has made genetic improvement of alfalfa a challenge, but recent advances in genomics and molecular breeding techniques are helping to overcome some of these difficulties.

Overall, the development of alfalfa as an agricultural crop has been a long and complex process, but the plant's many useful characteristics have made it an important component of many farming systems around the world.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Medicago lupulina;  

Medicago lupulina L. “Black Medick”

Medicago lupulina L. “Black Medick” is a common little weed found on North and South Table Mountains and Tin Cup Ridge. It is also adventive in gardens.

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 779) ...

Original Text
7. MEDICAGO fpicis ovalibus, leguminibus reniformibus monofpermis, caule procumbente. Fl. fuec. 621. Dalib. parif. 281. lupulina.
Trifolium leguminibus fpicatis reniformibus nudis monofpermis, caule procumbente. Hort. cliff. 375. Roy. lugdb. 380.  
Trifolium pratenfe luteum, capitulo breviore. Bauh. pin. 328.  
Trifolium pratenfe luteum. Fuchf. hift. 819.  
Habitat in Europae pratis. ♂  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Medicago sativa;  

Medicago sativa L. “Alfalfa”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 778) ...

Original Text
fativa. 5. MEDICAGO pedunculis racemofis, leguminibus contortis, caule erecto glabro. Hort. cliff. 377. Roy. lugdb. 281.
  Medica legitima. Cluf. hift. 2. p. 242.
  Medica fativa. Morif. hift. 2. p. 150. f. 2. t. 16. f. 2.
  Foenum burgundicum. Lob. ic. 2. p. 36.
  Habitat in Hifpaniae, Galliae apricis.

Literature Cited:
- Prosperi, Jean-Marie, Eric Jenczewski, Marie-Helene Muller, Stephane Fourtier, Jean-Paul Sampoux, and Joelle Ronfort, 2014.  

Prosperi, et al., 2014 summarize current thought on the domestication of alfalfa.

It is difficult to identify the first traces of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) domestication. Different authors suggested that alfalfa was cultivated 9,000 years ago in some rare locations in its centre of origin (Near East to Central Asia). Sinskaya in 1950 suggested that its distribution spread throughout the Middle East by 1,000 BC, and from there, to China and India. But actually, we have no element to validate these assumptions. The first written references mentioned the introduction of alfalfa to Greece by the Medes armies, its spread into Italy and then all over the Roman Empire in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the interest in alfalfa regressed considerably in Europe.
Alfalfa was reintroduced into Spain through North Africa with the Moors. It then crossed the Pyrenees around the fifteenth century. Thereafter, it was introduced to South America (Mexico, Peru, Chile) by the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and then to the United States through California at the beginning of the nineteenth century as “Chilean clover.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Melilotus albus;  

Melilotus albus Medik. “White Sweet Clover”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 765) ...

Original Text Interpretation
* Meliloti leguminibus nudis polyfpermis.  
4. TRIFOLIUM leguminibus racemofis nudis difpermis, caule erecto. Hort. cliff. 376. Hort. upf. 223. Fl. fuec. 619. Mat. med. 355. Roy. lugdb. 223. Dalib. parif. 225. M. officinalis.  
Trifolium odoratum f. Melilotus. Dod. pempt. 567.    
Melilotus officinarum germaniae. Bauh. pin. 331.    
γ. Melilotus officinarum germaniae, flore alba. Tournef. inft. 407.   The Greek letter “γ” corresponds to the letter “c” in the excerpt from Medikis (1786), below.
Lotus fylveftris, flore albo. Tabern. hift. 893.    
Habitat in Europae campeftribus. ☉ ♂    

Literature Cited:
- Medikus, Friedrich Kasimir, 1786.
Full Size ImagePage from Medikus (1786) publishing Melilotus albus.  

Medikus, Friedrich Kasimir (1736-1808), [May] 1786. Versuch einer neuen Lehrart die Pflanzen nach zwei Methoden zugleich, nehmlich nach der künstlichen und natürlichen, zu ordnen, durch ein Beispiel einer natürlichen Familie erörtert. [Attempt at a new method of classifying plants according to two methods at the same time, namely according to the artificial and the natural, explained by an example of a natural family.] Vorlesungen der Churpfälzischen physicalisch-öconomischen Gesellschaft. [Lectures of the Churpfälzische Physical-Economic Society.] Mannheim. 2: 382 (1787).

The following excerpt is taken from the image at left.

4. Melilotus albus.  
Trifolium M. officinalis c L. The German letter “c” in the text at left corresponds with the Greek letter “γ” in the Linnean description above.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Melilotus officinalis;  

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. “Yellow Sweet Clover”


Literature Cited:
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de, 1778.  

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam., Flore Françoise, ou Descriptions Succinctes de Toutes les Plantes qui Croissent Naturellement en France...Paris (Lamarck) 2: 595 (1779).

Original Text
III. Epi de fleurs pointu , lache , & ayant un ponce ou plus de longueur.
Melilot officinal. Melilotus officinalis.
Melilotus officinarum germaniae. Tournef. 407.
β Melilotus vulgaris altiffima frutefcens flore albo. Ibid.
Sa tige eft haute de deux pieds , dure & rameufe ; fes feuilles font petiolees , compofees de trois folioles glabres, ovales-oblongues , quelquefois un peu etroites & dentees dans leur partie fuperieure. Les fleurs font petites, de couleur jaune ou blanche, pendantes & difpofees fur des epis greles , laches & affez longs. Il leur fuccede des legumes courts , pendans , un peu rides, & qui renferment une on deux femences. La variete β s'eleve jufqu'a fix pieds , & porte des epis greles & fort longs. Cette plante croit dans les champs & fur le bord des hales , © ou a* ; fes feuilles & fes fleurs font refolutives , emollientes & anodines.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oxytropis lambertii;  

Oxytropis lambertii Pursh “Purple Locoweed”

Oxytropis DC., Astragologia 24, 66 (ed. qto.); 19, 53 (ed. fol.) (1802), nom. cons., includes 606 accepted species.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, addendum, p. 740) ...

Original Text Comments
Oxytropis Lambertii. — O. acaulis, sericeo pilosa ; foliolis (19) lanceolato-ellipticis utrinque acutis, scapis folia aequantibus, spicis capitatis, bracteis linearibus longitudine calycis.  
On the Missouri. Bradbury. ♃". Aug. Sept. v. v. in Hort. Lambert. Flowers a beautiful purple. It approaches near to O. argentata and setosa.  

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., 1991.

Other articles:
• Glossary:   porrect;  

Original Text
The porrect beak of the keel is diagnostic for the genus, even though some species of Astragalus have extended keel apices; none are truly porrect.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oxytropis sericea;  

Oxytropis sericea Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray “White Locoweed”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 339) ...

Original Text
6. O. sericea (Nutt. ! mss.): “stemless, somewhat caespitose, shining and whitish with appressed silky hairs; leaflets linear-oblong or lanceolate (those of the primary leaves elliptical and obtuse) ; scapes longer than the leaves; spikes short, elongated in fruit ; bracts lanceolate, acuminate, shorter than the calyx; teeth of the calyx short and subulate ; legumes somewhat cylindrical, acuminate, 2-celled, canescently pubescent.”
Rocky Mountains. Nuttall! — Leaflets about ¾ of an inch long. Wings emarginate. Scapes stout and rigid in fruit. Legumes (including the beak) nearly an inch long, coriaceous, compressed contrary to the sutures. — Nearly related to O. Lamberti.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pediomelum tenuiflorum;  

Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan “Slimflower Scurfpea”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

(Syn: Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh) Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 475) ....

Original Text
3. P. pubescens, ramosissima; foliis ternatis; foliolis ellipticis utrinque rugoso-punctatis, pedunculis axillaribus folio longioribus sub-3-floris. tenuiflora.
On the banks of the Missouri. M. Lewis. ♃ Sept. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers very small, pale blue.  

Literature Cited:
- Egan, Ashley N., and James L. Reveal, 2009.  

Egan, Ashley N., and James L. Reveal (2009, v. 19, 310-314) ...

Original Text
Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydberg was first collected on the historical expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on 21 September 1804 at the Big Bend of the Missouri River, which would later become Lyman County, South Dakota, U.S.A. (Moulton, 1999).
Frederick Pursh (1813) later described it as Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh. Since then, the species has experienced a murky taxonomic history. Rydberg (1919) designated Psoralea tenuiflora as the type of a new genus, Psoralidium Rydberg, wherein he recognized 14 species. … the variation across this species is great, but with no distinct segregation as to definitely allow specific designation, an ascentainment that the authors of this paper share.
Pediomelum tenuiflorum (Pursh) A. N. Egan, comb. nov. Basionym: Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 475. Dec. 1813. Lotodes tenuiflorum (Pursh) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 194. 1891, nom illeg. Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydberg. N. Amer. Fl. 24: 15. 1919. TYPE: U.S.A. South Dakota: Lyman Co., Big Bend of the Missouri River, 21 Sep. 1804, M. Lewis s.n. (lectotype, designated by Grimes, 1990: 36, PH-LC 184; duplicated, NY [fragm.], PH-LC 183).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Robinia pseudoacacia;  

Robinia pseudoacacia L. “Black Locust”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 2, p. 722) ...

Original Text
PfeudoAcacia. 1. ROBINIA pedunculis racemofis, foliis impari-pinnatis. Hort. upf. 212.
  Robinia aculeis geminatis. Hort. Cliff. 354. Gron. virg. 82. Roy. lugdb. 372.
  Acacia americana, filiquis glabris. Raj. hift. 1719.
  Acaciae affinis virginiana fpinofa, filiqua membranacea plana. Pluk. alm. 6. p. 73. 4. 4.
  Habitat in Virginia. ♄
  Conf. Pfeudo-Acacia hifpida, floribus rofeis. Catesb. car. 3. p. 20. t. 20.
POWO (2022) states the tree is native to Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Vermont; not Virginia. Of course at Linnaeus' time, Virginia was a colony, not a state. USDA Plants maps its nativity as US.

Literature Cited:
- Burns, Russell M., and Barbara H. Honkala, 1990.  

Black locust has a disjunct original range, the extent of which is not accurately known. The eastern section is centered in the Appalachian Mountains and ranges from central Pennsylvania and southern Ohio, south to northeastern Alabama, northern Georgia, and northwestern South Carolina. The western section includes the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and northeastern Oklahoma, and the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma (, 16 March 2022).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Securigera varia;  

Securigera varia (L.) Lassen “Purple Crownvetch”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa;  

Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely. “Spreadfruit Goldenbanner”


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.  

Fraser's (1813) Catalogue, most likely written by Nuttall, is the first reference to T. rhombifolia.

Original Text Comments
26. *Cytisus rhombifolius. ‡ Fl. not seen. I am a little surprised this is not marked by an “M” from the Missouri because in Nuttall (1818), two paragraphs down, Nuttall will tell us that he collected this plant at Fort Mandan.

Symbols used by Fraser (Nuttall).
* – New Species.
‡ – Perennial.
M. – from the Missourie. ;

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814) published Cytisus rhombifolia in the supplement to Vol. 2 of his Flora Americae Septentrionalis. Many of the entries in the supplement were Bradbury collections or from Nuttall descriptions in Fraser's Catalogue.

Original Text
Cytisus rhombifolius — C. pubescens ; racemis terminalibus erectis, leguminibus falcatis subarticulatis, foliolis oblongo-rhomboideis obtusis, stipulus rotundato-ovatis obliquis.

C. rhombifolius. Fraser. Catal. 1813.
In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury. v. s. in Herb. Bradbury. The stipulae are large and foliaceous ; the specimen I have seen was in fruit, and Mr. Bradbury has seen only one plant in flower.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  carina;  vexillum;  

Nuttall (1818) published it as Thermia rhombifolia eschewing the Thermopsis of R. Brown.

Original Text
401.THERMIA. Thermopsis. R. Brown. Hort. Kew. 3. p. 3.
Calix subcampanulate, half 4-cleft, the supper segment truncate and emarginate. Corolla papilionaceous, petals nearly equal in length; vexillum reflected at the sides; carina obtuse. Legume compressed and falcate, attenuated at the base, many-seeded.
Herbaceous; leaves ternate petiolate, stipules large and foliaceous; spikes terminal, interrupted, subverticillate, erect; flowers yellow. Very distinct in habit from Cytisus but requires further comparison with that genus?
Species. 1. *rhombifolia. Leaflets rhombi-ovate … … raceme interrupted. Cytisus rhombifolius T. N. in Fras Catal. 1813. Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 741. Suppl. Obs. Roots perennial … … — On denudated argillaceous hills near Fort Mandan. This plant is very closely allied to Sophora lupinoides of Pallas, Thermopsis lanceolata of Brown, and they appear inseparable in genus, that species when in perfection produces a long verticillated spike of flowers; some of Pallas's specimens, however, in the herbarium of A. B. Lambert, Esq., have a single verticill of flowers only as in the starved specimen figured in the Botanical Magazine, in this species the leaves are on both sides closely covered with a silky villous; the primary leaves it appears occur sometimes simple but always accompanied by the stipules after the manner of Baptisia.

Literature Cited:
- Richardson, John, 1823.  

Richardson (1823) wrote the botanical appendix for Franklin's (1823) report of the voyage to the polar sea.

Original Text Comments

No. VII.




The collections of Pallas and Pursh, now belonging to Mr. Lambert, rendered the power of referring to his valuable Herbarium an object of the utmost importance to me ; and the desire of promoting the science, whoch so eminently distinguishes his character, induced him cheerfully to accord it. I include this note because it confirms that Lambert had collections made by Pallas. Pallas and Lambert must have been frequent correspondents. This is possibly relevant to explanation of how a Pallas' manuscript describing Chrysocoma nauseosa might have been seen by Pursh.
137. Thermopsis rhombifolia: Nuttall. Am. 1. p. 282. (C.)  

(C.) Denotes the sandy plains in the neighborhood of Carlton, strongly resembling the plains of the Missouri, upon which the American botanists have lately made extensive collections.


Literature Cited:
- Nelson A., 1898.  

Nelson (1898) ...

Original Text Comments
The species of this region, as they now appear to be, are T. montana, T. rhombifolia, and the two proposed species. The fruits of these are very characteristic, a fact shown in the accompanying plate. The four fruiting racemes are all from the Wyoming material, are mature and typical each of its species They were photographed on one plate, hence the size is relatively correct (about one-third natural size).  
Thermopsis rhombifolia n. sp. — … …  
It is found near streams, preferring the moist, rich soil among the open underbrush. Type specimens in Herb. Univ. of Wyo., no. 3424 by Elias Nelson, Pole creek, July 22, 1897 ; and no. 3903 by the writer, Johnson's ranch, Big Laramie river, August 8, 1897.  

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) treated the Colorado taxa at the rank of species, saying, “… The mature or nearly mature fruit is necessary to be sure of the species. Even then some intergradations occur in Colorado plants.”

Literature Cited:
- Isely, Duane, 1978.  

Isely (1978) proposed var. divaricarpa despite recognizing that infraspecific divisions and those with T. macrocarpa are not that well-defined.

Original Text Comments
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nels.) Isely, Comb. Nov.  .
Thermopsis divaricarpa A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 25:275. 1898. Type: United States. Wyoming, Albany Co.: Johnson Ranch, 8 Aug 1897, A. Nelson 3902 (Holotype: RM!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!).  
I view Thermopsis of the western states as one vast complex, but have divided it into two “convenience” species, T. macrophylla of the Pacific states, and T. rhombifolia, which extends east to the high plains. These combinations provide the needed names. Isely also proposed var. montana based on a Nuttall type, and var. ovata based on T. ovata Robinson ex Piper.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittman (2012) treat Thermopsis rhombifolia, T. montana, and T. divaricarpa at the rank of species.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) ...

Original Text Comments
This is a polymorphic species with considerable variation and is often divided into three species (T, divaricarpa, T. montana, and T. rhombifolia). However, when one examines all three species together, considerable overlap in morphology is evident. … Intermediates between all three taxa can be seen where their ranges overlap.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Trifolium hybridum;  

Trifolium hybridum L. “Alsike Clover”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Vicia americana;  

Vicia americana Willd. “American Vetch”

Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4 [Willdenow] 3(2): 1096 (1802).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Vicia ludoviciana;  

Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. “Louisiana Vetch”

There is one collection of Vicia ludoviciana in Golden s.l. that was made under the south side of Castle Rock.

In Jefferson County, there is just one other collection, from Chatfield Farms. Otherwise, in Colorado there are collections along the northern Front Range, along the Arkansas River between Canon City and Pueblo, and then in scattered locations in other parts of Colorado.

The flowers of Vicia ludoviciana are quite small, (4.5)6-8(9) mm., and mostly white, compared to those of V. americana that are (12)15-22(25) mm. and mostly colored.

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.  

Nuttall left Philadelphia on 2 October 1818, arriving at Fort Smith 24 April 1819. In mid-May he set off with a small Army detachment and several Cherokees for the Red River, traveling up the Poteau River and down the Kiamichi River. Nuttall collected on the Red River for three full days before time for the detachment to return to Fort Smith. He lost his companions and stayed in the area until mid-June. During this time he made many collections of new species, including Vicia americana (Graustein, 1967, p. 144).

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Torrey & A. Gray, 1838-1843, publication details;  

Torrey & A. Gray (1838, v. 1, p. 271) ...

Original Text
8. V. Ludoviciana (Nutt. mss.): glabrous (except the young shoots) ; leaflets 10-12, elliptical or obovate, obtuse or emarginate ; stipules subulate, simple or semisagittate ; peduncle 2-6-flowered, at length longer than the leaves ; flowers (minute) closely approximated ; teeth of the calyx broad, acuminate, shorter than the tube ; legume broadly sabre-shaped, glabrous, 5-6-seeded ; seeds compressed, dark brown.
Grassy places on the Red River, and in Texas, Dr. Leavenworth ! “In Louisiana, Mr. Tainturuer,Nuttall. — ♃ Stem 2-3 feet long, rather stout, strongly angled, climbing. Leaflets 6-8 lines long, 2 lines wide, commonly emarginate. Stipules very small. Flowers blue, smaller than in V. Cracca, rarely solitary, often 2-6 on a peduncle. Legume ¾ of an inch long and 3 lines wide. — Mr. Nuttall in his manuscript describes the peduncles as 1-2-flowered, which is the case in some of our specimens ; but the peduncles are more commonly at least 4-flowered.


Literature Cited:
- Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm, 1788-1800.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Vicia villosa;  

Vicia villosa Roth “Hairy Vetch”

Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm, 1757-1834 Tentamen florae Germanicae; continens enumerationem plantarum in Germania sponte nascentium. [The German flora containing a listing of plants that grow naturally in Germany.] Lipsiae, In Bibliopolio I.G. Mlleriano, 1788-1800. Volume 2, part 2, page 186.

“In locis limosis prope Vegesack ante aliquot annos inveni plantam, quae quotannis in horto sterilliori culta non mutavit habitum. [A few years ago I found a plant in muddy areas near Vegesack, which has not changed its habit of being cultivated every year in a more sterile garden.]&rduo;

Vegesack is located about 20 km (12 mi) north from the centre of Bremen-city at the mouth of the river Lesum.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erodium cicutarium;  

Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. ex Aiton “Redstem Stork's Bill”


Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.  

Aiton (1789, v. 2, p. 414) ...

Original Text
cicutarium. 3. E. pedunculis multifloris, foliis pinnatis : foliolis feffilibus pinnatifidis. L' Herit. n. 12.
  Geranium cicutarium. Sp. pl. 951. Curtis lond.
  Hemlock-leav'd Crane's-bill.
  Nat. of Britain.
  Fl. April-September. H. ☉.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Geranium caespitosum;  

Geranium caespitosum James “Pineywoods Geranium”


Literature Cited:
- James, Edwin, ed., 1823.  

James (1823, v. 2, p. 3) ...

Original Text Interpretation and Comments
About the sandstone ledges we collected a geranium † intermediate between the crane's bill and herb robert, the beautiful calochortus, [C. elegans, Ph.] and a few other valuable plants. The party was at the mouth of Platte Canyon.

† G. caespitose, sub-erect, pubescent, sparingly branched above. Radical leaves reniform deeply 5-7 cleft. The flower is a little larger than that of G. robertianum, and similarly coloured, having whitish lines towards the base of the corrolla. We also saw here the Campanula decipiens. Pers. Lysimachia ciliata, Ph. Troximon glaucum, N. with two or three belinging to genera with which we were unacquainted.
Campanula decipiens = ?, maybe Campanula rotundifolia L
Lysimachia ciliata Ph. !, except author was L.
Troximon glaucum N[utt.] = Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf.

Literature Cited:
- Aedo, Carlos, 2001.
- Goodman, George J., and Cheryl A. Lawson, 1995.  

Goodman and Lawson (1995, p. 199-201) have a long account about this specimen and its proper name, reaching the conclusion that it should be G. intermedium James. Aedo (2001) acknowledges the name but accepts our G. caespitosum James.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Geranium richardsonii;  

Geranium richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv. “Richardson's Geranium”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1829-1840.  

Hooker (1840, v. 1, p. 116) … Parts 2 and 3, pages 49-144 of Hooker's Flora of North America were issued in 1830, so even though the flora was not sonsidered complete until 1840, the pages including G. albiflorum Hook. were published in 1830. Meanwhile G. albiflorum Ledeb., of the Russian flora, was published in 1829, giving it priority.

Original Text
2. G. albiflorum ; caule subangulato erecto dichotomo inferne glabro superne piloso- glanduloso, foliis profunde 5-partitis ovato-acuminatis inciso-subpinnatifidis subpilosis, radicalibus longe petiolatis, superioribus oppositis breve petiolatis 3-partitis magis acurainatis, calycibus glanduloso-pilosis, petalis integris (albis) intus filamentis que basi hirsutis, (Tab. XL.)
Long Latin description omitted.
Hab. Vallies in the Rocky Mountains. Drummond. — This fine species of Geranium seems to hold a middle rank between the American G. maculatum and the Europaean G. pratense: yet it is, I feel assured, truly distinct from both. In the former, G. maculatum, the leaves are much less divided, the segments broader, and the peduncles are quite destitute of glandular hairs : in the latter, the leaves are much more deeply divided, the segments greatly narrower, and more truly pinnatifid. In both, the blossoms are purple ; in ours, the flowers are constantly white, even when cultivated, as the plant is in our gardens, and of a firmer texture. The G. longipes of De Candolle, according to his description, also approaches our plant.
Tab. XL. Fig. 1, Root-leaf: — natural size. Fig. 2, Petal; fig. 3, Stamen; fig. 4, Calyx and pistil, with the filaments of the stamens : — slightly magnified.
Parts 2 and 3, pages 49-144 of Hooker's Flora of North America were issued in 1830.

Literature Cited:
- Fischer, F. E. T., and Ernst Rudolph von Trautvetter, 1838.  

Fischer & Trautvetter (1838, p. 37) …

Original Text Translation and Comments
948. Geranium Richardsonii Fisch., Trautv. G. albiflorum Hook. fl. bor. amer. tab. 40, Bot. mag. tab. 3124. (non Ledeb.). Nomen erat mutandum ob G. albiflorum Ledeb. “The name was to be changed because of G. albiflorum Ledeb.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oxalis stricta;  

Oxalis stricta L. “Common Yellow Oxalis”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Linum lewisii;  

Linum lewisii Pursh “Prairie Blue Flax”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 1, p. 210) ...

Original Text
Lewisii 2. L. foliolis calycinis ovatis acuminatis, petalis cuneatis apice rotundatis, foliis sparsis lanceolato-linearibus mucronatis, caulibus altis numerosis.
  In the valleys of the Rocky-mountains and on the banks of the Missouri. M. Lewis. ♃. July. v. v. Flowers large, blue; a very good perennial, and it probably might become an useful plant if cultivated.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Linum perenne;  

Linum perenne L. “Blue Flax”

(Syn: Adenolinum perenne (L.) Rchb. )

Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 277) ...

Original Text
2. LINUM calycibus capfulisque obtufis, foliis alternis lanceolatis integerrimis. perenne.
Linum foliis alternis lanceolatis integerrimis, calycibus apice obtifus, capfulis muticis. Hort. upf. 72.  
Linum perenne, ramis foliisque alternis lineari-lanceolatis. Hort. cliff. 114. Roy. lugdb. 434. Sauv. monfp. 53.  
Linum perenne majus caeruleum, calitulo majore. Morif. hift. 2. p. 573.  
Linum fylvestre caeruleum perenne erectus, flore & capitula majore. Raj. angl. 3. p. 362.  
Habitat in Sibiria et Cantabrigiae. ♃  

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Tribulus terrestris;  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chamaesyce fendleri;  

Chamaesyce fendleri (Torr. & A.Gray) Small “Fendler's Sandmat”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1857b.

Locations: Big Spring.  

Torrey & Gray (1857) described Euphorbia fendleri in their report on the botany of the Pacific Railroad Survey. The collector was Dr. J. M. Bigelow. Dr. Gray, though, had already seen this plant among Fendler's collections.

Original Text Comments
Euphorbia Fendleri, (n. sp.): branching and diffuse from a somewhat woody caudex. smooth ; leaves stipulate, opposite, broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, on very short petioles, subcordate and oblique at the base; involucres solitary, on short peduncles; gland transversely oval, with a narrow entire somewhat 2-lobed border; capsule smooth; seeds obovate, a little rugose transversely, gelatinous when moistened. Big Springs of the Colorado; April. This species is No. 800 of Fendler's New Mexican collection. It is a small plant, throwing off many branches that spread on the ground, forming a little patch from three to six inches in diameter. The leaves are 3-4 lines long, and are often of a purplish tinge, especially underneath. Big Springs of the Colorado is now Big Spring, Howard County, Texas. The creek is now called Beals Creek, and it joins the Colorado River some 35 miles to the southeast.

Literature Cited:
- Small, John Kunkel, and Per Axel Rydberg, 1903.  

Small (1903) made some nomenclatural changes without comment.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Chamaesyce glyptosperma;  

Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small “Ribseed Sand Mat”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

In Torrey, John (1859), the section on Euphorbiaceae was written by George Engelmann, M.D. That would explain why Dr. Engelmann is considered the author of a name published by Dr. Torrey. The botanist on the Mexican Boundary Commission was Dr. Charles Parry.

Original Text
Euphorbia glyptosperma (nov. spec.) : erecto patula seu demum decumbens ; foliis e basi valde obliqua (latere inferiore producta) aequilatis oblongis s. oblongo-linearibns obtusis versus apicem subserratis s. integriusculus ; stipulis setaceis laciniatis, anthodiis alaribus demum in glomerulos laxos laterales confertig ; appendiculis brevibus integris seu crenatis ; stylis brevibus apice bilobis, stigmatibus subglobosis ; seminibus ovatis argute rugosis ad angulos acutos crenatis. E. polygonifolia, Hook. FL Bar, Am. fide spec. auctoris non Linn.
β. tenerrima : foliis parvulis angustis apice vix crenulatis ; involucri minuti glandulis vix seu non appendiculatis. On the Rio Grande ; also on the Arkansas, and extending to the upper Missouri. (No. 1853, 1855, and 1856, Wright.) From a few inches to a foot high. The larger northern forms have leaves 3 to 6 lines long and 1 to 2 lines wide. In β the leaves are 1 to 3 lines long and ½ to 1 line wide ; involucrum in the latter only 0.3 line long. Seed very sharply cross-ribbed, similar to that of E. prostrata, and notched at the angles.

Wright is Charles Wright, a friend of Asa Gray, who collected in Texas and New Mexico in 1849 and 1851-53.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia myrsinites;  Euphorbia esula;  

Non-Native Euphorbia L. — Spurge

Several of our non-native Euphorbias as noxious weeds, e.g., E. myrsinites and E. esula, and are discussed among the Noxious Weeds, above.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia brachycera;  

Euphorbia brachycera Engelm. “Horned Spurge”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

George Engelmann described E. brachycera in Torrey (1859) citing a collection by Charles Wright in western New Mexico.

Original Text
Euphorbia brachycera (nov. spec.): annua (?), multicaulis, ramosa, erecta, glaberrima; foliis in petiolum brevissimum angustatis lanceolatis seu lineari-lanceolatis acutis mucronatis ; umbella 3-fida seu rare 4-5-fida; ramis pluries bifidis; bracteis inferioribus ovato-Ianceolatis superioribus rhombeo-orbiculatis mucronatis; glandulis brevissime obtuseque cornutis; seminibus majusculis ovatis maculis irregularibus saepe confluentibus leviter impressis. Western New Mexico; Wright, (No. 1821.) Many stems a foot high from a stout but apparently annual or biennial root; leaves 6-9 lines long, about 2 lines wide, patulous (not erect as in E. esulaeformis) regularly lanceolate ; upper part of the stem quite ramose ; horns shorter than in any of our species, and sometimes almost rudimentary. Seed 1 line in length, similar to those of E. esulaeformis, montana and Roemeriana.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia esula;  

Euphorbia esula L. “Leafy Spurge”

This plant has low severity poison characteristics. The sap contains diterpine esters in milky latex which is toxic on ingestion and highly irritant externally, causing photosensitive skin reactions and severe inflammation, especially on contact with eyes or open cuts. The toxicity can remain high even in dried plant material. Prolonged and regular contact with the sap is inadvisable because of its carcinogenic nature.

Linnaeus (v. 1, p. 461) notes that the plant is native to Germany, Belgium, and France.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia marginata;  

Euphorbia marginata Pursh “Snow on the Mountain”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2, p. 607) ...

Original Text
14. E. umbella 3-fida: bis dichotoma, involucro foliiforme, involucellis oblongis cordatis margine membranaceis coloratis, foliis lanceolato-oblongis subcordato-amplexicaulibus acutis glaucescentibus glabris, appendicibus calycinis petaloideis subrotundis, capsulis pilosis. marginata.
On the Yellow-stone river. M. Lewis. ☉. July. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. A very handsome species ; the white margin of the involucre and white petal-like appendices have a fine contrast with the elegant soft green leaves.  


Euphorbia myrsinites L. “Myrtle Spurge”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia myrsinites;  

Linnaeus (1753, v. 1, p. 461-462) ...

Original Text
50. EUPHORBIA umbella fuboctifida : bifida, involucellis fubovatis, foliis fpathulatis patentibus carnofis mucronatis margine fcabris. Diff. euph. 52. Myrfinites.
Euphorbia inermis, foliis fuperioribus reflexis latioribus lanceolatis, umbella univerfali trifida , partialibus bifidis. Hort. cliff. 199. Hort. upf. 141.  
Euphorbia inermis, foliis ligulatis fpinula terminatis, ad umbellam duodenis. bracteis trigonis fpinula terminatis. Sauv. monfp. 51.  
Tithymalus myrfinites latifolius. Bauh. pin. 296.  
Tithymalus myrfinites legittimus. Cluf. hift. 2. p. 189.  
Habitat in Calabria, Monfpelli. ♃  
Caules multi, pedales, diflexi, virides, inferme a cafu foliorum cicatrifati. Folia alterna, fpathulata, coriacea, concava, glauco-viridia, patentia, mucronata, margine fubscabra, fuperiora reflexa. Umbella 7-9 fida radiis femel bifidis. Involucrum univerfale foliolis 7-9, ovatis, tenuioribus, acutis ; Involucella diphylla, fubcordata, lariora, concava, acuta, margine fubfcabra. Flores intrainvolucella primaria & fecundaria mafculi, reliqui hermaphroditi. Calyces ore ferrati. Petala 4, flava, bicornia apicibus teretibus nitentia. Capufulae glabrae.  

Linnaeus does not mention toxicity of the species.

Locations given by Linnaeus are Calabria (Italy) and Montpellier (France). POWO shows the native distribution to be Italy south and east to Iran. Nativity or distribution in France is not mentioned.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia peplus;  

Euphorbia peplus L. “Petty Spurge”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Euphorbia spathulata;  

Euphorbia spathulata Lam. “Warty Spurge” or “Spoonleaf Spurge”

Online (SEINet and CCH2) records contain determinations of the following synonyms:

  • Euphorbia arkansana
  • Euphorbia arkansana var. atrosemina
  • Euphorbia dictyosperma
  • Euphorbia obtusata
  • Tithymalus mexicanus
  • Tithymalus missouriensis
  • Tithymalus spathulatus

Literature Cited:
- Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 1786.  

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de [1744-1829] and Jean-Louis-Marie Poiret, Jean-Louis-Marie [1755-1834], 1786. Encyclopédie méthodique. Botanique . Paris,Liège : Panckoucke;Plomteux, 1783-1808.

Original Text Translation
56. Euphorbe fpatule, Euphorbia fpathulata. Euphorbia umbella trifida , dichotoma : foliis alternis oblongo-fpathulatis fubferratis. N. 56. Euphorbe spatule, Euphorbia spatulata. Euphorbia umbellum trifid, dichotomous: leaves alternate oblong-spathulate with subserrate. N
Euphorbia caule dichotomo , foliis ovato-oblongis , floribus fingularibus in fingulo dichotomiae finu feffilibus. Commerf. Herb. Euphorbia dichotomous stem , ovate-oblong leaves, flowers singular in each dichotomous branch, sessile.
Plante glabre , dont les tiges hautes d'un pied ou un peu plus , font munies de rameaux petits & alternes. Ses feuilles font aiternes , feffiles , oblongues-fpatulees , legerement dentelees , glabres , & a peine longues d'un pouce. L'ombelle eft compofee de trois rayons deux ou trois fois bifides. Les trois folioles de la collerette font ovales-oblongues ; les bractees leur reffemblent , mais elles font un peu plus petites & asuminees. Les capfules font glabres. M. Commerfon a trouve cette plante pres de Monte-Video. Elle paroit herbacee. ( v. f. ) Hairless plant, whose stems a foot or a little more high, are provided with small & alternate branches. Its leaves are alternate, thin, oblong-spatulate, slightly serrated, glabrous, and barely an inch long. The umbel is composed of three rays two or three times bifid. The three leaflets of the collar are oval-oblong; the bracts resemble them, but they are a little smaller & asuminees. The capsules are glabrous. Mr. Commerfon found this plant near Monte-Video. Herbaceous. (Seen in the dried state.)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Edwin James collections;  Tragia ramosa;  

Tragia ramosa Torr. “Branched Noseburn”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1828.  

Torrey (1828, v. 2, p. 245) ...

Original Text
407. Tragia ramosa, caule herbaceo, piloso, ramosissimo ; foliis petiolatis, ovato-lanceolatis, argute serratis, subtus hirsutis, basi subcordatis ; racemis ♂ filiformibus, paucifloris, basi ♀
Desc. Stem about a span high, much branched, slender, hairy. Leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, coarsely serrate, with acuminate serratures, base acute or subcordate ; under surface hirsute, upper with a few appressed hairs; petioles one-third of an inch long, with subulate stipules at the base. Racemes axillary towards the upper part of the stem. Sterile flowers superior, 6-8, on short, filiform, bracteate pedicels. Calyx 4-parted, segments lanceolate, recurved, apex inflexed. Stamens 4. Pistil abortive. Fertile flowers. Calyx 5-parted. Stigmas 3, large, recurved. Capsule tricoccous, hispid. Seeds perfectly spherical, smooth.
Hab. Sources of the Canadian?
Obs. Resembles T. urticifolia, but differs in its narrow leaves, much branched, and smoother stem.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

Torrey (1859, v. 2, pt. 1, p. 200-201) ...

TRAGA RAMOSA, Torr. in Ann. Lyc. New York, 2, p. 245. T. angustifolia, Nutt. l. c. T. scutellariaefolia, Scheele^ l. c. Gravelly hiills of the Limpio; Bigelow. Ravines of the Organ mountains, April ; Parry. On the upper Rio Grande, New Mexico; Fendler, No. 776. Perhaps only a var, of the last. It differs chiefly in being much smaller and erect, with the leaves scarcely at all cordate. Var.? leptophylla : foliis linearibus integris vel remote denticulatis. — Near Howard's Springs; Bigelow; No. 1796, Wright. Plant woody at the base, about a span high, and branched from the base. Stem and branches sparingly hirsute. Leaves 1-1¼ inch long and 1-2 lines wide. Spikes few-flowered ; the lowest flowers fertile. Flowers as in T. ramosa, etc.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus glabra;  

Rhus glabra L. “Smooth Sumac”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Rhus trilobata;
Full Size ImageRhus trilobata at the southern end of the Survey Field.  

Rhus trilobata Nutt. Squawbush.

Rhus L. is a Linnean name published in his Species plantarum in 1753, although the name had been previously used in six other works that Linnaeus cites. The genus is native to temperate and tropical Asia, Europe, Africa, the Pacific region, and North and South America. There are ten other names that are synonyms for Rhus including Lobadium Raf. that is now treated as a group within Rhus and contains our R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  ♄;
Full Size ImageAiton (1789) description of Rhus aromatica  

Since Rhus trilobata is sometimes reduced to the rank of variety or subspecies under Rhus aromatica Ait. we need to understand the source of that name and its distribution. R. aromatica was described from a plant growing in the Kew Gardens, in 1789. The plant was provided to the garden in 1772 by John Bartram. The source of the plant was “Carolina,” which we now separate into North and South Carolina. Aiton's description is:

Mixed Latin and English My Interpretation of the Mixed Latin and English
11. R. foliis ternatis : foliolis sessilibus ovato-rhombeis inciso-serratis pilosiusculis.
Aromatic Sumach.
Nat. of Carolina. Mr. John Bartram.
Introd. 1772.
Fl. May.     H. ♄.
11. R[hus] leaves in three parts : leaflets sessile, ovate-rhomboid, serrate, puberulent(?).
Aromatic Sumac.
Native to Carolina. [Collected by] Mr. John Bartram.
Introduced (to Kew Garden) in 1772.
Flowers in May.       Hardy. Shrubby.
As was common at the time, Aiton used the astrological sign for Saturn to indicate shrubby plants.
Full Size Image
Abbreviations used by Aiton (1789)

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageNuttall's description of Rhus trilobata in Torrey & Gray (1838).  

Rhus trilobata was published by Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) from a manuscript written by Nuttall. From the location “Rocky Mountains” and the date of publication — 1838 — it is likely Nuttall made his collection on the Nathaniel Wyeth expedition of 1834-1836 (Graustein, 1967, pp. 277-304).

It seems as though the author should be “Nutt. ex Torrey & A. Gray,” but no one seems to spell it out that way.

§ 3. Flowers dioecious or polygamous : disk glandular, deeply 5-lobed (lobes opposite the petals) : drupe globose, villous : nut smooth, compressed: flowers in short aments, preceding the leaves. Leaves 3-foliolate. — Lobadium, Raf.
8. R. aromatica (Ait.) …
9. R. trilobata (Nutt ! Mss.) : “leaves glabrous, small ; lateral leaflets obovate, obtuse, 3-lobed at the apex or nearly entire ; terminal leaflet cuneiform, 3-lobed at the summit, the middle lobe sometimes 3-toothed.
“In the central chain of the Rocky Mountains. — A low leafy shrub ; the leaves much smaller than in R. aromatica : terminal leaflet broad, ½–1  inch in length ; lateral ones smaller. Drupes scarlet, acid ; the nut flat, scarcely striate.” Nutt.

Graustein (1967), Nuttall's biographer, does not mention Rhus trilobata or Nuttall's collection of it.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus trilobata, Barkley, 1937;

Locations: Raft River Mountains. Salt Lake Valley.  

The Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel was a geological survey made by order of the Secretary of War under the direction of Brig. and Bvt. Major General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, by Clarence King, U. S. geologist. More commonly known as the Fortieth Parallel Survey, the survey conducted field work from 1867 to 1872, exploring the area along the fortieth parallel north from northeastern California, through Nevada, to eastern Wyoming.

Volume 5, Botany, was written by Sereno Watson (1871) with the assistance of Drs. Gray and Torrey and others. Asa Gray reduced R. trilobata to the rank of variety, which was published in this volume by Watson.

Rhus aromatica, Ait., Var. trilobata, Gray. (R. trilobata, Nutt.) Leaves small, rarely exceeding 1' in length, usually glabrous ; leaflets lobed, the divisions entire or sparingly crenate. — Growing in dense leafy clumps, 3-6° high, and having a heavy disagreeable odor, It is the prevalent western form, extending from Western Texas to Southern California, and throughout the Rocky Mountains to the Upper Missouri. Found on the foot-hills around Salt Lake Valley and at the north base of the Raft River Mountains, Utah. (219.)

The Raft River Mountains are just northwest of the Great Salt Lake. The number (219) is the collection number that Watson applied when he distributed the specimens.

Full Size Image
Gray's description of Rhus aromatica var. trilobata in Watson (1871).

Literature Cited:
- Barkley, Fred Alexander, 1937.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica var. trilobata, Watson, 1871;  

Barkley (1937) treats both Rhus aromatica and R. trilobata at the species rank. R. aromatica var. trilobata Gray (in Watson, 1871) is placed in synonomy with R. trilobata. No comment is made regarding the treatment of either species, except that R. trilobata is an

... extremely variable assemblage of plants probably best treated taxonomically as a single polymorphic species running into several more of less consistent geographic variations…
Barkley also recognizes eight varieties of R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt. Ex T. & G. and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkley.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, W.A., B.C. Johnston, and R. Whittmann., 1981.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata, Weber, 1989;  

Weber, et al. (1981) published Rhus aromatica Ait. subsp. pilosissima (Engelm.) W. A. Weber, without the similar new combination for R. trilobata. This will be corrected in Weber (1989).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1989.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica, Weber, et al., 1981;  

Rhus aromatica Ait. Subsp. trilobata (Nutt.) W.A. Weber was published in Weber (1989) with the following explanation:

This is a combination inadvertantly omitted from an earlier treatment of Rhus (Weber, et al. 1981).
Neither publication gives any hint of why Weber reduces R. trilobata to a variety of Rhus aromatica

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins, 1993.  

Welsh et al. (1993) accept R. aromatica var. trilobata, and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Conq.

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Allison J., David A. Young, and Jun Wen, 2001.  

Miller, et al. (2001) paper about the phylogeny and biogeography of Rhus based on ITS sequence data is hidden behind a paywall.

Abstract. Rhus L. (sensu lato) has been considered the largest and most widespread genus in the Anacardiaceae. Controversy has surrounded the delimitation of the genus. Historically, seven segregate genera have been recognized: Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Melanococca, Metopium, Searsia, and Toxicodendron. These genera, together with Rhus s.str., are commonly referred to as the Rhus complex. Rhus s.str. Includes two subgenera, Lobadium (ca. 25 spp.) and Rhus (ca. 10 spp.). Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to examine the monophyly of Rhus s.str. And to provide insight into the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of the genus. The ITS data set indicates that Rhus s.str. Is monophyletic. Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Searsia, and Toxicodendron are distinct from Rhus s.str., although the relationships among these genera of the Rhus complex are not well resolved. Rhus subgenus Rhus is paraphyletic; the monophyletic subgenus Lobadium is nested within it. The ITS data set indicates that, for Rhus, the Madro-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Lobadium) had a single origin within the Arcto-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Rhus).

Literature Cited:
- Yi Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.  

Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere

Literature Cited:
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2007.  

Yi, et al. (2007) published a similar paper on phylogeny of Rhus based on sequences of nuclear and chloroplast genetics found that

(1)Species of Rhus form a monophyletic group … (9) R. aromatica and R. trilobata are sister taxa.

With two notable exceptions … species of subgen. Lobadium were resolved into two clades: … and (2) R. aromatica–R. trilobata and R. integrifolia–R. ovata.

The present distributions of R. microphylla, R. aromatica–R. trilobata, R. lanceolata, and R. copallina indicate that the opportunity for hybridization between some or all of these species exist (and likely existed) in the southwestern U. S. and northern Mexico.

This is one of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, A. R., and T. Terrazas, 2009.  

Andres-Hernandez (2009) published their analysis of leaf architecture of Rhus. This was part of their PhD thesis, and will be integral to a later paper (2014) on phylogeny of Rhus using structural and molecular data.

Literature Cited:
- Schalau, Jeff, and Gene Rwaronite, 2010.  

In their publication on wildfire risk reduction in Arizona's interior chaparral, Schalau & Twaronite (2010) list Rhus trilobata as suitable for use in eildfire survivable space.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept R. aromatica Aiton ssp. trilobata (Nuttall) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1989, and one subspecies, ssp. pilosissima (Engelmann) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1981.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, Agustina Rosa, Teresa Terrazas, Gerardo Salazar, and Helga Ochoterena, 2014.  

For R. aromatica, the leaf texture is described as membraneous and the aureole is described as imperfect. For R. trilobata, the leaf texture is described as chartaceous and the aureole is described as incomplete.

This is another of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt., placing R. aromatica Aiton in synonomy, and accepts three varieties: var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkl., var. pilosissima Engelm., and var. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Idaho Firewise, 2017.  

Idaho Firewise (2017) lists Rhus trilobata as one of the best shrubs for Zones 1 and 2.


Kuhns & Daniels (2018) list Rhus trilobata as a recommended firewise shrub for Utah.


Toxicodendron Mill.


Literature Cited:
- Miller, Philip, 1754.  

Original Text
TOXICODENDRON, Poifon-tree, vulgo.
The Characters are ;

The Flower confifts of five Leaves, which are placed orbicularly, and expand in form of a Rofe ; out of whofe Flower-cup rifes the Pointal, which afterward becomes a roundifh, dry, and, for the moft part, furrowed Fruit, in which is contained one comprefs'd Seed.

The Species are ;

1. Toxicodendron triphyllum glabrum. Tourn. Three - leav'd fmooth Poifon-tree.

2. Toxicodendron triphyllum, folio finuato pubefcente. Tourn. Three- leav'd Poifon-tree, with a finuated hairy Leaf.

3. Toxicodendron rectum, foliis minoribus glabris. Hort. Elth. Upright Poifon-tree, with fmaller fmooth Leaves.

4. Toxicodendron rectum pentaphyllum glabrum, foliis latioribus. Smooth five-leav'd upright Poifon-tree, with broader Leaves.

5. Toxicodendron amplexicaule, foliis minoribus glabris. Hort. Elth. Climbing Poifon-tree, with fmaller fmooth Leaves.

6 Toxicodendron foliis alatis, fructu rhomboide. Hort. Elth. Poifon-tree with wing'd Leaves, and a Fruit fhap'd like a Rhombus.

The two firft Species were brought from Virginia, many Years fince, where they grow in great Plenty, as it is probable they do in moft other Northern Parts of America. The firft Sort feldom advances in Height ; but the Branches trail upon the Ground, and fend forth Roots, by which they propagate in great Plenty.
The fecond Sort will grow upright, and make a Shrub about four or five Feet high, but rarely exceeds that in this Country. This may be propagated by Layers, and is equally as hardy as the former.
The third Sort here mention'd grows erect to the Height of five or fix Feet : the Leaves of this Kind are much fmaller, than thofe of the common Poifon-oak ; but the Branches of this are flexible, fo that it will never make a Shrub of any great Height or Strength.
The fourth Sort was found in Maryland, from whence the Seeds were fent to England. This grows more upright than the former, and by the Appearance of the young Plants, feems to be a Shrub of much larger Growth.
The fifth Sort is a Native of Virginia, from whence I received the Seeds : this puts out Roots from the Branches, which faften themfelves to the Stems of Trees, or the Joints of Walls, by which the Branches are fupported.
The fixth Sort is a low Shrub, feldom rifing more than five Feet high. All the Sorts of Toxicodendron differ in Sex, the Male never producing any Fruit, having fmall herbaceous Flowers, without any Embryoes.
Thefe Plants are preferv'd by the Curious in Botany, for the fake of Variety ; but as there is little Beauty in them, they are not much cultivated in England. The Wood of thefe Trees, when burnt, emits a noxious Fume, which will fuffocate Animals when they are fhut up in a Room where it is burnt : an Inftance of this is mention'd in the Philofophical Tranfactions by Dr. William Sherard, which was communicated to him in a Letter from New-England by Mr. Moore, in which he mentions fome People who had cut fome of this Wood for Fuel, which they were burning, and in a fhort time they loft the Ufe of their Limbs, and became ftupid ; fo that if a Neighbour had not accidentally open'd the Door, and feen them in that Condition, it is generally believ'd they would foon have perifh'd. This fhould caution People from making ufe of this Wood.
All thefe Sorts are hardy Plants, which will thrive in the open Air in this Country ; but they love a moift Soil, and fhuld be planted under Trees in Wilderneffes, where they will thrive very well, and endure the Cold better than where they have a more open Expofure. They may be propagated by Seeds, or from Suckers, which fome of the Sorts fend forth in plenty, or by laying down the Branches of thofe Sorts which do not put forth Suckers ; which in one Seafon will be fufficiently rooted to tranfplant ; when they mould be planted where they are defign'd to remain. The beft Time to remove thefe Shrubs is in March, becaufe then there will be no Danger of their fuffering by Froft.
When a Perfon is poifoned by handling this Wood, in a few Hours he feels an itching Pain, which provokes a Scratching, which is followed by an Inflammation and Swelling. Sometimes a Perfon has had his Legs poifon'd, which have run with Water. Some of the Inhabitants of America affirm, they can diftinguifh this Wood by the Touch in the Dark, from its extreme Coldnefs, which is like Ice : but what is mention'd of this poifonous Quality, is applicable to the fixth Sort here mention'd ; which, by the Defcription, agrees with this Species.
This Sort of Poifon-tree is not only a Native of America, but grows plentifully on the Mountains in Japan, where it is called Fafi No Ki ; and from this Tree they extract one Sort of their Varnifh or Lacca, which they ufe for japanning their Utenfils : but this is not their beft Kind of Varnifh, that being made of the Juice of another Tree, which is alfo very poifonous, and nearly allied to this ; and from which fome Writers think it differs only by Culture.
The Juice of this Tree is milky, when it lffues oat of the wounded Part ; but foon after it is expofed to the Air, it turns black, and has a very ftrong fetid Scent, and is corrodeing : for I have obferved, on cutting off a fmall Branch from one of thefe Shrubs, that the Blade of the Knife has been changed black in a Moment's time, fo far as the Juice had fpread over it ; which I could not get off without grinding the Knife.
As this Tree is very common in Virginia, Carolina, and New-England, it would be well worth the Inhabitants Trial, to make this Varnifh.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1905.  

Greene (1905, p. 114) segregated Toxicodendron from Rhus, again.

Segregates of the Genus Rhus
No taxonomic problem is easier, no fact more thoroughly established, than the identity of the original species, i.e., the type species of the genus Rhus ; because during more than a dozen centuries before even Tournefort, the species was but one, and that familiar to all writers about plants as the variously useful shrub of the whole Mediterranean region commonly called Rhus, but also long before Linnaeus written of under the binary name of Rhus coriaria, which name he also adopted. The genus was all this while supposed to be monotypical ; Rhus coriaria, the only Rhus. This fact is so easily apparent in bibliography, that there is no room for any controversy as to what is the type of the genus; and neither Tournefort nor Linnaeus, with the genus in view, could well have done otherwise than they did in placing it first in the list of species ; placing it as the type.
In the seventeenth century the genus received two indubitable accessions from North America in the shrubs now known as Rhus hirta and R glabra. Nobody questioned or doubted that these were of that genus. But along with these importations from our shores came the Poison Ivy ; a type which no authority did at first, or for a long time after, think of as possibly to be associated with Rhus congenerically.
Tournefort, before the end of the seventeenth century, proposed for the two forms known to him the rank of a genus, which he very fitly named Toxicodendron. Linnaeus suppressed the genus; but Philip Miller promptly restored it; and several more since Miller's time have insisted on its validity as a proper genus, so that now it bids fair for permanent recognition in the taxonomy of coming years.
A recension of the species of Toxicodendron is no easy task; so far from easy, I find it one of the most difficult I have hitherto undertaken. The best treatment of the genus extant, as to the early and typical species, is that of Dillenius in 1732. Linnaeus twenty years later, as his custom was, reduced the genus to Rhus and confused the species. Philip Miller sixteen years after this restored the genus, and also the Dillenian species of it, adding excellent descriptions of two or three new ones. In these two classic revisions of Tournefort's Toxicodendron, and not at all in Linnaeus, lie the means of identifying all the species early recognized.
The following represents my present understanding of the names and principal syonymy of the known species.

Greene goes on to nominate T. vulgare Mill. as the type of Toxicodendron.