Eastern Mojave Vegetation Frequently Asked Questions  

Tom Schweich  

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Topics in this Article:
Highways and Roads
Mojave National Preserve and Other Parks
Eastern Mojave Vegetation Web Site
Literature Cited
 Here are the common questions that I have received through my eastern Mojave Website, and my answers thereto.
  Q: Why won't you answer my email?

A: I try to answer everything I can. But there are some times when my reply may be delayed, or I may not reply at all.

Sometimes I don't answer right away. I may be travelling. When travelling, I may not have access to email for a few days. Or, I may need to look at one of my reference books to answer your question.

If your question sounds like you're looking for someone to do your homework for you, I may not answer. Try to do your homework first and then, if you still have questions, send me a question that is written in a way to show your thoughtfulness.

Finally, I may not answer your question, if you don't supply a simple email address. For example, I won't register for Google+ and join your Circle to answer your question. Nor will I register for an account on your favorite social media application, or reply to your spam filter, to send you a reply.

So, if you'd like a reply, send me an answerable question, with a real SMTP reply address.





  Q: A friend and I are currently in the process of walking across the country. We started in Jacksonville, FL in October, and are now in Flagstaff, AZ. I was doing some internet research about our planned route, mostly for information about where we can expect to find water, and came across your website. We are planning to through Kingman and Bullhead City, AZ, then to Laughlin, NV, and then over to Goffs, CA. I was wondering if you had any info about the route from Laughlin to Goffs. Mapquest lists a few towns along what I guess is Goffs Rd-- Arrowhead Junction, Bannock, and Homer. Do you know if these towns actually exist, in the sense that we can count on getting water there? And even Goffs-- is that a dependable water source? We were then planning to head down to Fenner and Essex. Can we expect to find water in those towns? Sorry to bombard you with all of these questions; any help would be greatly appreciated. I'll be in Flagstaff and able to check email for the next few days, so if you could get back to me soon that would be great. You can check out our website at http://www.amer-i-can.com, if you're interested in our walk. Gidon

A: Following is a map of all the places I know water can be obtained in the eastern Mojave between Laughlin and Barstow.

  • Ft Piute. Perennial stream, must be purified.
  • Goffs, at the Museum at the school house. Maybe other places also. There is nothing at Homer or Arrowhead Junction. Fenner is very doubtful. There was a Texaco station there, but sometimes it's open and sometimes not.
  • Essex, pretty reliable.
  • Providence Mountains State Park, campground, caverns, water. Walk through Foshay Pass to Kelso?
  • Hole-in-the-Wall Campground, National Park Service, reliable, telephone.
  • Mid Hills Campground, National Park Service, reliable. I'll be camping here Memorial Day Weekend. There is a post office, phone, and store at Cima, but the store is often closed.
  • Baker, ugly highway town. Between Baker and Mountain Pass are a couple of places: Valley Wells (gas station and store, pretty reliable), Halloran Summit and Halloran Springs (pretty reliable). Between Baker and Crucero is the Desert Studies Center at Zzyxz, academic facility.
  • Chambless, gas station, very small store, trailer park, ugly. Last I heard Amboy was closed. There is nothing at Bagdad.
  • Kelso, Railroad town, beg water from railroad, or National Park Service ranger.
  • Afton Canyon Campground, Bureau of Land Management
  • Lake Dolores, water slides, location uncertain, somewhere between Calico and Afton Canyon.
  • Calico, amusement park and county park.
  • Ludlow, ugly two gas station town.
  • Newberry Springs Highway Rest Stop
  • Highway Rest Stop
  • Nipton, bed and breakfast.
  • Newberry Springs, gas stations
  • Dagget, etc.
  • Granite Mountains Reserve, University of California.
From Laughlin, your first water stop will be Ft Piute if you can filter the water, otherwise it will be Goffs. You could also go northwest to Searchlight and then over the hill to Nipton. Water at Mountain Pass might be iffy since that's a big secret rare earth mine.
  Q: Do u have any old spanish bull ranch pictures? (Oliver, 23-Jun-03)

A: No, I'm sorry I don't.



Driving In Spain

Q: One more question about the roads in Spain. Are they well kept and fairly easy to drive?

A: Anything in red or yellow on the Michelin map are excellent roads. Solid whites are also usually fine. Exercise caution or bravery, as you prefer, for the dashes and dots.

  Q: My only suggestion: don't drive in Seville, Madrid, Barcelona or Toledo. Fabulous cities, amazing driving! (John, 28-Jun-03)

A: You have to drive like you mean it. No hesitation or pussyfootin' allowed.



Locations: Almaden.  



Locations: Rio Tinto.
Full Size ImageAlmaden from the south.
Full Size ImageThe mine at Almaden from the south.  

Q: I've just read your trip report and was particuarly interested in your visit to the Rio Tinto mines and museum. A couple of days ago I did a web search for the Mines of Almaden after watching a TV program about it and it led me to one of your earlier reports which was also greatly interesting. The TV program suggested the Almaden mine has its own museum and we thought we would perhaps plan a trip that included it this autumn. (Sue, 5/21/2003)

A: Sue, We were in Almaden on a Monday in February. There was no one around, and all the gates were locked. I think I found the place of the museum, but couldn't see much through the cracks in the gate. There is also a small museum at the University. They were a little bewildered when I walked in and asked to see it, but the receptionist grabbed a student out of the library, handed him the key, and instructed him to conduct me to the museum. They have a few artifacts and historic maps of the mines of Almaden, as well as a photo of a man taking a bath in a vat of mercury.

Locations: Almaden. Almaden.
Full Size ImageFormer mining offices at Almaden, California.
Full Size ImageLooking north toward San Jose from Alamden, California.  

Q: I was pleased to find your photos of Almaden on the internet. I was raised in New Almaden, CA. I moved there in 1944 while the mines were still active for WW2. I and my family left Almaden in 1979. I have a good knowledge of the Almaden history. I and my wife are planning a trip to Spain within the next year and we will definitely tour Almaden Spain. It would be of great help to us to know what months are similar in weather as the central Calif. area from Jan. to May. The photo of the area between Almaden Spain and Guadalupe looks like the same area in Calif. during the above mentioned time frame. Any help that you can provide for our upcoming trip would be greatly appreciated. If I can be of any help with the history of Almaden Calif. feel free to inquire.

A: I was in Almaden once in late February, so it's difficult for me to generalize to the entire year. Southern Spain is roughly the same latitude as northern California. For example, Sevilla is about the same latitude as San Francisco. The climate, though, is more like we would find in Sacramento and Redding, i.e., 10° to 15° F. warmer. Were I to return there, I think I would go in March or April, but I would expect May would be getting pretty hot and dry. I would plan to be there later in the week, not Monday, in hopes that the mine museum would be open. I don't think that I would plan to spend more than a half day in Almaden. But I might plan to slowly tour the area south, between Cordoba and Almaden, and northwest, from Almaden to Siruela to Guadalupe. HTH.



Area 51

  Q: I can't find a map that shows me where "Groom Lake" is or the "papoose Lake bed". The last might not be spelled correctly. Can you help? (Larry or Hubert, 1-Jul-03)

A: I think both Groom Lake and Papoose Lake are in what is also called Area 51. Did you try searching Google for them?

QQ: Thanks for the reply and yes they are in area 51......but...google has no maps show the mountains or lakes in that area. On the oposite side of area 51 is a military instalization called "S4" on a sand lake bed at the foot on some mountains. Maybe I'll try National Geographic for maps. Thanks again. You may be interested to know that one photo on your site, taken in 2000, shows a UFO. ( when magnified 800 times.) Here's your original photo, the color enhanced photo, and the enlargemant showing the UFO. You can match the pixels in each photo to see none were altered to add a phoney object. Interesting? The other white object appears to the left, has no shape to it and may be dust on the negative.

AA: Uh-huh.



Other articles:
• Alpujarra:  090000;  

La Alpujarra

  Subject: Photos of La Alpujarra

Dear Jesus,

I liked your photos of la Alpujarra. We visited the area in April, and very much enjoyed our stay. I have a commitment to prepare a talk for the University of California at Berkeley Department of Botany about the Spanish countryside and plants. One of your photographs is a nice example of how plants are used for color and to provide shade for a terrace. It is:


I wonder if I may use your photograph in my talk, assuming that I will give full credit and copyright to you?

A: Dear Tom,

Thanks for your interest in my pictures. I do have many more but not uploaded, lack of time I guess. Of course you can make use of the pictures and every content there. My parents are from Almegijar (close to Trevelez) in La Alpujarra, and I feel so atteched to the place that I must go there every year, even though I am from Barcelona. I've seen your wonderful webpage and I felt very proud that you liked our country so much. Spain, and Granada and La Alpujarra are an example, is full of a misterious history that enchants many people.

Anyway, talking about the plants, these are "Geranios" which as you say are there for colour. The other one used for shade is usually one variety of grape, so in late august /september you enjoy both grapes and shade, wonderful. We always need this kind of tricks in a so dry place.


  • Jesus



      Q: Where will be a good place to find a map that will show Andalucia in detail? (Carol, 30-Jun-04)

    Michelin Map No. 446 Southern Spain, is available from Amazon.com for $11.95.



    Other articles:
    • Black Canyon Road:   at Cedar Cyn Rd;
    • Black Canyon Road:  20000;

    Locations: Black Canyon.  

    Black Canyon

    Q: This may seem a little odd to you but I thought you might have some information on what I am looking for since you know the Black Canyon area. I am trying to find out if there is a federal women's prison camp in the area of Black Canyon that might still be under construction. I have been asked to try and locate some information on this site by a friend who has a relative soon to be incarcerated there. I have looked in the Federal Bureau of Prisons web site and they do not list anything that even comes close to being named that. If you know of or know where I can find information on this camp I would greatly appreciate it . If you have no idea what I am talking about I apologize for taking up your time. Tim, July 25, 1999.

    A: I know of 2 Black Canyons in the Mojave. One is northwest of Barstow, i.e., straight north of Hinkley. My experience with that area is only a short portion of the road from Copper City Road to the Grass Valley Route. So, there may be a prison south of there and north of Hinkley. There is a prison in the general area, that would be on Highway 395, just north of Kramer Junction.

    The other Black Canyon is in the eastern Mojave, runs past Hole-in-the-Wall, and I believe entirely within Mojave National Preserve. This road I've covered from end to and there is no prison.

    It's also possible that there are other Black Canyons, just like there are lots of Cedar Canyons, etc.



    Caruthers Canyon


    Locations: Caruthers Canyon.
    Full Size ImageCaruthers Canyon as seen from New York Mountain Road.  

    Q: My last name is Caruthers. I've stumbled on your site, and was shocked to find a 'Caruthers Canyon'. I grew up in Redlands, am a graduate of San Berdoo Cal State (second class), even lived in the Coachella Valley for several years, but I never heard of it. Where in heavens is 'Caruthers Canyon'?

    A: Caruthers Canyon is on the south side of the New York Mountains in Mojave National Preserve. By road, it is about 200 miles northeast of Redlands.





    Locations: Cholame.
    Full Size ImageJack Ranch Caf e and James Dean Memorial at Cholame, CA.  

    Q: Thank you for posting this photograph of Cholame. Bill, 19-Mar-05.

    Locations: Capileira.
    Full Size ImageIce Cream at Cafe Europa  

    Q: Hi,I am "collecting" Cafe Europa, Kafe Europa, etc. all over the world. Where is your picture taken? Where is your Cafe Europa situated? I have been to Granada (city) but not Capileira. A good excuse to visit Alpujarras! What kind of cafe is it? traditional, fancy, small, big? Friendly, Kari 7-Mar-05

    A: The Cafe Europa in my photo is in Capileira, (Granada), Andalucia, Spain. The area is generally known as "the Alpujarras." There was a small street that seemed to be the commercial center of Capileira. Along this street were several tourist stores, such as a leather shop, Cafe Europa, a grocery store and the bank with an ATM. I would describe Cafe Europa as small with perhaps 10 tables inside, and perhaps another 8 tables outside when the weather was nice. You could buy coffee and ice cream or get a small meal. We only got coffee in the morning and ice cream once for dessert, preferring to eat at the Pizza place down the hill and Restaurant Alpuxarra at the top of the town. Cafe Europa also had some tourist supplies, such as maps and books about the Alpujarras. The owners were very nice, coming over quickly to take photos of the four of us when we got our cameras out.

    There was also a restaurant in Berkeley, California called Cafe Europa. It was small, maybe 8 tables, decorated in funky mediterranean stuff, and served very good food of the Greek/Morrocan fusion type. It's gone now, replaced by a restaurant called Zatar Ecletic Mediterranean Cuisine.



    Other articles:
    • Keany Pass Road:  18000;
    Full Size ImageClark Mountain, California, from Halloran Summit.  

    Clark Mountain

    Q: My friends and I are researching Clark Mountain because we want to find the stand of White Fir that we know to exist up there (as well as all the other unusual flora found in that area). I have records of 2 canyon names, but they aren't on any Topo that I can find.: Forsellesia Canyon and Fir Canyon. Are you aware of the location and possibly, the route to either Canyon or other ways that can find these trees. Thanks in advance. Kathi Ellsworth, May 21, 2001.

    A: Kathi,

  • I don't think the canyons really have names recognized by the USGS. Usually people looking for the White Fir climb from the north side, off of Keany Pass Road, also not a name recognized by the USGS.

    Q: Do you have the coordinates (at least) for Keany Pass Road for entry to Clark Mountain?? We have GPS. Thanks in advance. Kathi.

    A: Kathi, Hmmm … no, don't have GPS coordinates, but get off of I-15 at Valley Wells, go north on Kingston Road to the power lines, about 8 miles, then turn east 5-6 miles on the power line road (Keany Pass Rd) to a road going south in a pretty large valley. Take this road south turning east. Just before Coliseum mine is a road heading south. Take this road as far up the mountain as you dare. Happy hunting!

    Q: Hi, Tom. Your directions to Clark Mountain are like all the others I have!!! :-) I have an order in to the Sierra Club Desert Peaks Section for their book, "Desert Peaks". I think it will give more precise details.

  • Other articles:
    • North Highway:  Scotty's Castle;

    Locations: Scotty's Castle.
    Full Size ImageScotty's Castle in northern Death Valley.  

    Q: What is Scotty's Castle address? Please return my e-mail. Thank you. (Francisco, 27-Jun-03)

    A: I would be very surprised if Scotty's Castle had an address. Most locations, like cabins, ranches, and castles in the American West do not have addresses. But, if I were to write to someone there, I would write to:

    Death Valley National Park
    P.O. Box 579
    Death Valley, CA 92328

    On the other hand, if you are trying to find driving directions, here is a map:


    Does this help? Let me know if you need more information.

    17 March 2019: Wow! The above was written in 2003; how things have changed since then. I would now use GoogleMaps for a map of driving directions to Scotty's Castle. But, more important, Scotty's Castle is closed following a severe thinderstorm and flood on October 18, 2015. It is currently anticipated that Scotty's Castle will re-open in 2020. See the Park Service's web page at: https://www.nps.gov/deva/learn/historyculture/scottys-castle.htm



    Death Valley Mine


    Literature Cited:
    - Thompson, David G., 1929.

    Other articles:
    • Field Notes:   at Death Valley Mine;
    • Routes to Water:   near Death Valley Mine;   near Death Valley Mine;

    Locations: Death Valley Mine.  

    Full Size Image
    View of Cima Dome from the dump of the Death Valley Mine.
    Q: I am a landowner adjacent the telephone site on the way to the Death Valley mine near Cima. The road itself is actually an extension of the paved Cima Road to the north. Access to the mine was actually blocked recently due to an active mining claim. Prior to the last operation an older couple lived there. Any photos you have of the Cima area, that you wish to share, are of interest. (Robert, May 6, 2007)

    A: I visited the Death Valley Mine with Bob Reynolds of LSA Associates and Ted Weasma, NPS, as part of a field trip arranged for the Desert Research Symposium. If I remember correctly, Ted was interested in preserving the buildings for possible use as a field station (place for field trip participants to stay overnight). Any of the good photos I have of the area are published on my web site. I do have a few of the older publications such as Thompson's 1921 "Routes to Water" that of which I have republished portions. I plan to be out there first week of June to collect data at my plots. I'll take a look at the Death Valley Mine. I know Brown is a common name … are you by any chance related to Bill Brown, owner of the Blue Rock mine?

    AA: No known relation. There are some other Browns in the area that might have some linkage. My ancestry goes back to Blue Dimond, Kentucky. Robert



    Other articles:
    • U. S. Highway 50:  Frenchman;

    Locations: Frenchman.  

    Frenchman, NV

      Q: In William Least Half-Moon's book Blue Highways, he visits the town of Frenchman, Nevada. At the time he visited it, there was a cafe there owned by a woman and her mother-in-law. This was in the late 1970s. My girlfriend and I traveled Nevada's Highway 50 late last year, and I don't recall seeing Frenchman. On our Nevada map, the town is now designated as a 'site.' There was a structure just east of the Tree of Shoes that could have been the Frenchman Cafe, but it's now something else; if I recall correctly, it's an all-girl dancing joint, or something to that effect. Anyway, I'm just hoping to get more information on what became of Frenchman. (Jim, 6/7/2003)

    A: I think like you Frenchman is a place I've been through rather than stopped. I think last time, I was sandwiched in between a hay truck and a pack of Harley hogs. So, I'm afraid I have no information to add. Let me know what you find out. Yes, I agree there are lots of roads lonelier than US 50, US 6 is one. NV 375 is another. If you go thru the area again, try NV 722 as an alternate to US 50.



    Locations: Garlock.
    Full Size ImageRemains of the town of Garlock.
    Full Size ImageGroup from the San Bernardino Museum learns the history of studies of the Garlock Fault  


    Q: My name is ______ . I am writing you because I was wanting to let you know that your pictures bring back so many memories, being that I grew up there in Garlock most of my life. I moved there when I was 6 (1979) and moved when I was 16. My father was the caretaker of the property that is fenced off. I lived there with my father and brother. I also met my best friend there, her father is the now owner of Garlock, his name is _________ _____. I met her when I was 6 and I am now 29. We have been the closest of friends, we had a lot of adventures there in the desert. My father would take me on moonlit walks which is very beautiful. The desert glows. And the mountains have an amazing view from the top. I have been there a few times. It just makes me so happy to see my home again. I don't get a chance to get out there much anymore. Thank you for having these pictures. If you have any questions about the place, please contact me at __________ and I will try to answer anything you may have.

    A: Thank you for writing to me. I am always interested to hear from people who have lived in the little towns that I have visited. I have also heard from people who lived in Kelso, Barnwell, Death Valley Junction, and Baghdad(!). I would love to take an oral history from you, and then turn it into an article or a web site. Unfortunately, my time is limited, and if I don't stay focused on my eastern Mojave botanic research then I'll never get that done.

    Perhaps it is something you could consider doing: writing down your memories, interviewing your family and friends, go back and visit the spots you remember, taking new photographs, saving any old photographs, and assembling it all into a scrap book or an article. Anyone can do it. The hardest part is just getting started.

    Good luck, and thanks for writing.

    Q: As teenager in the mid 1950's, I lived for a while down in Ridgecrest, CA. with Aunt and Uncle Chris and Harry ___________ . Harry and I trucked bottled water weekly, to a lady living in what was the town of Garlock. I think, I still have some photo's of the old crinding wheel (sort of a small round sunken turntable affair). Do you know anything of this woman? Harry always referred to her as Grandma. If you have any info. please drop me a line.

    A: Unfortunately, I haven't a clue who Grandma was. Years ago, mid-50's I guess, we would drive through Garlock on our way from Palmdale to Death Valley. More recently I've been there on a couple of geology field trips. Otherwise I know very little about the town. It's surprising how many people write to me who lived in, or knew someone who lived in, Garlock. Someone ought to put together a Garlock reunion site!



    Other articles:
    • Kingston Road:  Goodsprings;

    Locations: Goodsprings.  


    Q: We called the Pioneer Saloon in Goodsprings, and no one answers. Before we go there today from Summerlin, we would want to know if there is a place to sit down, have a drink and perhaps have an early dinner. Please respond, if you can ASAP, because we would want to visit this site this afternoon, it's 10:30 a.m. Thanks! Andre 13 August 2001.

    A: What did you find? Was the Pioneer Saloon open?

    AA: Tom, thanks for your response. I called Pioneer Saloon before we left and found it to be opened and welcoming. Chuck and I truly enjoyed the saloon and the story of the gambler that was shot, very interesting history and ambiance. We enjoyed our drive around Goodsprings. Your photos of Goodsprings truly depicted its rural nature. Everyone in the saloon recommended that we visit Sandy Valley if we are looking for property. We did and found the valley to be very beautiful and remote, but not for long. Andre.



    Locations: Hole-in-the-Wall.
    Full Size ImageBanshee Canyon from below.  

    Hole in the Wall

    Q: Hi I was wondering where Hole in the Wall is located at. I have been wanting to go camping there but heard it was in Sedona but then read it was in California. Could you please send me any and all information about Hole in the Wall and how to get there. Thank You, Brittany, 20-Mar-05

    A: There are many places called "Hole in the Wall," two in Arizona, two in California, 1 in Nevada, and three in Utah. The Hole in the Wall mentioned on my web site is in Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California. You can check this yourself and obtain maps at:

  • http://geonames.usgs.gov/pls/gnis/web_query.gnis_web_query_form


    Locations: Kelso.
    Full Size ImageKelso Depot in April 1998.  


    Q: Nice photo of the "Beanery" as we called it. I lived in Kelso from '70 to '72. I attended 6th, 7th, and part of 8th grade in the one room school. I have been thinking of making a web site about the town and what I remember during the time I was there. Your photo showed that the windows were not boarded up anymore as was the the case when I was there last in '93. If you have any questions about Kelso during that time please email me. My father worked for the Southern Calif. Natural Gas Co. and we lived in the chain link enclosed area which had 5 double wide mobile homes at the time.

    A: It was a pleasant surprise to hear from you. You're right the boards are off the windows, but they have been replaced by plexiglass. One of the priorities that the Park Service determined in public hearings was preservation of the depot with possible future use as a park headquarters.

    My first visit to the eastern Mojave was in 1980, so by that time the Beanery was closed. If you're not already familiar with them, the Citizens for Mojave National Park might be very interested in your memories. They've published a number of small books including "The Kelso Depot Story." I thought they had an email address but I dont see one on the latest issue of their newsletter. Their address, though, is: Citizens for Mojave National Park, P. O. Box 106, Barstow, CA 92312, phone: (760) 256-9561.

    Also, depending upon your interests, Cal State San Bernardino runs a number of classes at Zyzzx.

    Literature Cited:
    - Gibbons, W. & M. T. Moreno., 2002.  

    Q: I was wondering how I would find out history about the people that worked and lived at the Kelso Depot in the 1950-1956 timeframe ... Like newspapers, register of guests at the depot. Railroad employees that stayed there and worked there or the surrounding Cima area in the 50's? (Perline, 5/14/2003)

    A: I'm not an expert on the Kelso deport; I just drive by several times per year on my way to the Mid Hills. The park service is restoring the depot now. See:


    They may have some archival records. You might try contacting the Union Pacific railroad, or you might try contacting the Mojave River Valley Museum in Barstow.



    Locations: Kingman.  

    Kingman, Arizona

    Q: No one can tell me if Kingman, Arizona is in the Mohave or the Sonoran desert. Can You? Kevin, November 27, 1999.

    A: It depends upon how you define the Mojave desert. Tectonically, Kingman is probably not in the Mojave desert, because it is defined by the San Andreas and Garlock faults in California. Petrographically, Kingman has a strong relationship to the eastern Mojave because of the great outcrops of Peach Springs Tuff. Physiographically, Kingman might be if you exclude interior drainage from your definition. Floristically, you could define Kingman in the Mojave desert, if you have Joshua trees there. There are also climatic definitions, with the Great Basin being a cold desert, the Mojave a warm desert, and the Colorado desert being hot.

    What you won't find is sharp boundaries between the Mojave and the Sonoran deserts. In my own area of research, I use a floristic definition, and consider my area to be "Mojave," but still have to deal with California floristic elements (such as Rhamnus ilicifolia, Quercus chrysolepis, and Keckiella antirrhinoides), Sonoran floristic elements (such as Agave desertii, Krameria grayii, and Chilopsis linearis), Great Basin floristic elements (such as Artemisia tridentata and Agave utahensis), Rocky Mountain floristic elements (such as Fallugia paradoxa, Juniperus osteosperma), plus several other species that don't follow anybody's model of how species are distributed.

    The key point is that labels such as "Mojave Desert" or "Sonoran Desert" are convenient labels for humans who need to see things in neat arrangement, but probably have no meaning in the everyday lives of plants and animals.





    Other articles:
    • US Hwy 40:  Kremmling;

    Locations: Kremmling.  

    Q: I was planning on kayaking the colorado and or blue rivers around Kremmling this summer with my son. We are not whitewater experts but very capable of class III or less water. Would just like a fun trip with some fishing and some fun water but recreational. Can you suggest a "section" that can be run on either of these rivers without major hydraulics? Thanks, Mike

    A: We pretty much did a drive-by with a stop for lunch along the river on our way to Denver, so any opinion I would have is probably suspect. Sorry, wish I could help.



    Lobo Point


    Other articles:
    • Cedar Canyon Road:  30000;
    • Wild Horse Canyon Road:   at Lobo Point;
    • Field Notes:  20040419100;
    • Eastern Mojave Geology:  460000;
    • Vegetation of the Mid Hills:  Introduction;

    Locations: Lobo Point. Mid Hills Campground. Pinto Mountain.
    Full Size ImageThe beginning of attitude adjustment hour having arrived at Mid Hills Campground.  

    Full Size Image
    Lobo Point in the early morning.
    Full Size Image
    Location of Lobo Point.
    Full Size Image
    Winkler Formation at Pinto Mountain.
    Q: Attitude adjustment hour, good description. I also practice the all neccessary acclimation process at any one of the camps in the northern end of the Mid Hills prior to my excursions.

    Since most of my work is in the pre-cambrian, paleozoic and mesozoic formations I am interested in the nomenclature of some of the formations in the tertiary volcanics. For now I am curious about the tuff flow illustrated at the head of your home page that underlies the flow behind your camp that my young son refered to as "Sunshine Camp" due to the sunrise in early winter coming up through the draw. I mentioned in one of my previous attempts to reach you, that for many years, I used that exact location as a base camp. The same tree where your car is parked. When I saw the ravages of the fire I was happy to see that that one tree along with a very few others was spared. Joe

    A: I first camped at that location -- Rob Blair of 7IL Ranch calls it "Lobo Point" -- in 1978 with Merritt College, and then got to going back there on my own. I know what your son is thinking when he calls it "Sunshine Camp" because of the way the sun shines on it. I have seen it from US-I40 near Fenner in the early morning. One of the locals told me it's also called "Morning Beacon" for that reason.

    I see my description of that photo still calls the unit the Hole in the Wall tuff. I was on a field trip with Mike McCurry a few years ago and we were referring to the unit as the Wild Horse Mesa tuff because Hole in the Wall tuff was in use for a unit in Utah. The source of the Wild Horse Mesa tuff is in the south end of the Woods Mountains to the east. The "opal beds" at the base of Lobo Point are Winkler Formation. The formation is silicified at Lobo Point into the chalcedony with a little bit of opal. On the north face of Wild Horse Mesa and south face of Pinto Mountain the Winkler Fm is a limestone.

    Under the Winkler Fm at Pinto Mtn is the Peach Springs Tuff. Under the Winkler Fm at north face Wild Horse Mesa is the Precambrian gneiss. At the south end of the ridge, that Lobo Point forms the north end of, is a rhyolitic dome, that McCurry thought was the oldest Tertiary volcanic feature in the area. The dome is hill 1458 in the center of the map.





    Other articles:
    • Field Notes:  6-Jun-02;
    • Interstate 80:  Mystic;

    Locations: Mystic.
    Full Size ImageTruckee River near Mystic siding, California  

    Q: Hi, I live in Reno and would like any info you may have on Mystic siding.I have often walked and fly fished there.I can not however find any info from the railroad or libraries or even the net. It is very important to me and I would appreciate any help. Thank you, Ken, 13-Oct-04

    A: Ken, I just stopped and took the photo because it was pretty and I was looking for sites with the sagebrush growing down to the river ... sorry, wish I had more info for you.



    New Idria


    Other articles:
    • Clear Creek Road:  Idria;

    Locations: Idria. New Idria Mine.  

    Q: Tom, I was thrilled to find your web site. I graduated from the 8th grade in the little school hause in Idria in 1946!! My father was a miner and after WWII started we moved from Alaska back to Calif until 1950. We actually were living in one of the old cabins at Aurora (had to walk to and from there to school each day ). Anyway, Pop was mining for mercury and later for chromium along the ridge above Aurora. We lived there for about three years. I have two brothers, 10 & 11 years younger than myself. None of us have been back there since we left in 1946, and all three of us really want to go back at least one more time. My youngest brother has been fighting prostate cancer for several years and I'm afraid that if we don't make the trip soon, we all may not make it. I have been trying to find out as much information about road conditions, travel restrictions,etc, but with little luck until I saw your article about the Clear Creek area. Do The roads still go thru Clear Creek, over the ridge and down to Idria; and on out the New Idria road? Are the roads well maintained, or would a person need to have a 4-wheel drive vehicle? Are there any time of year restrictions for travel in this area? If so, what are they. Growing up in those mountains was a very special time for me and my two brothers and we really want to go back to see how much it has, or has not, changed in the last 57 years! Any information you could supply for us would be so VERY MUCH appreciated ... (Ralph, 6/18/2003)

    A: Ralph, I'm sorry to hear about your brother. The Clear Creek Road still goes through, but there is a gate at the pass. I don't know when or for how long it might be closed. The last two times I went through it was open. Clear Creek is a Motorcycle Sacrifice Area, on weekends, it's full of people on their motorcycles, OHV's, etc. You don't need four-wheel drive, but I would recommend high-clearance, such as a pickup. There are some people living in New Idria, but I had the feeling it was some sort of drug rehab half-way house sort of thing, but I have no definitive information. BLM is the land management agency, and they have a phone number to call for Clear Creek at: http://www.ca.blm.gov/hollister/clear_creek_management_area.html

      Q: I have a couple of questions. My first one is I'm trying to find information on the O.K. Corral shootout between the Earps and the outlaw cowboys, and the Clantons, and Mclaurys. They have claimed it took place in Tombstone, AZ...but where was the true location? Also, What was the unusual object found at the Grand Canyon Caverns? Thanks, Jen, 14-Mar-2005.

    A:Sorry, I don't have any information to add to what you already know.



    Panamint Valley


    Locations: Argus Range. Modoc Mine. Panamint Valley.
    Full Size ImageNorthern Panamint Valley from Saline Valley Road.  

    Q: Do you know if William Randolph Hearst lived in a house in the Panamint Valley area. Joe. May 30, 2001.

    A: Nope. Never heard of such a thing. His father, however, was George Hearst, a mining engineer and had a financial interest in the Modoc Mine in the Argus Range.



    Other articles:
    • CA Highway 108:   at Pickel Meadow;

    Locations: Pickel Meadow.  

    Pickel Meadow

    Q: Unless my buddy and I are going bonkers we swear we took Marine cold weather in training in October 1951 at Tioga National Park, specifically Pickle Meadows. Looking back we can find no references to either. I know on the way up we passed Mono Lake, but that is about the only reference point I can find. Thanks, Semper Fidelis, Harry.

    A: Harry, The Marine Corp high altitude training base is in Pickel Meadow on Highway 108, the Sonora Pass Highway.



    Pumice Flat Campground


    Other articles:
    • California Highway 203:  Pumice Flat Campground;
    Full Size ImageBear finishing lunch.  

    Q: I'm going camping in the pumice flat campground this summer and I was wondering if you could give me any tips on the site. Hikes, lakes around, is the river that runs thought it big? I've never been up there and I'm planning a trip for a bunch of people.... (Carla, 6/2/2003) A:Carla, Pumice Flat Campground is on the upper San Joaquin River and is reached from the east side of the Sierra via Mammoth Lakes. There is lots of hiking available. Lakes would be limited to smaller glacial lakes on the sides of the valley. OTOH Devil's Postpile is interesting, and the hike to Rainbow Falls is nice. You can find this area on the AAA Guide to the Eastern Sierra map, and the Inyo National Forest map at: http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/maps/mapsale_form.html
      Q: I was thinking about staying in this campground this summer. Is it nice? Thanks for any info. (David, 1-Jul-04)

    A: Yes, I would say it's nice. It's on a river, and there is some hiking around. And, if you're tired of cooking you can go into Mammoth to a restaurant.



    Palisade, NV


    Locations: Palisade.
    Full Size ImageRailroad bridge over Humboldt River at Palisade.  

    Received call from Kent of the Eureka Sentinel requesting to use my photo of Palisade, NV.



    Other articles:
    • California Highway 14:   at Pine Tree Cyn Rd;
    • Pine Tree Canyon Road:   at CA Hwy 14;
    • Field Notes:   at Pine Tree Cyn;

    Locations: Pine Tree Canyon.
    Full Size ImageLower Pine Tree Canyon  

    Pine Tree Canyon

    Q: Sounds like you know the area. I myself have camped just below Pine Tree Canyon in the lower elevations about 9 miles north of Mojave on highway 14 time to time for the past 35 years.

    Two months ago a friend (with a CJ7 Jeep) and our sons followed the Utility or Aqueduct road in search of a new backpacking trail. Heading in a south east direction from the pre mentioned (9 mile road) and up....... a canyon road, reaching the top we overlooked a beautiful valley below filled with green, lush brush and trees, visible to the south east and east were the "FANS" and it was at this spot we were unable to locate or continue on what we originally thought to be Pine Tree Canyon. North west of us was steep, sandy hill which we thought better of climbing in our Jeep. Was this the canyon road, or is it located in the valley bellow?

    Do you know where we were located and if so, the location to Pine Tree Canyon which would lead us North West back to Hwy 14? Or any other points of interest to in this general area to "backpacking fools looking for remote and beautiful areas."

    Any info. would be appreciated. (Cliff, 8 Feb 2008)

    A: Cliff, Pine Tree Canyon is on my list of places to visit, but I've not been there yet. It's on my web site because an interesting collection of Salvia dorrii (Purple Sage) was made there. I would have assumed that one could just drive up the canyon from CA Hwy 14. Not so? Tom



    Reese River


    Other articles:
    • Nevada Highway 772:  Reese River Valley;

    Locations: Reese River Valley.
    Full Size ImageReese River, looking south.  

    Full Size Image
    Reese River, looking north.
    Q: Hello, My family stopped in Reese River in 1862 or 1864 for a four month rest from a wagon train that left Iowa. Is there any history of wagon trains being there? We might drive to Reese River and check it out if you can give me some information. Thank you, Dixie, 27-Feb-05

    A: Dixie, I would guess your family was following the Humboldt River west on the California Trail, and stopped on the Reese River near Battle Mountain, near the present day Interstate 80. The photograph on my web site was taken about 60 miles south, near where it is crossed by US Highway 50, just west of Austin, NV. That's fairly close to the Central Overland Trail, also followed by the pony express. It's possible you family followed that trail. There are many stories about wagon trains following the Humboldt River, or the "Humbug" River as some called it. See: http://overlandtrails.lib.byu.edu/



    Locations: Sevilla.  





    Renting a Car

      Q: It's always easy to rent cars at the airport, even if you don't fly in when you pick it up. Seville's airport is on the northeast side of the city, so if you're going in directly from Seville to Granada, you'll be right on the freeway. If not, it's still an easy drive to get to the south and west of Seville from the airport. And driving in Seville is a nightmare! (John 28-Jun-03)

    A: There are a lot of rental car agencies at Estacion Santa Justa. My daughter living in Sevilla prefers Europcar, I rent from Hertz because of a corporate discount. There is a fairly easy escape to the highways from Santa Justa. Even if you want to go south, drive northeast on Avenida Kansas City (or east on Calle de Luis Montoto) to the Ronda Urbana and then circle around the city until you find your outbound freeway.





    Other articles:
    • Field Notes:  19990209060;

    Locations: Toledo.  

    Q: I visited the Alcazar on my first visit to Toledo ... where else to visit? (John, 6/3/2003)

    A: In addition to the other nice things that have been said about Toledo, including Hostal de Cardenal, add the following: "Lunch at the Restaurante Maravilla, nice, friendly, home cooking, good food and very close to Plaza Zocodover. After lunch we did the Museo de Santa Cruz. Saw another El Greco, the light in this painting was obvious from a long way away. Saw a bust of Christ and Virgin Mary from the 17th century that was very impressive. The eyes seemed to glisten, and the teeth and tongue were very lifelike. Talked to the docent at Museo Santa Cruz. The docent told us that these particular pieces were from the 17th century and quite unique in their lifelike-ness."

      Q: [El Greco's] home ... contained studies for paintings of all the apostles. Are they there now? (Barbara, 24-Jun-03)

    A: In 1999 there are all there. Although, I have to say you couldn't tell who was who without the name plate screwed to each painting because they all had the same long sharp nose and pointed chin. Also so far unmentioned is the Museo de Santa Cruz, just off Plaza Zocodover, which I recommend.

    Other articles:
    • Field Notes:  19990216080;

    Locations: Tabernas.
    Full Size ImageThe desert near Tabernas.  

    Full Size Image
    The desert near Tabernas.
    Q: Came across your photos of the Tabernas desert in Spain. I'm a pro photographer looking for a wild location to shoot some cars for a brochure...just wondered what you thought of this area. We need decent surfaced quiet roads and desert like backgrounds that don't look like Europe. We are also looking at North Africa - but this is closer. (David 26-Jun-03)

    A: Well, I gotta say that four years ago I pretty much just drove thru on my way from Almeria to Granada, stopping at a market in Tabernas for lunch supplies. That said I would expect that you could easily find the spaces you're looking for.



    Other articles:
    • Utah Highway 56:   near Uvada;

    Locations: Uvada.  


    Is there a gas station in Uvada Utah? (Don, 3 Feb 2006)

    Don, I don't think there is gas in Uvada. Gas for sure in Caliente and Pioche Nevada and Cedar City Utah; likely in Panaca, Nevada and Enterprise, Utah.





    Literature Cited:
    - Trexler, Dennis T., and Wilton N. Melhorn, 1986.

    Other articles:
    • Singing and Booming Sand Dunes:  Winnemucca Dunes, Nevada;
    • U. S. Highway 95:  Winnemucca Dunes;

    Locations: Nampa. Winnemucca. Winnemucca Dunes.  

    Full Size Image
    Winnemucca Dunes along US Highway 95
    Q: Would it be possible to drive from Winnemucca, NV to Nampa, ID in one day? If not, where can we stay overnight between these two destinations? Mapquest does not show us if there is a place available. Nancy, April 6, 2004.

    A: According to the DeLorme atlas, it's 241 miles up US Hwy 95. Seems like a good ride, about 5 hours or so. Might want to stop at the Winnemucca Dunes. Otherwise I've not been up that road, so I can't advise about things to see.



    Locations: Winklers Cabin.
    Full Size ImageWinkler's Cabin.  

    Winklers Cabin

    Q: Hi,I am heading to the Mojave National Preserve in early April for my fourth annual trip. Someone mentioned to me "Winkler's Cabin," which I then Googled and found on your site. I tried looking it up in GNIS, but they don't have it. Can you give me an idea of where it is? Tone, 25-Mar-05.

    A: Tone, Sorry, I don't give out locations of Winklers Cabin or archeological sites. However, armed with my web site and a good map you should be able to find it after a bit of looking.

    Locations: Winklers Cabin.
    Full Size ImageWinkler's Cabin.  

    Q: I would like to know about the Winkler Cabin. I have been trying to find information on Julius Winkler who went to Needles from Texas. I know he was still living around Needles CA in 1924. Any info would be nice at this point (Rhea, 6/14/2003).

    A: Well, the guy who gave his name to Winkler's Cabin was known as Jim Winkler. The information about him says he lived in Needles. He died maybe 10 years ago, and was probably in his 70s. Could he have been Julius Winkler's son?

    QQ: I know that Julius had a son named James William Winkler, b-11 Jan 1912 and d-25 Jul 1986 in San Bernadino. He had a daughter named Edna May. (Rhea, 6/23/2003)

    A: The name, date of death and approximate age would fit with what little I know about the Jim Winkler of Winkler's cabin. I have no information about a daughter.



    Other articles:
    • Interstate 15:   at Zzyzx Road;

    Locations: Zzyzx.
    Full Size ImageThe Zzyzx Road exit from Interstate 15  


    Q: As many times as I have driven by Zzyzx Road on the way to Las Vegas, I have always wondered how it got its name ? Where did the name Zzyzx originate from ? I have searched and cannot find any reference to its origin. Can you please tell me or tell me of a source that would have this information. Thank you, Adriane.

    A: Zzyzx was the name that Doc Springer chose for his resort at what is now known as Soda Springs. You can find out more about him at: http://www.wordways.com/zzyzx.htm

      Q: I have just returned from travelling around North America for three months. While driving towards Death Valley I came across the name ZZYZX and wondered if it was the name of a town, village, community or what. I see from your photograph that it is the name of a road. I have tried to find the name on a map but I have not had any luck. I made a note on my journey that I had seen the sign on Highway 127. Was I right?

    As a matter of interest I came to North America for twelve weeks and drove through four Canadian provinces, 38 American states and walked into Mexico. My total mileage was just under 18,000 and I thoroughly enjoyed every mile of it. The scenery was stunningly beautiful and the people I met were kindness personified. I wish I was back there instead of in cold old England. Jack.

    A: Well ... close but no cigar. Hwy 127 is the road that goes north from Baker to Death Valley. You saw Zzyzx Road about 10 miles west of Baker on US Interstate 15. As far as the name, there is a former resort on the margin of Soda Lake, the big dry lake you could see in that area, that was at one time called Zzyzx. It is now a California State University research station, known alternatively as Zzyzx or Soda Springs Desert Research Station.

    Locations: Cima. Kelso.
    Full Size ImageA Union Pacific train waits for a green signal at Elnora along Kelso-Cima Road.  

    Q: Where I live in Kent, England there have been reports of strange humming noises … Stuart, August 17, 1999.

    A: I am aware of two sources of humming noises.

    • In the San Francisco Bay we have the Humming Toadfish, which keeps the poor occupants of houseboats in Sausalito awake in the summer. No joke! See: http://www.cnnsf.com/newsvault/output/humming.html
    • In the eastern Mojave desert a humming noise can often be heard. I believe it is from the diesel engines of the Union Pacific Railroad climbing the steep grade from Kelso to Cima. Looking at the map the distance would be 6 miles, and over the Mid Hills ridge.





      Q: Just in case anyone else is thinking of getting a copy. The Geology of Spain is a new title so has no edition number. The ISBN is 1862391270 for paperback, and ISBN 1862391106 for hardback. (Mike, 5/30/2003)

    A: Pressed to the wall, Amazon.com (USA) now says that the Geology of Spain book is back-ordered and they don't know when they will have it. So I ordered direct from the Geological Society of London. It turns out that membership in a major geological society earns one a discount almost large enough to pay for international shipping.











    Latham Shale


    Literature Cited:
    - Hazzard, John C., 1933.
    - Hazzard, John C., 1954.

    Locations: Providence Mine. Summit Spring.  

    Full Size Image
    Julie looks for trilobite fossils in the Latham Shale.
    Full Size Image
    Location of Hazzard's Locality P-11
    Q: My name is Perry and I have a keen interest in trilobite hunting. My wife and I try to get out several times a year to collect trilobites in California and Nevada. Nevertheless, I came across your web site and its information pertaining to the Latham shale. We have hunted in the Marble Mountains but never in the Providence Mountains.

    We were wondering if you would be so kind as to give us some information on you location for the Latham shale. Is it north or south of the summit spring? Is it accessible via Globe canyon road? Any info would be more than appreciated. (Perry, 20 Feb 2006)

    A: Perry, I presume you're interested in the site shown here: http://www.schweich.com/imagehtml/1621-17.html

    It's south of Summit Spring as shown in the attached map. This is locality P-11 from Hazzard, John C. 1954. Rocks and structure of the northern Providence Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. pp. 27-35 in Jahns, R. H., ed., 1954. Geology of Southern California. Bulletin 170.

    Not sure how the roads are these days. In 1995 my Scout could not quite get up to the divide just north of Summit Spring. So we had to walk about a mile.



    Bonanza King Formation


    Other articles:
    • CA Hwy 178:  Resting Spring Range;   in Chicago Valley;  

    Q: I live in Pahrump, NV and as I pass Chicago Valley, on my way to Shoshone, CA. I come up that mountain on the right, and I am wondering what the name of that mountain is and where I can get information about it? I am a rock hound and do a lot of study on different rocks, mountains, etc. I hope you can help me with this matter as I've looked in our library and the books about Shoshone seem to be missing. Mae. 18 Jun 2001.

    Locations: Resting Spring Range.  

    A: Mae, As you are going south through Chicago Valley on your way to Shoshone, the mountain range on your right (west) is the Resting Spring Range. It is named for Resting Spring which is at the south end of the range, near Tecopa. The only named peak in the Range seems to be Shadow Mountain, at the north end of the range.
      QQ: Mae wrote: Tom,Thank you for this information. I'll try to find out more as I am interested in learning what the black and brown streaks are. Thanks again, Mae.

    Other articles:
    • Eastern Mojave Geology:  Bonanza King Fm;  

    AA: That's a little different question. You are probably seeing the Cambrian age (550 million years ago) Bonanza King Formation. It is a deep water marine limestone. The way to be sure is to stop at the Shoshone Museum. Bennie Troxel, a truly world-famous geologist for his work on the rocks of the southern Death Valley region, lives in Shoshone and he is setting up an exhibit of all the rocks of the region.

    QQQ: Mae wrote: Tom, Thanks, this sounds very interesting and I'll be sure to go to Shoshone real soon to see Mr. Troxel. I tried several times to get that e-mail you sent before but they would not let me see the map or any information. I'll go to the library with this information from you and see what I come up with. Thanks again, Mae.

      Q: I was recently going over a geology book in which photos were shown of mountains referred to as 'roof pendents.' Unfortunatey, the book in question provided no information or definition of what they are. Any ideas/input? Ray, April 6, 1999

    A: "Large bodies of granitic magma intruded older rocks in the Sierra Nevada in the Mesozoic Era. Before being largely removed by erosion, a roof of Paleozoic rocks lay over the granitic rocks. Later deep erosion has left many fragmented sections and small bodies as roof pendants in the granite," pg 110, in Oakeshott, Gordon E. 1971. California's Changing Landscapes. McGraw-Hill. Accompanied by photograph on pg. 111 of Split Mountain, about 25 miles south of Bishop, Inyo Cty, California. There are similar photographs and discussion in Shelton, John S. 1966. Geology Illustrated. W. H. Freeman and Company.




      Q: I am looking for some reference material on dry lake beds in the sw USA.

    A: What is appropriate certainly depends on what level of information you are looking for (technical, laymans, etc.). A couple of possibilities are the following:

    Don Grayson has a nice chapter on the pluvial lakes of the US Southwest in his book: Grayson, D.K., 1993, The Desert's Past: A Natural Prehistory of the Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 356pp. It is a well written account of the subject for an informed layman or professional interested in an overview of the subject. He provides extensive notes with references in case you want something more technical.

    Some of his information is from the somewhat more technical: Benson, L. and Thompson, R.S., The physical record of lakes in the Great Basin, IN (W.F. Ruddiman and H.E. Wright, Jr., eds.) North America and Adjacent Oceans During the Last Deglaciation, The Geology of North America, Volume K-3. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America. p. 241-260.

    Another interesting source of info is Anthony D. Feig 1998 thesis called Paleolimnology and Paleoecology of the Coal Valley Region, Lincoln County, Nevada. It is availableonline at http://www.law.unlv.edu/unlv/Colleges/Sciences/Geoscience/QAP/cvthesis.html

    Rick Toomey, Illinois State Museum, toomey@museum.state.il.us

    Other articles:
    • California Highway 127:  12200;
    • Field Notes:  May 24, 2004;
    Full Size ImageIs this a landslide?  

    Q: I will be visiting the D.V.N.P. in April with my grandchildren and was quite interested in the photo of the southeastern tip of the Funeral Mountains taken on May 24, 2004. I'm hoping I pass this spot when we leave Beatty, NV and travel to San Diego. I will be taking 373 to 127 and then over to San Diego. Can you tell me if we will be anywhere close? And also, do you know how far it is from the road to the mountain, because unlike the photographer of that picture, I would like to hike over there if it's not too far for my grandchildren (or me). Vicki, 3/4/2007

    P.S. I forgot the most important question of all - - is that a landslide?

    A: Well … I haven't visited there yet … and no one has written me to say. But, yes, you'll go right by it. It's about 4 miles WNW from Death Valley Junction.

    QQ: I don't know if you remember me -- Vicki -- the one who inquired about the picture of the landslide (?). Well, I did see it, only because I pulled over at exactly the right spot to let my dog take a leak, and I happened to look up and there it was. I was looking constantly while driving, but of course I didn't know that it's not that easy to spot if you are going in the direction I was (it's real easy to spot coming from the other direction). So it was just a lucky coincidence. I did not have time to walk over, and in any case, it may have been private property. But, to get to the point, in person, it didn't look like a landslide at all. I really can't explain it, you'll have to go see it yourself. I thought it looked more like something an earthquake had caused. Vicki

    AA: Thanks for the follow up. As it turns out, I plan to take my Dad out to Ash Meadows. Maybe we'll walk over and take a look.

    Literature Cited:
    - Armato, Ivan., 1991..
    - Criswell, D. R., R. E. Hutton, J. McBryde, and R. W. Shorthill, 1974.
    - Criswell, David R., John F. Lindsay, and David L. Reasoner, 1973.
    - Criswell, D. R., J. F. Lindsay, and D. L. Reasoner, 1975.
    - Higgins, Charles G., 1997..
    - Lindsay, J. F., D. R. Criswell, T. L. Criswell, and B. S. Criswell, 1976.
    - Trexler, Dennis T., and Wilton N. Melhorn, 1986.

    Other articles:
    • Eastern Mojave Geology:  Singing and Booming Sand Dunes;
    • Singing and Booming Sand Dunes:  Title Page;
    • U. S. Highway 50:  Sand Mountain;

    Locations: Big Dune. Crescent Dunes. Eureka Sand Dunes. Kelso Dunes. Sand Mountain.  

    Full Size Image
    Matt near the top of the Kelso Dunes.
    Q: Has anybody ever heard about singing sands, or musical sands? Antonio, June 4, 1999.

    A: There are a number of dune fields in various parts of the world that emit sound when disturbed. Sounds produced by desert dunes have been variously described as roaring, squeaking, singing, and musical. The production of sand in desert dunes is not as common as the squeaking of beach sands. Shearing between adjacent layers of moving sand appears to cause the sounds; although, the cause is by no means settled. Lindsay et al. (1976) reported that only 27 areas in the world were known to exhibit the booming sound phenomenon. Criswell et al. (1975) reported their extensive investigation of sound production at Sand Mountain, Nevada. Trexler and Melhorn (1986) extended Lindsay's list by several additional sites in the southwestern United States. Overall, they reported booming or singing at Big Dune, Crescent Dunes, and Sand Mountain in Nevada, as well as the Eureka Dunes and Kelso Dunes in California.

    Q: I read with great interest your posting about Singing Sand Dunes. Is there anywhere I might be able to obtain a recording? (Leslie, 6/13/2003)

    A: Go to http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~nori/booming_sand.html



    Economic Geology

      Q: When I worked at Molycorp, Mt. Pass I had an article about the river of gold which was supposedly inside the mountains across I-15 from the mine. I have misplaced the article, and wonder if you know of this legend of the river of gold. Supposedly an old prospector named Earl Dorr discovered the entrance way back when, and followed it into the mountain and discovered an underground river which rose and fell with the lunar tides, and deposited a black sand that was rich in gold. In order to protect his discovery he was said to have dynamited the entrance so that no one else would be able to find it. Go to www.rcbbs.com/docs/dulce.txt see the 4th paragraph. Bill, October 7, 1999.

    A: Funny you should ask. I sat through a presentation titled "The Mojave's legendary Underground River of Gold: facts, fiction and speculation" by Ralph E. Lewis, Vice President, Crystal Cave Mining Co., P.O. Box 135, Mt. Pass, CA 92366, email: cocoweep@aol.com. The entrance to the underground river was supposedly under Cocoweep Peak, which is south of Mountain Pass. I dunno, seemed like mostly fiction and speculation to me.



    Old Mining Stuff




    Other articles:
    • Wildrose Canyon Road:  Charcoal Kilns;
    • Field Notes:  1 Jun 2005;  5-Jun-09 near Silver King Pass;
    • Bristol Cletty Road:   near Bristol Well;
    • U. S. Highway 395:   near Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns;
    • Utah Highway 21:   at Frisco Mine.;

    Locations: Bristol Well. Cottonwood Charcoal Kilns. Frisco. Ward Charcoal Ovens State Park.
    Full Size ImageRemains of adobe charcoal kilns.  

    Bee Hive Charcoal Ovens

    Full Size Image
    Charcoal kiln at Bristol Well, Nevada
    Full Size Image
    Bee Hive ovens at the Frisco Mine, Utah.
    Q: Hi Tom, I was at this site once with a friend from Milford Utah. Near Frisco Peak. Who built these Bee Hives? What was their main purpose? Thanks in advance for your help. Rich. January 29, 2010.

    A: The Bee Hives were Charcoal kilns that were used to make charcoal from wood. The charcoal was used to smelt the ore from the mines. They are fairly common in the southwest. At left are links to bee hive ovens on my web site. You might also want to search for "bee hive charcoal ovens"








    London Plane Tree (Plantanus x acerifolia)


    Full Size ImageGibbons Drive at Santa Clara.
    Full Size ImageLondon Plane-Tree at Gibbons, Cambridge, and Southwood, June 1, 2003  
    Q: Hi. I reside in Victoria, British Columbia Canada. We've got three of these trees at the main entrance to our Condo complex, and my concern is that of the root structure. These trees are about 10 feet apart in a oval shaped driveway, and we are concerned that the roots may destroy our paved driveway. Could you tell me if there root system is that extensive. The trees are now approximately 30 feet tall and on our property for about 6 years. They make for great shade trees, so we're wondering if prunning or total removal is necessary? Thank you if you can inform me with any information (Francis 6/9/2003).

    A: Well ... here in Alameda the trees have lifted the sidewalks, overturned the curbs, and even buckled the asphault five to six feet out in the street. Alameda has tried trimming the roots, re-pouring the sidewalks, removing the curbs, replacing concrete sidewalks with free-set brick, and replacing the concrete sidewalk with asphault. Nothing works permanently and the street, curbs, and sidewalks require frequent maintenance. A few years ago the city maintenance department floated the idea of replacing the trees with a less disruptive species. The public reaction was pretty unanimous: the trees are very beautiful, and add significantly to the character of the neighborhood, therefore keep the trees, and deal with the maintenance.




      Q: What time of year is best for photographing wildflowers? Larry, December 2, 1999.

    A: Wildflowers are hit and miss depending upon rain and sun. I started going there at Easter, then moved to Memorial Day and think next year I'll hit the middle of June. But if I only had one chance, I'd pick the third week of May.



    Books About Desert Plants


    Literature Cited:
    - Hickman, James C. (Ed.), 1993.
    - Knute, Adrienne, 1991.  

    Q: Can you recommend books or other information about the plants of the eastern Mojave Desert?

    A: About books, the most topical to the Eastern Mojave is, Plants of the East Mojave by Adrienne Knute, Amazon.com Price: $12.95, Paperback (November 1991) Wide Horizons Pr; ISBN: 0938109081 Adrienne Knute lives at the Quail Rock Ranch, close to Pinto Mountain.

    Another is, California Desert Wildflowers, Philip A. Munz, $11.95. University of California Press; ISBN: 0520008995

    And then, when you really intend to get serious about this, the standard for California is, The Jepson Manual : Higher Plants of James C. Hickman(Editor): $75.00.

    Books are good, but the best way to become familiar with natural history (geology, botany, zoology, etc.) is the weekend field trip or class. Cal State San Bernadino offers the classes at Zzyzx, and there should be some pretty good things available at Anza Borrego State Park. I've met quite a few people who are active in the natural history association there. You might also check with San Diego State or a local community college, not to mention the local chapter of the California Native Plant Society.



    Revegetation Resources

      Q: I am searching for a plant supplier for a revegetation project in Coachella Valley, Riverside Co., CA. I have been unsuccessful finding the following material:
    • Iodine bush, Allenrolfea occidentalis, 12,000 liners
    • Alkali goldenbush, Isocoma acradenia, 6,000 liners
    • Arrowweed, Pluchea sericea, 18,000 liners
    • Sea-blite, suaeda moquinii, 6,000 liners
    Do you have any suggestions or contacts? Tom, October 19, 1999.

    A: Not a clue ... You might try posting the question on ECOLOG-L, that's a pretty active list server.




      Q: I was wondering if you know the nutrition value in Crops like carrots, lettuce, mainly like every day foods. If possible I Like to know things like fat, carbs, protien. So do you think you could Tell me please. On every vegtable you could . That we raise in Califronia. Erik, October 12, 1999.

    A: No, sorry, I don't have this information.



    Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia)

      Q: The problem with toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia) is that they often, suddenly, simply die. (Louise, 5/30/2003)

    A:Louise, I can't tell you how happy I am to see you write that. I've got one dying in my yard now (Alameda). It's about 10 years old, about 20 feet high and something similar across, and it's hiding the monstrous remodel job of the house behind us. But, I think it's time to start cutting it down.

    QQ: Tom, Keep reminding yourself, again and again, "It is not my fault!" (Louise, 5/31/2003)



    Literature Cited:
    - Hickman, James C. (Ed.), 1993.
    - McMinn, Howard E., 1939.
    - Welsh, Stanley L., et al., 1987.  


    Full Size Image
    Brickellia sp. From southwestern Utah.
    Q: I wonder if you might be able to help me identify a certain plant. While hiking in extreme south-western Utah, near the towns of Ivins and St. George, (a northern extension of the Mojave, I believe) I came across this plant. (photo attached) What struck me immediately, before I even saw it was a very strong pine/spruce/rosemary-like fragrance all around. The plant itself was of a typical "brushy" desert sort and grew in the crevices of a large "slick-rock" sandstone formation. I am fairly familiar with the plants that occur to the east, centered in the Four-corners region but I have not spent much time in this area and have had no luck finding field guides specific to Mojave plants. The plant is remarkable for it’s strong and very pleasant fragrance and I would very much like to identify it. Any help you could give would be greatly appreciated. If the attached photo is not adequate I could re-scan the plant parts and send a better one. Craig, January 9, 2000.

    A: Well, it's certainly a Composite, which puts it way outside my area of expertise. However, it looks a lot like a Brickellia. The Utah Flora lists a B. atractyloides that seems to fit. Neither the Jepson Manual of California nor the Utah Flora note a pungent odor to the species. However, I have a copy of McMinn's California Shrubs that lists a "Pungent Brickellbush" Brickellia arguta that has a synonym of B. atractyloides var. arguta. So maybe Brickellia atractyloides is a good guess. The way to find out for sure is to take your specimen to the herbarium at a local university and ask them.

    Field guides for the desert are a problem. However, the Jepson Herbarium at UCBerkeley is working on the Jepson Desert Manual, which I believe is scheduled for publication this year.

    Good luck! Let me know if you get another identification.



    Coleogyne ramosissima -- Blackbrush


    Other articles:
    • Blackbrush:  410001;  

    Q: I found your page on blackbrush and I was wondering if you could help me. Do you have any information on the maximum age of blackbrush? I am interested in trying to determine the likely maximum age of blackbrush in the area of Arches National Park, Moab, Utah and it is a very difficult species to get a handle on. It is my understanding that there is some work that has been done analyzing repeat photography) that has determined the mortality rate for blackbrush in the last 100 years to have been about 1%. There are a few plants in Arches that have fairly massive "trunks" (probably more than 15 cm in diameter but I still need to make actual measurements) that I suspect are quite old. I was wondering If you knew of any sources that might help me determine the likely maximum age? (Lee, 1-Jul-04)

    A: I'm not aware of any studies that would indicate the maximum age of blackbrush, although it has been a couple of years since I did an extensive literature search on the species. I would be skeptical of most anything published anyway, given the amount of variation my own puny little studies are showning. If you find something, I would be interested.



    Larrea -- Creosote Bush


    Full Size ImageLarrea tridentata "Creosote Bush"
    Full Size ImageLarrea tridentata "Creosote Bush"  
    Q: I am looking for information on a Mojave Desert plant, and I saw your website, so I hope you do not mind that I am writing to you to inquire. A few years ago I saw a television show about the Mojave Desert. In the show they featured a plant that grows in an ever-expanding circle such that the roots keep branching outward and upward from within the sand, and apparently this plant lives for ten thousand years. I wanted to know whether you know what plant this might be, and where I could find more information. I could not identify this plant in your website, so perhaps I just did not read carefully enough, or perhaps this plant grows in a different region of the Mojave. If you have time to help me in my curiousity, I would greatly appreciate your help in directing me to more information. Michael, October 29, 1999.

    A: You're probably thinking of Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata). I can't think of any references right off, but you could go to the ASU biosciences library and ask the librarian to help you with a BIOSIS search for the species. You should find at least one reference to clonal rings in Lucerne Valley, California, and maybe other references as well. While Creosote Bush probably forms clonal rings as described in the television show, I'm not sure how unique that is. Many plants spread by roots, or rhizomes (underground stems). In my back yard there are Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata), California Rose (Rosa californica), Olallie berries (Rubus sp.), and probably several others that spread in similar fashions to Creosote Bush. Many other plants spread by layering from above-ground stems. The point is that many plants could possibly be found to have thousands of years of vegetative reproduction in their history. So, I'm not sure how unique Creosote Bush is. Perhaps it is simply a matter that the rings of Creosote Bush have made the vegetative reproduction more visually dramatic, and the desert environment has preserved the old wood so it could be dated.

    Literature Cited:
    - Balls, Edward K., 1962.
    Full Size ImageLarrea tridentata "Creosote Bush"
    Full Size ImageLarrea tridentata "Creosote Bush"  

    Q: I am doing some research for my brother, who asked me to see if I could glean any information on Chaparral brush. My brother is in the advanced stages of an asbestos related cancer and has heard some rumors about chaparral having some curative qualities. I have been unable to locate any information on the net. It is somewhat ironic because we grew up in the foothills around Palomar Mountain, California, surrounded by chaparall and sage brush. I am sorry to bother you with this information, but if you could give me some site links, sources to consider, or even the proper scientific name I would be most appreciative. David, January 2, 2000.

    A: I'm sorry to hear about your brother. It seems to me that Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) has also been called "chaparral" as well as "la Gobernadora" for its healing qualities. I think I read that in Edward Ball's "Native Uses of California Plants." I checked CalFlora and it lists 23 plants whose common names begin with chaparral, but lists none simply as chaparral. This is the problem with common names; they aren't defined rigourously and thus could refer to several different plants. In your research you may want to search for "ethnobotany" and remember that many of the servers, such as the USDA Plants data base and many of the USGS servers are shut down for Y2K.

      Q: Hi! I'm an intern from Germany with the USDA Forest Service at the Rio Grande National Forest in Del Norte, Colorado. I had a discussion with my supervisor about the oldest living thing. He thinks it is the root system of an Aspen Tree grove. I think it is a Creosote Bush. Who's right? Lars, 11 Jul 2001

    A: I dunno. It depends upon what you mean by oldest living thing. Single celled organisms that reproduce asexually by cell division are probably older than any creosote bush ring or aspen grove. I also read someone's opinion that some northern forest fungus was likely the oldest and LARGEST single organism. Whatever the answer is, it certainly makes for lively discussion over beer.

    AA: Dear Tom, Thank you for your answer. The idea with the beer discussion is great as my supervisor is a real "home-brew-pro"!



    Lewisia cotyledon


    Full Size ImageLewisia cotyledon in my garden in Alameda.  
    Q: I saw your gorgeous pic of the Lewisia cotyledon. I just got one and wonder, do they all (assuming they don't get crown rot) get that big? Best, Kate. 30-May-2001

    Ps How did you break up the plant? Did you just split the central whorl?

    A:Kate, If they're happy they do. They seem to like plenty of water, on the roots not the leaves, and some shade through the day. I've had mine in 3 or 4 places until I hit the right spot. I grow them in straight compost in the strawberry pot. The Lewisia(s) in the strawberry pot were originally one plant. It got root rot. So I just cut it up with a knife, trimming all the rot away, letting the cut portion sit in the sun for a day, dusting with Roottone, and then just plugging them into the ground.

    BTW, I do find them very senstitive to some disease either spread or encouraged by spittle bugs. For that reason, in spittle bug season, I examine all the plants and carefully remove the spittle bugs with a pair of forceps. Also, they also produce quite a bit of seed that germinates easily, but the seedlings grow very slowly.

    Full Size ImageCliff Maids (Lewisia cotyledon) happily inhabiting a Strawberry pot.  
    Q: Found your website through 'Google.com'. I am looking for a plant/flower called Lewisia cotyledon. I saw this flower at the Cincinnati Flower Show April 26, 2001 and have been trying to locate it. Very beautiful. Can it survive in the Louisville, KY winters. Is it started by cuttings, seeds, etc.? Where can I purchase this? Also, looking for 'Satin Godetia, i.e. c. amonea? Please respond. Thanks-- Diane, 31 May 2001.

    A: Hi Diane, This plant is fairly common at plant sales in northern California. You might want to try some northern California Nurseries, to see if they can mail them to you. You might also try subscribing to the CA-NATIVES list server and post your request there.



    Salsola -- Tumbleweeds

      Q: What is the name of these plants like balls that we can see in the western films, running with the air, without roots. Thank you for your answer. Giomar Ordoñez. 03-August- 2000.

    A: We call them "Tumble Weeds" -- Salsola tragus, in the Chenopodiaceae. Another common name for this plant is “Russian Thistle.”




      Q: Hi, I was just wondering if Yucca Baccatas grow trunks and which hardiness zones they can live in? Thanks. 22 August 2001

    A: Yucca baccata does not grow a trunk. The Jepson manual suggests Sunset zones 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14-16, 18-21, 22, 23. HTH.

    Full Size ImageVery large Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) in Joshua Tree National Monument.  
    Q: Reference to photo of Joshua Tree in National Park (1998). I would like to add this growth habit type (full-round head/mainly > green) to other Yucca species I have started here in a mild area. Can you refer me to someone who might help? Would try cuttings or plant. Address and/or phone # preferred. E-Mail OK. Thank you for your help. (Dennis, 5/30/2003)

    A: I guess I'm not entirely sure what you are asking of me. Do you want to grow a Joshua tree of that shape? Generally, I think Joshua trees are grown from seed. That particular Joshua tree in Joshua Tree National Park is well-known and often photographed because of its shape. If I had to guess, it's probably such a fine specimen because of its location next to a road that concentrates water from rainfall. The "edge effect" along roads in the desert is well known.

    Full Size ImageMohave Yucca (Yucca schidigera) in lower Wild Horse Canyon.
    Full Size ImageBlue Yucca (Yucca baccata) in lower Wild Horse Canyon.
    Full Size ImageYucca brevifolia  
    Q: Maybe YUCCAn help me? I still cannot distinguish between the Mojave Yucca (Yucca schidigera) and Yucca baccata. I travel the I-15 all the time and can't tell the difference, even when hiking amongst them. All the literature I've read doesn't seem to offer any tips either, especially younger plants. I'd appreciate any tips you can offer. Bob, December 28, 1999.

    A: The Mohave Yucca (Yucca schidigera) has a trunk, and the leaves are yellowish green. The Blue Yucca (Yucca baccata) almost never has a trunk and has bluish-green leaves. You can almost always use the "trunk" or "no trunk" character to distinguish the two species, resorting to leaf color only in juvenile plants. The Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) has a trunk and short leaves with toothed margins. Check it out next time you're out on I-15.

      Q: I'm trying to find documentation of the origin of the common name "Joshua Tree" for Yucca brevifolia as representing the Biblical Joshua signalling the Promised Land to mormon settlers of southwest Utah and the eastern Mojave Desert. I'm also looking for interesting biological features (I know the pollination story.) and cultural uses (in comparison with other Yuccas). Is it dependent on mycchorizal fungi, like so many desert plants? Bill, April 30, 1999

    A: Both J.W. Cornett (1991. "The Joshua Tree" Palm Springs Desert Museum Natural Science Publication 1-91, p. 1-4) and W. Bronaugh (1993. "The Biggest Joshua Tree" American Forests. May/June, p. 36) attribute the name to Mormon pioneers travelling across the Mojave Desert from Salt Lake City, probably to San Bernardino.

    Native peoples used compounds derived from several species of yuccas for a variety of purposes. Among these include the flowers as food, as well as soaps and medicines made from the leaves, stems, and roots.

    Surprisingly little is known about the biology of yuccas beyond the pollination story. I am not aware of any studies that have shown an interaction with myccorhizal fungi; based on the current literature on diversity of soil fungi I would not be surprised to find out that such interactions occur. Research in my laboratory and with colleagues at other institutions (Travis Huxman and Stan Smith at UNLV, and Erik Hamerlynck at Rutgers) is investigating various aspects of yucca biology, such as how global change could influence the distribution and abundance of different yucca species in the future. Michael Loik, Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064















    Other articles:
    • Nevada Highway 278:  10000;
    • Nevada State Route 306:  00000;
    Full Size ImageAntelope crosses the road.  

    Q: Since you appear to travel a lot around Nevada I was wondering if you could tell me if you have seen deer on highway 306 between Beowawe and Cortez or on highway 278 between carlin and eureka?

    A: Well, I wasn't really looking for deer. The closest I've seen was the antelope between Elko and Eureka.








    Cedar Canyon? Mesa? Butte? Mountain? Gulch? Chips?

    Q: I have heard that there are a lot of interestig Anasazi ruins in the Cedar Canyon area. I am going to be in that area the last week of May. Could you suggest any interesting view points close to roads where I might observe some ruins in Cedar canyon. Terry, 18 May 2001.

    A: Terry, I don't think there are any Anasazi ruins in the Cedar Canyon of Mojave National Preserve. Possibly the ruins you've heard of are in another Cedar Canyon. There are lots of them.

    QQ: There is a book coming out in June 2001 that documents by GPS coordinates dozens of ruins in the Cedar Canyon area that are mostly known by archeologists. There is a dialog going on between many archeologists complaining about how these ruins will now be know and the potenial problems.

    AA: Perhaps the area covered by the book is the Cedar Mesa / Grand Gulch area of Utah.

      Q: I'm an avid amateur Archaeologist and Editor of Militaria International magazine. I reside in Las Vegas and have since l990. I am interested primarily in military crassh sites in the western states but consider all sites to be of interest. I was wondering if, in your vast travels that you happened onto any. I notice you are good at using GPS and UTM for locations and would appreciate those included with any directions that you might have to sites. I have visited over 500 sites in the Western States, so far, and hope to achieve my goal of 1,000 in my lifetime. When I happen onto an interesting site, I write an article on it which since I'm Editor of the magazine, gets published. Otherwise I am semi-retired and love to get out and roam the desert. Any help you could provide will be appreciated and acknowledged. Robb, 25-Mar-05

    A: Robb, I don't think I've come across any aircraft crash sites recently, but I'll keep you in mind if I do.

    QQ: Hello back Tom, How about some old ones that you've found? In fact the older the better.

      Q: I was told in a discussion (debating creationistic topics), that the Calico site has to be 200 000 years old. I was baffled, just couldn´t believe it. I told my opponent, that no site in the Americas was known (to my knowledge) that is nearly so old. He gave me Budinger, Jr., F. E.: The Calico early man site. California Geology 66(4), 75-82 for references. Posted to sci.geo.geology, September 24, 1999.

    A: See also: Budinger Jr, Fred E. Artifacts from Lower Member B of the Manix type section, central Mojave Desert (Abstract). San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly 46(2) 1999, in which discusses "Modified lithic specimens, interpreted here as artifactual, have been recovered more than 5 m below the 185,000 +/- 15,000 yr bp Long Canyon Tephra (volcanic ash) in the Manix Type section of the central Mojave Desert." My take is that the date establishing a lower limit on the age of the specimens is reasonable. You just have to be willing to accept that the specimens were shaped by prehistoric humans, and not some other process.

    Other articles:
    • Wild Horse Canyon Road:   at arch. site;
    Full Size ImageArcheological site in lower Wild Horse Canyon.  

    Q: I am a dedicated rock art researcher and was wondering if the "Hollowed out" rock art site is a relatively easy place to find and photograph? I have found the major roads on the map, including the campground. Larry, December 2, 1999.

    A: The hollowed out rock site shouldn't be too hard to find. It's officially designated SBr-291 so if you have access to archeological resources you can get exact location. Some people call it "Womb Rock" or "Re-Birth Rock." The ranger at Hole-in-the-Wall may tell you where it is. Failing that, some careful sleuthing from my description of Wild Horse Canyon Road and the photographs, should help you find it in an hour or so. When you do find it, be sure to examine all the surrounding rocks carefully. There are a lot of surprises at this location.

    Full Size ImagePetroglyphs inside the hollowed-out boulder.
    Full Size ImagePictograph at archeological site in Wild Horse Canyon.  
    Q: I have actually toured some of the roads with your info printed out and in hand to learn more about the plants of the area. I just got back from there--walking around like a maniac in the 110 F heat looking and climbing all over the mesa slopes looking for the pictographs of the Wild Horse Canyon area. I had enquired at the Ranger offices in Baker et al., to no avail--"the big secret" (understandably so)--anyway now I realise that I just missed them. Hope to catch them on the next time around. Adrian, August 24, 1999

    A: Thank you for your very kind note about my web site. I really enjoy putting up the road logs, and often wondered if anyone else used them. Keep looking, you'll find the pictographs.








    Books To Read

    The following lists of books to read about Spain have been gleaned from the discussions on the Travel-Spain discussion list




      Lazarillo de Tormes and the Swindler: Two Spanish Picaresque Novels, translated & edited by Michael Alpert. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Don Quijote, by Miguel Cervantes. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      El Camino (Path, in English), by Miguel Delibes. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      The Undefeated (short story), by Ernest Hemingway. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Death in the Afternoon, by Ernest Hemingway (Hemingway bashers and some ultra-purists of bullfighting would argue with this choice, but nothing I've read out there in Spanish or English captures the essence and beauty of bullfighting like Hemingway did in this book -- if he didn't hit it right on, this is "even better than the real thing"). (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      anything by Federico Garcia Lorca. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      anything by Antonio Machado. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      The Seville Communion, by Arturo Perez Reverte. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      The Fencing Master, by Arturo Perez Reverte. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Dona Perfecta, by Benito Perez Galdos. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      The Carlos Tejada Alonso y Leon Investigation series by Rebecca Pawel.

    Literature Cited:
    - Pawel, Rebecca, 2003.  

    Death of a Nationalist.

    Madrid 1938. Carlos Tejada Alonso y Leon is a Sergeant in the Guardia Civil, a rank rare for a man not yet thirty, but Tejada is an unusual recruit. The bitter civil war between the Nationalists and the Republicans has interrupted his legal studies in Salamanca. Second son of a conservative Southern family of landowners, he is an enthusiast for the Catholic Franquista cause, a dedicated, and now triumphant, Nationalist. This war has drawn international attention. In a dress rehearsal for World War II, fascists support the Nationalists, while Communists have come to the aid of the Republicans. Atrocities have devastated both sides. It is at this moment, when the Republicans have surrendered, and the Guardia Civil has begun to impose order in the ruins of Madrid, that Tejada finds the body of his best friend, a hero of the siege of Toledo, shot to death on a street named Amor de Dios. Naturally, a Red is suspected. And it is easy for Tejada to assume that the woman wearing a red scarf, caught kneeling over the body, is the killer. But when his doubts are aroused, he cannot help seeking justice.

    Literature Cited:
    - Pawel, Rebecca, 2005.  

    Law of Return.

    Carlos Tejada, newly promoted to the rank of lieutenant in the Guardia Civil, has been transferred to Salamanca, the city where he studied before the Civil War. There he finds Elena Fernandez who, having lost her job because of her political sympathies, has returned home to Salamanca where she and Lieutenant Tejada had first been romantically.

    Literature Cited:
    - Pawel, Rebecca, 2005.  

    The Watcher in the Pine.

    In 1940, Carlos Tejada arrives for his first independent command at a mountain village in Spain. But he soon discovers that the officer he is replacing was shot to death and that the village is a center of smuggling and guerrilla activity. Even worse, a new outbreak of the Civil War may be about to take place with his post as its epicenter.

    Literature Cited:
    - Pawel, Rebecca, 2007.  

    The Summer Snow.

    When an aristocratic lady of Granada, Spain, is found dead in 1945, the local police can't believe that she really may have been murdered. Lieutenant Carlos Tejada Alonso y Leon is assigned because the rich woman is his grand aunt Rosalia, and one of the chief suspects is his father. The family expects Tejada to exonerate its members, but Tejada is a man who puts duty first.




      The Spanish Cockpit, by Franz Borkenau (focus on the Spanish Civil War, probably the defining moment of Spain's last century -- people still measure progress, ideology and politics with 30s-era scales). (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      South From Granada, by Gerald Brennan. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)

    Literature Cited:
    - Carver, Norman F., Jr., 1981.  

    Carver, Norman F., Jr. 1981. Iberian Villages: Portugal and Spain. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Documan Press, Ltd., 1981. Nice large photographs, but spare text and few diagrams left me wanting much more. I'm glad I could find a used copy on the Internet, though.
      Barcelona, by Robert Hughes (so accurate it made Hughes a hiss and a byword in Barcelona for about a decade, then got him invited to be master of ceremonies at the city's annual festival a few years back). (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      "Tales of the Alhambra" by Washington Irving. On the romantic end of the scale, Irving's memoir and collection of legends made my next trip to Granada that much more interesting.
      Basque History of the World, by Mark Kurlansky. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Maria Rosa Menocal: "The Ornament of the World, How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain". About Al-Andalus and what it represented in the history of Spain and of the civilised world.
      Maria Risa Menocal: "The literature of Al-Andalus", was edited by Menocal with Raymond P. Scheindlin and Michael Sells explores the culture of Islamic Iberia, and post-Christian conquest, when Arabic was still used. The book also discusses Arabic influences in philosophy, music and architecture. It is a treasure, but also terribly expensive, listed at about EUR260. I was able to get it for a few hours in the Toronto Reference Library, but not to take it home. I think I will wait for a while, until it appears on the used books web sites. If one loves Spain and is intrigued and attracted by its complex culture, this is an absolutely must have book, but I hesitated to post it so far because of its cost.
      Michener's Iberia. I'm so thrilled. I've had my eye out for it, as I've seen it mentioned on the group several times. > I was rooting in a really junky charity store when I made my discovery. It has to be worth the five cents I paid. That's about right. I'm not a big fan of Michener's, and I found Iberia to be tedious, superficial and overromantic, particularly regarding the narrator's role in all the places he visits.
      H.V. Morton: "A Stranger in Spain". A "dated" travel book published in 1955 but still very actual because Morton writes about timeless things, in an easy style, deep documentation, off the travelled path details and with a great love for the country and for travel.
      Homage to Catalonia, by George Orwell(focus on the Spanish Civil War, probably the defining moment of Spain's last century -- people still measure progress, ideology and politics with 30s-era scales). (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Stewart, Chris. 2002. A Parrot in the Pepper Tree. London: Sort Of Books, 2002.
      Stewart, Chris. 2001. Driving Over Lemons. London: Vintage Books, 2001. ISBN: 0375709150
      Vincent, Mary, and R. A. Stradling. 1994. Cultural Atlas of Spain and Portugal. New York: Facts on File, 1994.
      The Passionate War, by Peter Wyden(focus on the Spanish Civil War, probably the defining moment of Spain's last century -- people still measure progress, ideology and politics with 30s-era scales). (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)



    Geography, Field Guides, etc.


    Literature Cited:
    - Anonymous, n.d..  

    Anonymous. n.d.. Sierra Nevada National Park: Alpujarras, Marquesado del Zenete. Granada, Spain: Editorial Penibetica.. ISBN: 84-931217-8-9.

    Literature Cited:
    - Gibbons, W. & M. T. Moreno., 2002.  

    Gibbons, W. & M. T. Moreno. 2002. The Geology of Spain. London: Geological Society, 2002. ISBN: 1-86239-127-0. This is no "Roadside Geology of Spain." This 648-page compendium of papers, arranged by geologic age, is perfect for those who like their geology raw.

    Literature Cited:
    - Grove, A. T., and Oliver Rackham., 2001.  

    Grove, A. T., and Oliver Rackham. 2001. The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.

    Literature Cited:
    - Pascual, Jose Pascual Real., n.d..  

    Pascual, Jose Pascual Real. n.d.. La Alpujarra. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Escudo de Oro S.A. ISBN: 84-378-1614-9.



    Rocks, Geology, Tectonics, etc.


    Literature Cited:
    - Calvert, Alexandet, et al., 2000.  

    Calvert, Alexander, et al. 2000. Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Beneath the Alboran Region of the Western Mediterranean: Constraints from Travel Time Tomography. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105: 10871-10898. http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu/people/calvert/jgr/JGR.htm

    Literature Cited:
    - Davis Jr., R. A. A.T. Welty, J. Borrego, J.A. Morales, J.G. Pendon, and J.G. Ryan, 2000.

    Locations: Rio Tinto.  

    Davis Jr., R. A. A.T. Welty, J. Borrego, J.A. Morales, J.G. Pendon, and J.G. Ryan. 2000. Rio Tinto estuary (Spain): 5000 years of pollution. Environmental Geology. 39(10):1107-1117. http://chuma.cas.usf.edu/~ryan/RioTinto.pdf



    Plants, Vegetation, Botany, etc.


    Literature Cited:
    - Lippert, Wolfgang, and Dieter Podlech, n.d..  

    Lippert, Wolfgang, and Dieter Podlech. n.d.. Plantas del Mediterráneo. La Coruña, ES: Editorial Everest, S. A..

    Literature Cited:
    - Polunin, Oleg and Anthony Huxley., 1966.  

    Polunin, Oleg and Anthony Huxley. 1966. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

    Literature Cited:
    - Stocken, Lt. Cdr. C. M., D.S.C., RN., 1969.  

    Stocken, Lt. Cdr. C. M., D.S.C., RN. 1969. Andalusian Flowers and Countryside. Thurlestone, Devon, UK: Mrs. E. M. Stocken., 1969.


      Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, directed by Pedro Almodovar. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Thesis, directed by Alejandro Amenabar. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Torrente, directed by Santiago Segura. Torrente is outright vulgar. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)
      Belle Epoque, directed by Fernando Trueba. B.E. is pretty racy. (Suggested by Chad, 28-Jun-03)


      de Liñán, D. Camilo Caride. 1994. Mapa Geológico de Península Ibérica, Baleares y Canarias. Madrid: Instituto Technológico Geominero de España, 1994.








    Other articles:
    • Old Spanish Trail Road:  Resting Springs;  Emigrant Pass;
    • Stump Spring Road:  Stump Spring;

    Locations: Emigrant Pass. Resting Spring. Stump Spring.  

    Old Spanish Trail

    Q: Is there a map in existence in which modern locations overlay the Spanish Trail. Or vice versa? Mike. Kingman, AZ. 25 May 2001

    A: Mike, I'm sure there are many. Your local library probably has several books about the Old Spanish Trail, or western trails in general. Or try:





    Highways and Roads




    Other articles:
    • U. S. Highway 93:  Hoover Dam;

    Locations: Hoover Dam.  

    Highway 93 at Hoover Dam

    Q: I was just trying to find out if Hwy 93 across Hoover Dam is still closed to campers and commercial vehicles. Do you have any information regarding this? Ruby, 28 Jan 2002.

    A: Hmmm .... don't know, have you tried the Arizona Department of Transportation or the Nevada Department of Transportation?



    U. S. Highway 395

      Q: Good afternoon! I am doing some research for a business, and am trying to find out some data on the traffic volume between Carson City and Minden/Gardnerville. I was wondering if you have any idea how I can find this info out? Thanks ahead of time for any help you may be able to give me (Donna 6/18/2003).

    A: How about the Nevada Department of Transportation?



    Other articles:
    • Nevada Highway 278:  10000;
    • Nevada County Route 719:  10000;  

    Nevada By-Ways

    Q: I humbly ask your assistance. I came across your website at


    today looking at routes between Lamoille and US50. Some great pictures, thanx! We are making a motorcycle run to S Utah in a few weeks, staying the night in Lamoille (good food!). Is there a paved route S from Jiggs across to US50? Or would we be advised to do I80/229/US93 to get south? Does SR278 from Carlin go anywhere (Paul, 5/20/2003).

    A: The road south from Jiggs to US 50 is dirt in the middle part, see:


    It's a good road, but nevertheless, dirt.

    SR 278 runs from Carlin to Eureka, and parallels the path of the Eureka and Palisade railroad that ran from the Southern Pacific at Palisade to the mines of Eureka. I have not been on the entire length but I would expect that it would be paved the entire route.

      Q: I got your email from www.schweich.com Since you appear to travel a lot around Nevada I was wondering if you could tell me if you have seen deer on highway 306 between Beowawe and Cortez or on highway 278 between carlin and eureka? (6/18/2003)

    A: Well, I wasn't really looking for deer. The closest I've seen was the antelope between Elko and Eureka.




    Mojave National Preserve and Other Parks

      Q: Subject: Desert Travels

    Enjoyed your detailed trip descriptions! Have you ever considered using a GPS receiver and including the location/position for points of interest and pictures? (Bob,3-Jul-04)

    A: Thanks you for your comments about my web site. I do carry a GPS receiver and all my plant collections are located by UTM grid from the GPS. But it never occurred to me put GPS coordinates in my field notes or the photo data. I'll have to think about it ....

    QQ: Due to potential for vandalism sometimes you do not want to include exact locations. I typically plan trips using software supplied with my GPS and topographic map software. When I am not able to get away it allows me to travel "virtually" and anticipate my next trip.

    Locations: Cedar Canyon. Kelso.  

    Q: I spent the better part of the spring of 1991 in the eastern Mojave exploring and tracking down all of the interesting flora and fauna. I haven't made it back since, except a short backpacking trip to the Paiute Springs area. How has National Park status affected things? Are their more people visiting the area? Has there been much impact? Pam, January 11, 2000.

    A: Well, in general there are more people, but they seem to stay more on the main roads, and out of the back country. It seems like there are a lot more people who drive through the park on the way to or from Las Vegas, stopping briefly at the Kelso Depot. OTOH, I've spent some beautiful September weekends all by myself in the Mid Hills campground. I don't particularly care for how the Park Service has designated some of the wilderness areas. They have signed off the cherry stem road into [unidentified location] in such a way that it directs traffic to Winklers Cabin. And, by putting the wilderness boundary right at the edge of Cedar Canyon Road, the Park Service has eliminated some really nice camping spots. A bit of un-thinking in my opinion. Still, they have been very cooperative with me and my research, so I can't complain too much.

    Locations: Kelso Dunes.
    Full Size ImageCows along Black Canyon Road.  

    Q: I'm a senior college student and writing because I have a presentation to do it on a current park issue, and I could use your help. I chose to do it on the impact of off highway use in the Mojave National Preserve. I was wondering if you had any information for me including slides or pictures showing damage by off highway use and some things there are doing to help the park. I understand you may be busy so I would apprechiate any info you can give me even if its only some web sites where I can obtain some of this information. Jack, January 24, 2000.

    A: I'm afraid I don't have too much information about off-highway vehicle use in the Mojave National Preserve. The area covered by the Park is actually not too badly impacted by OHVs. The Kelso Dunes have been closed to vehicles for many years, whereas the Dumont Dunes, between Baker and Death Valley should be designated a National Sacrifice Area. Probably the most devastating impact in the eastern Mojave is from cows and burros. If you look at may web page and check out Black Canyon Road, there are two photos that were taken back-to-back. One shows an area heavily impacted by cows, and the other a general view of an area that sometimes gets described as "pristine." In my experience there is no area in Mojave National Preserve, even in the so-called "wilderness" areas, that hasn't been impacted by cows. Another major impact to Mojave National Preserve are the various pipelines, telephone cables, and power transmission lines. There is even a microwave relay station within a half mile of Mid Hills campground, altho' I have to say it has been very cleaverly camouflaged Just north of the Preserve, at Keeney Pass north of Clark Mountain is a recently installed pipeline along the power transmission lines. I think Howard Wilshire published a couple of articles about the pipeline, including to so-called rehabilitation. So you might search on GeoRef at your library for Howard's articles. Also search for information about the Viceroy mine at Hart. This is a huge open-pit mine with a cyanide heap-leach operation. And don't forget the radioactive materials spill from the rare earth mine at Mountain Pass.

      Q: I have a page of recreation information on the Mojave National Preserve. It is part of my National Parks site that I write as a hobby. I was hoping to use some of your pictures to illustrate the pages. I would credit each image and link to your site. My site is non-commercial but didn't fit precisely into your categories for free use, so I thought it best to drop a line.

    http://www.swparks.com/us/travel/southcalifornia/mojave.html - is the page in question. Justin, January 23, 2000

    A: I would be happy to have you use my photographs on your web site, just give me credit and provide a link to my web site. When you start raking in millions from your site with my pictures we should talk again but, in the mean time, please use any of my pictures you like.

    Thanks for asking!

    Full Size ImageClose-up photograph of Acacia greggii with leaves and seed pods.  
    Q: I have been hired to do several illustrations for the 29 palms visitor center at Joshua Tree National Park. I have been in communication with the park, but as is usual with gov. agencies, questions take a while to reach anyone who can answer them, and information takes even longer to trickle down to the person who needs it.

    I am traveling from Seattle to the park this weekend to do a little on-site research. I think I can find most of what I need, but since I am short on time I could use a little help with one of the illustrations. I am to do a painting set in a desert wash. The wash edges are to be vegetated with cattle spinach, atriplex, mesquite, and acacia. The wash feeds into a palm oasis. Do you know of such a wash in Joshua Tree, or will I pretty much find this community in washes near any palm oasis? Any suggestions you can give me will be a godsend. Pam, January 11, 2000.

    A:I'm not sure how much help I can be, but here goes … Seems like kind of an odd mixture of vegetation. Cattle spinach is Atriplex polycarpa, perhaps the other "atriplex" your client is looking for is Atriplex canescens (Four-wing saltbush). It is unlikely you will find them together, as Cattle spinach prefers alkaline areas and Four-wing saltbush does not. I'm not sure you'll find alkaline washes in Joshua tree. I would expect few if any leaves on the mesquite, and none on the acacia: Acacia greggii (Cat-claw). So you'll have to fake the leaves.

    I would go to the visitor center of the park, which is on the east end of 29 Palms, and ask for information. I find the rangers more helpful in person. While I'm not very familiar with the park I would expect to find what you're looking for along the road that goes south into the park from the visitor center.




    Eastern Mojave Vegetation Web Site


    Other articles:
    • Singing and Booming Sand Dunes:  Title Page;  

    Q: I am a student taking a course in Children's Writing. I would like permission to use information and pictures from your web site to write an article, on the sand dunes and how they sound. I was amazed and fascinated with the the program on Nova Science in January 2005, and I am sure that children would love to know more about them too. I would be grateful for all the help I can get as the library in my home town of Terrace British Columbia Canada has virtually nothing recent on the research done on sand dunes. Faye, 6-Mar-05.

    A: Faye, Sure. Please give me credit, or credit Trexler and Melhorn, if you are using material from their article. I always like to see what people do with material from my web site, so if you publish something, please let me know, or send a copy. When you start raking in the millions with material from my web site, then we should talk about licensing .....

      Q: Why do you spoil your pictures with such big copyright notices? On most good sites i.e the best Grand Canyon site: www.kaibab.org, which you can even by on CD-ROM does not do it! Henk, August 17, 1999.

    A: I started using copyright notices when I found a large number of my pictures on someone else's web site. I'm not against anyone using my pictures; I just want to be credited for them. Anyway, when I contacted them (actually the father of the children who designed the site) the father assured me that they would remove the pictures or credit them to me. But they never did, and several years later they still use my pictures without credit to me. So, anyway, now I put copyright notices on all the pictures. Sure, someone can cut off the copyright notice, but I still have both the original copyrighted picture and the virgin picture on CD-ROM to prove ownership. Ugly? Yes! Necessary? Unfortunately.

      Q: As a person interested in the USA-Southwest (I try to get there in springtime every year) and particularly in hiking in deserts, canyons and searching for cacti (I have some 500 in my greenhouse), I found your site and, together with various other ones, tried to get it on my c:/-drive. So your recent shake up caused me quite some extra hours and a few headaches to get it right again. A few things still don't work as they should but may be that's because you haven't included everything yet. Anyway in the process making things better i have corrected the file … Henk, August 17, 1999.

    A: Thank you for your kind note and the suggestions for fixing links on in the Images files. I have checked out your suggestions and agree that some changes need to be made. Unfortunately, I can't simply load the files you sent. As a result of my recent "shake-up" the HTML for the web site is actually written by Visual Basic code from Microsoft Access. I can correct the data base tables that generated the broken links. This I will do over the next week or so.

    The unfortunate thing for you is that when I change one page I also change all pages, because the entire web site is generated at one time. I don't keep track of changes to individual files, so there is nothing you can do but down load the entire site every time I upload it. Sorry .... :-(

    Full Size ImageResearch of the genus Swertia by Phillipe Chassot.  
    Q: I was looking at your website http://www.schweich.com/imagehtml/swealb_chassot.html and I would like to contact Phillipe Chassot. Do you have any contact information? Is he about 30 years old? I was an exchange student and lived with a family in Corpataux, Switzerland, and I'm trying to find a way to contact that family. There was a boy named Phillipe in the family and I'm wondering if this Phillipe is the same. Thanks for your help. Jennifer, 4-Jul-03.

    A: Jennifer, The last I knew Phillipe Chassot was still at Univeristy of Neuchatel. Actually if you just do a google search for his name there are several web sites that list his name and telephone number. His e-mail address appears to be philippe.chassot@unine.ch

    Full Size ImageTruckee River near Wadsworth.
    Full Size ImageLooking upstream (east) up the Humboldt River at Beowawe.
    Full Size ImageSpring and Buck Mountain across Newark Valley  
    Q: Mr. Schweich, I am writing to request use of photos on your journal web page. Photos would be used in a state wetland plan report. I am interested in using three photos, one from a bridge on the Humboldt River near Beowawe, the Truckee River near Wadsworth, and a spring in Newark Valley with Buck Mountains in background. If I have your permission, I will attribute photos as following: Thomas Schweich photo, http://www.schweich.com/index.shtml. Please let me know. Thank you. Ed, 29-Mar-05

    A:Sure. Let me know if you need higher resolution photos than those on my web site. You can leave the "index.shtml" off of the credit. Also, if your finished work is available to the general public, I would be very interested to learn how I can obtain a copy. Thanks for asking.

    QQ: Thank you, Tom, for replying right away. Having higher resolution photos would be nice, but if you're busy and can't get to it for awhile, I can make do with those on your page. The draft plan report will be available by May. Since we are budget conscious and try to minimize paper use, we will it post as a PDF and possibly html files on the Nevada Natural Heritage Program web page http://heritage.nv.gov/ Some of the information on your site suggests that you are a botanist or naturalist, perhaps as an avocation. The natural world is a fascinating place and worth deep appreciation. Again, thank you. Ed, 30-Mar-05.

    AA: Ed, Three photos attached. Please remember me if the draft plan is published on the web. BTW, right now my plans are to collect (plants) in the Mesquite Mtns, on the California-Nevada border in late April, and in the Sylvania Mtns - Magruder Mtn - Silver Peak Rage in late May - early June.








    Political Correctness

      Q: Somebody wrote in a discussion about the continued use of the alleged perjorative word "Digger" as part of the common name of Digger Pine, also known as Pinus sabiniana D. Don: I think the larger risk of collective amnesia comes from continued use of the words in question. As soon as the words are stripped of all heat by repeated use, the damage they caused is forgotten.

    A: But, isn't a little bit of collective amnesia a good thing ... maybe if we had more of it the Palestinians and Israeli's could get along better, not to mention the Irish, and the various flavors of Muslims and Christians ... I mean, without it, why heck, I could be planting car bombs in Ulan Bator in recompense for what the Mongol hordes did to Kiev .... I say, common names are what people use, let 'm be .... and, just to bring this discussion back to plants, you better not make any jokes about beet soup!




    Literature Cited

      A list of all literature cited by this web site can be found in the Bibliography.
      Anonymous. n.d.. Sierra Nevada National Park: Alpujarras, Marquesado del Zenete. Granada, Spain: Editorial Penibetica.. ISBN: 84-931217-8-9.
      Armato, Ivan. 1991.. The sound of one dune booming. Science. 254(5034):938. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, November 15, 1991. {TAS}
      Balls, Edward K. 1962. Early Uses of California Plants. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1962.
      Calvert, Alexandet, et al. 2000. Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle Beneath the Alboran Region of the Western Mediterranean: Constraints from Travel Time Tomography. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105: 10871-10898. http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu/people/calvert/jgr/JGR.htm
      Carver, Norman F., Jr. 1981. Iberian Villages: Portugal and Spain. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Documan Press, Ltd., 1981.
      Criswell, D. R., R. E. Hutton, J. McBryde, and R. W. Shorthill. 1974. Audio emissions of a booming dune avalanche. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 55(12):1511. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1974.
      Criswell, David R., John F. Lindsay, and David L. Reasoner. 1973. Acoustic and Seismic Emissions of a Booming Dune. Seismology. Fall Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1973. 54(11):1133. 1973.
      Criswell, D. R., J. F. Lindsay, and D. L. Reasoner. 1975. Seismic and acoustic emissions of a booming dune. Journal of Geophysical Research. 80(35):4963-4974. Washington DC: American Geophysical Union, December 10, 1975. {TAS}
      Davis Jr., R. A. A.T. Welty, J. Borrego, J.A. Morales, J.G. Pendon, and J.G. Ryan. 2000. Rio Tinto estuary (Spain): 5000 years of pollution. Environmental Geology. 39(10):1107-1117. {TAS-pdf} http://chuma.cas.usf.edu/~ryan/RioTinto.pdf
      Gibbons, W. & M. T. Moreno. 2002. The Geology of Spain. London: Geological Society, 2002. ISBN: 1-86239-127-0
      Grove, A. T., and Oliver Rackham. 2001. The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.
      Hazzard, John C. 1933. Notes on the Cambrian rocks of the eastern Mohave desert, California, with a paleontological report by Colin H. Crickmay. Univ. California Dept. Geol. Sci. Bull. 23: 57-80.
      Hazzard, John C. 1954. Rocks and structure of the northern Providence Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. pp. 27-35 in Jahns, R. H., ed., 1954. Geology of Southern California. Bulletin 170.. {TAS}
      Hickman, James C. (Ed.). 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press..
      Higgins, Charles G. 1997.. Explanation for singing sands @discussion. Nature (London). 387(6629):110. London: Macmillan Journals, May 8, 1997. {TAS}
      Knute, Adrienne. 1991. Plants of the east Mojave. Cima, CA: Wide Horizons Press, 1991. {TAS}
      Lindsay, J. F., D. R. Criswell, T. L. Criswell, and B. S. Criswell. 1976. Sound-producing dune and beach sands. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 87(3):463-473. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America (GSA), March 1976.
      Lippert, Wolfgang, and Dieter Podlech. n.d.. Plantas del Mediterráneo. La Coruña, ES: Editorial Everest, S. A..
      McMinn, Howard E. 1939. An Illustrated Manual of California Shrubs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
      Pascual, Jose Pascual Real. n.d.. La Alpujarra. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Escudo de Oro S.A. ISBN: 84-378-1614-9.
      Pawel, Rebecca. 2003. Death of a Nationalist. New York: Soho Crime, 2003.
      Pawel, Rebecca. 2005. Law of Return. New York: Soho Crime, 2005.
      Pawel, Rebecca. 2005. The Watcher in the Pine. New York: Soho Crime, 2005.
      Pawel, Rebecca. 2007. The Summer Snow. New York: Soho Crime, 2007.
      Polunin, Oleg and Anthony Huxley. 1966. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
      Stocken, Lt. Cdr. C. M., D.S.C., RN. 1969. Andalusian Flowers and Countryside. Thurlestone, Devon, UK: Mrs. E. M. Stocken., 1969.
      Thompson, David G. 1929. The Mohave Desert Region, California. Water-Supply Paper 578. Washington, DC: United States Geological Survey, 1929. {TAS}
      Trexler, Dennis T., and Wilton N. Melhorn. 1986. Singing and booming land dunes of California and Nevada. California Geology. 39(7):147-152. San Francisco, CA: California Division of Mines and Geology, July 1986. {TAS}
      Welsh, Stanley L., et al. 1987. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. 9. {TAS}
    If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: tomas@schweich.com I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  

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    Date and time this article was prepared: 7/13/2024 8:06:33 AM