Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

Home Page
Topics in this Article:
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.





Literature Cited:
- Colwell, Robert K., 2008.
- Savard, Jean-Pierre L., Philippe Clergeau, and Gwenaelle Mennechez, 2000.  

What is biodiversity?





1 — Introduction

2 — Geography

3 — History of Botanic Exploration

4 — Useful Publications

  • 411 — Floras
    • 4112017w — "411" & publication year & author.
  • 412 — Botanical but not a flora.

5 — Methods

6 — Results

  • 61 — Collections Found
  • 62 — Collections Made

63 — Discussion

  • 631 — Rare Plants
  • 632 — Notable Native Plants
    • 6321 -- Ferns, if any.
    • 6322 -- Gymnosperms, if any.
    • 6323 -- Dicots
      • 6323280Erinaugra -- "6323" & family & genus & species & subspecies or variety
    • 6324 -- Monocots
  • 633 — Notable Non-Native Plants
  • 6330 — Noxious Weeds
    • 63402 — Non-Native Grasses in the Golden Landscape.
      • 63404020Agrcri -- "63404" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6342 — Non-Native Mustards in the Golden Landscape
      • 6342106Alyaly -- "6342" & family & genus & species & sequence number, if needed.
    • 6343 — Non-Native Sunflowers in the Golden Landscape
    • 6349 — Other Families

7 — Conclusion

8 — Acknowledgements

  • 90 — Ecological Systems of Colorado
  • 91 — GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora
  • 92 — How the Flora is Built
  • 93 — Source Data
    • 931 — Types from the Golden Area
    • 932 — Namesakes of the Golden Area
    • 933 — General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes
    • 934 — Studies of Prairie or Foothill Ecosystems
    • 935 — Restoration, and Effects of Attempts Thereof
    • 936 — Recreation in Foothill and Prairie Ecosystems
  • 94 — Keys
  • 95 — Schemas
  • 96 — Vegetation Descriptions
  • 97 — Reminders
  • 98 — Mystery Locations



Ecological Systems of Colorado

  The Colorado Natural Heritage Program page on Ecological Systems of Colorado is found at: .

Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Don, Ralph H. Crawford, and David L. Tart, 2009.
- Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2008.
- Jennings, Michael D., Don Faber-Langendoen, Orie L. Loucks, Robert K. Peet,m and David Roberts, 2009.  

  Comparison of published vegetation types.
CNHP, 2005O'Shea-Stone, 2002Kilburn & White, 1992Zeise, 1976
    Lichen-rock type. Lichen stand types. Areas of bare rock from steep lava cliffs to the conical peaks on the mesa surface.
  • Short-grass grassland. Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Alyssum parviflorum, and Opuntia sp., Echinocereus viridiflorus, Coryphantha missouriensis, Coryphantha vivipara var. vivipara. Also Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), and Yucca glauca. Some short shrubs of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. graveolens, Prunus virginiana (Syn: Padus v.), Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata. Celtis reticulata at edge of mesa. Traditionally dominated by Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides, but now dominated by Bromus tectorum.
Grassland type. Bromus tectorum and Alyssum simplex (Syn: A. minus. Occasional Achnatherum scribneri (Syn: Stipa s.) and Andropogon gerardii. Mixed-grass stand types. Dominated by Bromus tectorum and Agropyron sp. (Elymus sp. ?), with Buchloe dactyloides, and Alyssum alyssoides, Eriogonum umbellatum Torr., Heterotheca villosa, Opuntia compressa, Yucca glauca, and Ericameria nauseosa (Syn: Chrysothamnus nauseosus). West, south, and east exposures.
  Mixed-grass grassland. Stipa comata, Pascopyrum smithii, Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Aristida purpurea, and Nassella viridula, with a large number of forbs. Mesa slopes and toe areas of STM.
RM Aspen Forest and Woodland - - -
RM Cliff, Canyon and Massive Bedrock - - -
RM Dry-Mesic and Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest and Woodland - - -
SRM Pinyon-Juniper Woodland - - -
SRM Ponderosa Pine Woodland - - -
Rocky Mountain Lower Montane - Foothill Shrubland.
  • Cercocarpus montanus Shrubland Alliance
    • Series determination requires more data collection.
Upland shrubland. Cercoparpus montanus, with sparse cover of Bromus tectorum intermixed with Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), Yucca glauca, and many cacti.

Ravine shrubland. Skunkbush, chokecherry and Prunus americana, in dense thickets. Few plains cottonwoods and Salix amygdaloides

Shrubland type

  • Mixed shrub community. Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum, Prunus americana, and Prunus virginiana. Understory of Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum), Eriogonum umbellatum, Alyssum alyssoides, etc.
Mixed shrub stand types. Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum Dougl., Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Prunus virginiana L., Prunus americana Marsh. Acer glabrum in dense patches. Mostly north exposures.
    Shrubland type.

  • Mountain mahogany community. Cercocarpus montanus with an understory of Alyssum alysoides, Bromus tectorum, Agropyron cristatum (Syn: A. desertorum), Eriogonum umbellatum, etc.
Pure shrub stand types. Cercocarpus montanus, with Bromus tectorum, Alyssum alyssoides, and Eriogonum umbellatum.
    Grassland-shrub type. Common foothills species: Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Prunus americana, Rhus trilobata, and Ribes cereum. Grasses are Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum). Also Cercoparpus montanus, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius (Syn: S. oreophilus), Prunus virginiana melanocarpa, Rosa arkansana, Physocarpus monogynus, and Ribes aureum. Shrub cover within grassland matrix is significant, but less than 50%. Shrub-grass stand types. Shrubs of Crataegus succulenta (Syn: C. erythropoda), Rosa sp., Rhus trilobata, Prunus virginiana, Prunus americana, Celtus reticulata, and Ribes cereum, with Agropyron sp. (Syn: Elymus sp. ?), Bromus tectorum, Achnatherum hymenoides (Syn: Oryzopsis h., and Alyssum alyssoides. Patches of shrubs in mixed grass-forb areas.
NA Arid West Emergent Marsh - - -
  Wetlands. Cottonwoods and willows, with Carex spp., and Juncus spp., and a variety of grasses and forbs. Patches of Typha spp.. Hydrology alteration.   Riparian (streamside) stand types. Salix exigua, Populus sargentii, Eleocharis macrostachya, Scirpus lacustris L., and Mentha spicata L.
    Woodland type.

  • Mountain maple community. Dense community of small Acer glabrum just below cliffs or in ravines with a dense understory of mixed shrub. North and east slopes.
  • Cottonwood woodland community. Scattered cottonwoods (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera (Syn: P. sargentii), and P. angustifolia) along permanent and intermittent streams. In Big Ravine, Acer negundo, Salix exigua, and S. amygdaloides also occur. Other shrubs also form a dense understory.
  • Juniper Savannah community. Juniperus scopulorum with an understory of typical grassland.
Woodland stand types. Juniperus scopulorum, with Bromus tectorum.
WGP (Western Great Plains) Cliff, Outcrop, and Shale Barrens - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Closed Depression Wetland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Foothill and Piedmont Grassland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Riparian Woodland, Shrubland and Herbaceous - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Shortgrass Prairie - - -


  1. [R3C3] Stipa comata grassland of 30-60 acres near western rim of mountain, may be partly due to effects of the 1988 fire.


Recognized Ecological Systems



Ecological Systems Recognized by the Colorado Natural Heritage System


Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  

Ecological systems are dynamic assemblages or complexes of plant and/or animal communities that 1) occur together on the landscape; 2) are tied together by similar ecological processes, underlying abiotic environmental factors or gradients; and 3) form a readily identifiable unit on the ground. These systems provide a coarser level unit than plant associations and alliances as defined under the International Vegetation Classification standard, and are more easily identified on the ground.

The descriptions and summarized viability guidelines presented here are intended to serve as a tool for conservation and management planning by providing a context for conservation and management (i.e., what systems do we have in Colorado), and by providing easy access to ranking and evaluation criteria for key ecological attributes of each system (i.e., what is the condition of our systems).

System descriptions and viability guidelines are based on materials compiled by NatureServe or developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Funding for the development of these documents was provided in part by the Bureau of Land Management, The Nature Conservancy, and the USDA Forest Service (CNHP, 2005).

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  



Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)


Literature Cited:
- Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague, 2011.  

The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was a mapping and assessment of biodiversity for the five-state region encompassing Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The area comprises approximately 150 million hectares (560,000 square miles) representing 1/5 the coterminous United States. The primary objective of the project was to use a coordinated approach to create detailed, seamless maps of the land cover, habitat for native terrestrial vertebrate species, land stewardship, and management status for the Southwest region. This information was analyzed to identify animal species habitats and natural land cover types that are underrepresented on land managed for their long term conservation. SWReGAP was a multi-institutional effort with scientists based in all five southwest states.


USNVC -- United States National Vegetation Classification
  The U.S. National Vegetation Classification is supported by a formal partnership between the federal agencies, the Ecological Society of America (ESA), and NatureServe, working through the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee. Primary signators include the U.S. Forest Service (which chairs the subcommittee), ESA, NatureServe, and the U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Systems (USGS/CSS). Together we are committed to supporting the implementation and maintenance of the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) Standard (FGDC 2008).
  The overall objective of the Vegetation and Information Standards is to support the use of a consistent national vegetation classification system (NVCS) to produce uniform statistics in vegetation resources from vegetation cover data at the national level. It is important that, as agencies map or inventory vegetated Earth cover, they collect enough data accurately and precisely to translate it for national reporting, aggregation, and comparisons. Adoption of the Vegetation Classification and Information Standards in subsequent development and application of vegetation mapping schemes will facilitate the compilation of regional and national summaries. In turn, the consistent collection of such information will eventually support the detailed, quantitative, geo-referenced basis for vegetation cover modeling, mapping, and analysis at the field level.




Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Dom, Todd Keeler-Wolf, Del Meidinger, Dave Tart, Bruce Hoagland, Carmen Josse, Gonzalo Navarro, Serguei Ponomarenko, Jean-Peirre Saucier, Alan Weakley, and Patrick Comer, 2014.



GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora




How the Flora is Built




Source Data




Literature Cited:
- Colbry, Vera Lyola, 1957.  





Literature Cited:
- Hufford, Larry, Michelle M. McMahon, Anna M. Sherwood, Gail Reeves, and Mark W, Chase, 2003.  

Names recognized by Harrington (1954) Names recognized by Snow (2009) Names recognized by Weber and Wittmann (2012) Names recognized by Ackerfield (2015) Names recognized by FNANM Mentzelia (s.l.) represented by collections in Jefferson County, Colorado
Section Bartonia
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
(Syn: M. speciosa Osterhout., Nuttallia multiflora (Nutt.) Greene, N. speciosa (Osterh.) Greene, N. sinuata Rydb.)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray var. multiflora Nuttallia multiflora (Nuttall) Greene
(Incl: N. sinuata, N. speciosa)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray M. multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill
Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterhout
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) T. & G.
(Syn: Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene)
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & Gray
Section Trachyphytum
Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl ex Hook. Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray Acrolasia albicaulis (Douglas) Rydberg Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray
(Syn: M. montana (Davidson) Davidson)
M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray
Not recognized Mentzelia montana (Davids.) Davids. Not recognized M. montana (Davidson) Davidson M. montana (Davidson) Davidsona
Mentzelia dispersa Wats. Mentzelia dispersa S. Watsonb Acrolasia dispersa (S. Watson) Davidson Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson M. dispersa S. Wats. M. dispersa S. Wats.
Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Denver, CO.: Sage Books., 1954. Snow, Neil. 2009. Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region (Version 3). 316 p. Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope. 4th Edition. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2012. Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. The Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+. New York and Oxford. Published on the Internet; (accessed 2013 through 2019) Source: Southwest Environmental Information Network, SEINet. 2014. http// Accessed on September 04, 2014.


  1. bMentzelia dispersa S. Watson. Snow (2009) follows Dorn (2001) in not recognizing varieties in our region.
  2. aMentzelia montana (Davidson) Davidson is represented by two collections made by George E. Osterhout with Ira W. Clokey, Osterhout's #3095 (RM95508) and #5741 (RM162001). The collections were made 22 June 1918 and the locality is Morrison, Jefferson County, Colorado.



Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

Authors for Symphoricarpos in FNANM are: Applequist, Wendy L./wendy.applequist at and Bell, Charles D./valerianaceae1969 at Caprifoliaceae will be contained in Volume 18, which, as of this date, 3 August 2014, is under production.

Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

“Towards a Species Level Phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA”



Names of Historical Reports

  The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • …abbreviation…
… full name of publication … URL: … if available …


Literature Cited:
- Gmelin, Johan Georg, 1747-1769.  

Gmelin, 1747-1769, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gmel. Sibir.
Gmelin, Johan Georg. 1747-1769. Flora Sibirica sive Historia Plantarum Siberiae. St. Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel van, 1791.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  9330510280Ago1791Schreber;  

Schreber, 1789-1791, Publication Details

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a]
Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, & Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. (Ed. 8[a]). URL: … if available …


Literature Cited:
- Gaertner, Joseph, 1788-1807.  

Gaertner, 1791, Publication Details

Joseph Gaertner (1732 – 1791) was a German botanist, best known for his work on seeds, De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1788-1792).

He was born in Calw, and studied in Göttingen under Albrecht von Haller. He was primarily a naturalist, but also worked at physics and zoology. He travelled extensively to visit other naturalists. He was professor of anatomy in Tübingen in 1760, and was appointed professor of botany at St Petersburg in 1768, but returned to Calw in 1770. Much of his productive work involved hybridization of plants and expression of traits in progeny.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Fruct. Sem.
De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum: accedunt seminum centuriae quinque priores cum tabulis Aeneis LXXIX. URL:

Gaertner (1791) appears here because of his publication of Troximon. Today we treat Troximon as a synonym of Krigia Schreb. and the published names in Troximon have been dispersed primarily to Agoseris with one to Krigia and two to Nothocalais. Krigia biflora (Walter) S. F. Blake “Two-Flower Dwarf Dandelion” is found in Colorado, including one collection near Deckers in southwest Jefferson County. Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene “Prairie False Dandelion” is common around Golden s.l.


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Greene, Edward L., 1889.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Fraser, 1813;  Coryphantha vivipara, Fraser, 1813;  Oenothera cespitosa, Fraser, 1813;  Ratibida columnifera, Fraser, 1813;  

Fraser's Catalogue, 1813

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana
Fraser's Cat.
Fraser catal.
Catalogue of New and Interesting Plants Collected in Upper Louisiana and Principally on the River Missouri, North America, for Sale at Messrs. Fraser's Nursery for Curious American Plants, Sloane, Square, King's Road, Chelsea, [London 1813] A reprint is available at URL:

Remarks the International Plant Names Index (accessed 16 August 2020): Originally distributed by Messrs. Fraser’s Nursery for Curious American Plants and was referred to as Frasers’ catalogues. Reprinted in: Pittonia. 2: 114-119. 1890. Although Nuttall is not cited as the author, he has been generally accepted as the author (see St. Louis Code Art. 46 Ex. 26). Regarding the precise date of publ.: a reference to this Cat. Is made in Bot. Mag. Ad t. 1574. 1 Aug 1813. For several names in the supplement and addenda et corrigenda portions, Pursh (Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 727-751. Dec 1813) referred to Fraser's Catalogue, e.g, pp. 728, 729, 750. For the validly and invalidly published names in this Catalogue, see: J. L. Reveal, Rhodora 70: 25-54. 1968.

  • Amorpha canescens Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [1] (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Amorpha nana Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 5 (1813).
  • Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 6 [unpaged] (1813).
  • Cactus viviparus Nutt. (= Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 22 (1813). .
  • Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana [unpaged] (1813).
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 45 (1813).
  • Malva coccinea Nutt. (=Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.), Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 51 (1813).
  • Oenothera albicaulis Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 54 (1813), nom. Inval.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 53 (1813).
  • Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 75 (1813).
  • Yucca glauca Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana no. 89 (1813).

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibiba columnifera, Reveal, 1968;  

Multiple authors have considered the names published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, the author of the names, and the legitimacy of the names. One recent such paper was Reveal (1968) “On the Names in Fraser's 1813 Calalogue.” Original copies of Fraser's Catalogue are quite rare, leading Greene (1890) to republish. Reveal acknowledges that Greene essentially accurately reprinted the catalogue. One change that Greene acknowledges was the addition “[ By T. Nuttall. ]” to the title page, which he says Nuttall wrote in ink on the original.

Possibly among other taxa, the legitimacy of the names in Fraser's Catalogue is important for our Priairie Coneflower Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, A, D. D. Keck, and B. Maguire, 1956.
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Reveal, James L., 1968.
- Shinners, L. H., 1955.
- Shinners, L. H., 1956.  

Reveal (1968) thought the author must have been Nuttall, referring to several other papers on the question.
… The interested reader on this subject is invited to refer to the series of arguments presented by Shinners (1949, 1955, 1956) for Nuttall not being the author and the Catalogue as an invalid source of publication; Graustein's (1956) contentions that Nuttall was the author but that he considered the species not validly published because of an agreement with his sponsor, Benjamin Smith Barton of Philadelphia, not to publish any new species without Barton's consent; and Cronquist, Keck, and Maguire (1956) who believe that Nuttall was the author and that the Catalogue is a valid place of publication.
It has been common knowledge that Nuttall was at least associated with the names found in the Catalogue. Pennell (1936) and Graustein (1967) point out that he was in England and associated with the Fraser Brothers' Nursery at the time of publication. From Nuttall's two subsequent publications (1817, 1818) which followed shortly after the Catalogue, we know that he considered at least some of the names as his own. Several of the early authors attributed the names in the Catalogue to Nuttall, and they certainly could have asked Nuttall if they had any doubt as who the author was. Pennell (1936) gives the impression that Nuttall was a rather shy and inhibited person. It would seem out of character for a man of such temperament to assume responsibility for the names in Fraser's Catalogue if he was not in any way responsible for them. It is inconceivable to me that someone else could have assigned names to Nuttall's own collection without Nuttall stating this fact later. If Nuttall was not associated with the entities, why should he later accept some of them as his unless he actually had given the names to the Fraser Brothers, helped someone who was employed by them to prepare the Catalogue, or perhaps have written the text himself. It should be noted here, however, that I do not say that Nuttall was the author of the paper, although Greene (1890) suggests this after seeing the copy of the Catalogue in Philadephia. What I do contend is that Nuttall is the author of the names in the paper, and thus, as provided by the International Code (1966), the species should be cited as "Nutt. In Fras."
Shinners (1956) goes to great length to show that several of the names in Fraser's Catalogue were not claimed by Nuttall in his later publications, and while this is true, I suspect that it was for reasons other than those given by Shinners. Some species were found to have been adequately described between 1813 and 1818 with names acceptable to Nuttall, but for those that were not, he used his own names that he had published in the Fraser's Catalogue. Nuttall occasionally cited only "Frasers Catalogue" and did not give himself credit for the name. Shinners uses this argument to show that Nuttall was not the author. The species with which I am most familiar that was published in the Catalogue is Eriogonum flavum. The name is credited to “Fras. Catal. 1813” and not starred as a new species in Nuttall's 1818 book, The Genera of North American Plants, and for this reason, Shinners suggested that Nuttall did not consider this ispecies as his. Nothing is further from the truth. In a detailed paper on this species in particular, and the genus Eriogonum in general, which Nuttall published in 1817, he makes a point of stating that he published the name E. flavum in Eraser's Catalogue. The reason why Nuttall simply stated “Fras. Catal. 1813.” instead of “T. N. in Fras. Catal. 1813.,” as he sometimes did, was probably to save space. To say that Nuttall was not the author of Fraser's Catalogue I believe is on more tenuous bases than to say that he was indeed the sole author. As no one else has come along to claim authorship of the species published in the list, this, I believe, proves the point that only Nuttall could have given the names to his own collection.
The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1966) states in Article 34 that "A name is not validly published … when it is not accepted by the author who published it …" As Nuttall did not specifically reject the names in the Catalogue, they must be considered as published. The arguments put forth by Graustein (1956) are immaterial. She states that under the terms of a contract, Nuttall's journals and observations became the exclusive property of Barton, and Nuttall was not supposed to do anything else but what was specifically stated in the con- tract. Thus, Graustein believes that Nuttall could not legally publish any new species in Fraser's Catalogue, for if he did, he would be breaking the terms of the contract. How- ever, as McKelvey (1955) has pointed out, Nuttall's mere presence with the Overland Astorians as they ascended the Missouri River was breaking his contract with Barton, as was the shipping of his plants to England instead of Philadelphia. Certainly one more step in the breaking of the contract by publishing his findings would not be totally surprising.
Reveal (1968) then goes on to review each name published in Fraser's 1813 Catalogue, rendering an opinion about their validity.


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca, Pursh, 1816;  Ratibida columnifera, Pursh, 1814;  

Pursh, 1814-1816, Publication Details

Pursh (1814-16) is an often cited reference for taxa found in Golden s.l.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ.
Pursh, Frederick. 1814. Flora Americae Septentrionalis; or, A Systematic Arrangement and Description of the Plants of North America. 2 vols. London: White, Cochrane, and Co., 1814. URL:

There are forty-four taxa named by Pursh that are known to occur in Golden s.l..

  • Juniperus communis var. depressa Pursh. Common juniper
  • Musineon divaricatum (Pursh) Raf.. Leafy Wild Parsley
  • Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf.. Pale Goat-Chicory, as Troximon glaucum Pursh
  • Arnica fulgens Pursh. Shining Leopardbane
  • Balsamorhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt.. Arrow-Leaf Balsamroot
  • Dieteria canescens (Pursh) Nutt.. Hoar False Tansy-Aster
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. Dwarf Mountain Fleabane
  • Gaillardia aristata Pursh. Great Blanket-Flower
  • Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal. Curly-Cup Gumweed
  • Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby. Kindlingweed
  • Heterotheca villosa (Pursh) Shinners. Hairy False Golden-Aster
  • Lygodesmia juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook.. Rush Skeleton-Plant
  • Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene. Wavy-Leaf Prairie-Dandelion
  • Xanthisma spinulosum (Pursh) D.R. Morgan & R.L. Hartman. Lacy Sleepy Daisy
  • Mertensia lanceolata (Pursh) DC.. Prairie Bluebells
  • Phacelia heterophylla Pursh. Variable-Leaf Scorpion-Weed
  • Cleome serrulata Pursh. Rocky Mountain Beeplant
  • Euphorbia marginata Pursh. Snow-on-the-Mountain
  • Amorpha canescens Pursh. Leadplant ???
  • Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh. American Licorice
  • Lupinus argenteus Pursh. Silver-Stem Lupine
  • Oxytropis lambertii Pursh. Stemless Locoweed
  • Pediomelum argophyllum (Pursh) J. Grimes. Silver-Leaf Indian-Breadroot
  • Psoralidium lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydb.. Lemon scurfpea
  • Psoralidium tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb.. Slimflower scurfpea
  • Ribes aureum Pursh. Golden Currant
  • Linum lewisii Pursh. Prairie Flax
  • Mentzelia decapetala (Pursh ex Sims) Urb. & Gilg ex Gilg. Gumbo-Lily
  • Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray. Goodmother
  • Claytonia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Springbeauty
  • Lewisia rediviva var. rediviva Pursh. Bitter root
  • Mirabilis linearis (Pursh) Heimerl. Narrow-Leaf Four-O'clock
  • Oenothera albicaulis Pursh. White-Stem Evening-Primrose
  • Castilleja sessiliflora Pursh. Great Plains Indian-Paintbrush
  • Mimulus lewisii Pursh. Great Purple Monkey-Flower
  • Ipomopsis aggregata (Pursh) V. Grant. Scarlet Skyrocket
  • Rumex venosus Pursh. Veiny Dock
  • Androsace occidentalis Pursh. Western Rock-Jasmine
  • Clematis hirsutissima Pursh. Sugarbowls
  • Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh. Alkali Buttercup
  • Geum triflorum Pursh. Old-Man's-Whiskers
  • Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh. Lance-Leaf Figwort
  • Viola nuttallii Pursh. Yellow Prairie Violet
  • Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve. Bluebunch-Wheat Grass

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.  

Rafinesque (1818) had the following to say in his review of Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text
We have abundant proofs that [Pursh] has introduced many new species, not discovered by, nor belonging tohimself, and without the leave of the owners. Mr. Bradbury, for instance, has loudly complained to us, against him, for having so many of his new plants collected in the Missouri, without his permission, which he meant to publish them himself ; but the blame, if any, appears to lay with those friends who put the plants into the hands of Mr> Pursh, since the author of a general Flora is perfectly at liberty to avail himself of all the materials which come to his knowledge, and ought rather to be blamed for omitting them than otherwise.
It is advisable therefor for the discoverers of new plants to publish them speedily themselves, or keep them out of sight, and buried, as misers do their gold.
Many new plants are stated by Mr. P. to grow on the Mississippi and Missouri, without reference to their discoverers, and as he never was there himself, it is to be presumed they were collected by Mess. Lewis or Nuttall, and probably the latter ; the circumstance from which they were derived is illiberal and disingenuous.
After all, let no one suppose that we despise the labours of Mr. P : far from it. Few can value them more than we do ; we shal at all times be happy to give credit to any botanist for his real personal exertions : for such, and for the compilation of his Flora, Mr. Pursh does really deserve our thanks, notwithstanding so many errors and omissions. We therefore with him complete success in his future labours, and particularly in the completion of a Flora Canadensis, which we understand he has lately undertaken on the spot.

C. S. R.

Literature Cited:
- Robin, C. C. (Charles-Ce´sar), 1817.  

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Fl. Ludov. Florula Ludoviciana ; or, A Flora of the State of Louisiana URL:


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Amelanchier alnifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Nuttall, 1818;  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1818;  Collomia linearis, Nuttall, 1818;  Ambrosia tomentosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Artemisia ludoviciana, additional information;  Cirsium undulatum, Nuttall, 1818;  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Nuttall, 1818;  Erigeron pumilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Ratibida columnifera, Nuttall, 1818;  Senecio integerrimis, Nuttall, 1818;  Solidago speciosa, Nuttall, 1818;  Bouteloua gracilis, Nuttall, 1818;  Hordeum pusillum, additional information;  Schedonnardus paniculatus, Nuttall, 1818;  

Nuttall, 1818, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gen. Am.
Nuttall, Thomas. 1818. The Genera of North American Plants and a catalogue of the species to the year 1817. 2 Vols.. Philadelphia: 1818.

Types published by Nuttall in this volume that are found in Golden s.l.

  • Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt.
  • Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Silver Wormwood.
  • Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Wavy Leaved Thistle, as Cnicus undulatus Nutt.
  • Erigeron pumilis Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Iva xanthiifolia Nutt. Carelessweed, =Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fesen.
  • Senecio integerrimus Nutt. Columbia Ragwort.
  • Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Goldenrod.
  • Collomia linearis Nutt. Tiny Trumpet.
  • Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. (=Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus) Buffalo Grass
  • Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley, on the plains of the Missouri.
  • Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. False Buffalograss.
  • Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. Tumblegrass, as Lepturus paniculatus.

    Nuttall types published elsewhere.

  • Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb., published in Fraser (1813) as Malva coccinea.
  • Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. Tufted Evening Primrose, published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue.
  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory,” published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes.” published in 1841.
  • Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Golden Tickseed, published in Arkansa report, 1821.
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower. Published in 1841.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye. Published in 1841.
  • Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. (Syn: Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt.) “Upright Prairie Coneflower.” Published in Fraser (1813) Catalogue, with the name attributed to Nuttall.
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod, published in report of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth, 1834a.
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod, published in Nuttall (1841).
  • Leucocrinum montanum Nutt. Ex A. Gray. Star Lily, published by Gray (1848).
  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn, published in Nuttall (1834) account of his trip to the Arkansa Territory.
  • Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. Mountain Muhly, published as Calycodon montanus by Nuttall in his 1848 account of the collections by Gambel.


Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibida columnifera, Rafinesque, 1818;  

American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review, Rafinesque, 1817-1818

One of Rafinesque's several publication series.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. Vols. 1-4, 1817-18 [1819] Available through Google Books.


Literature Cited:
- Elliott, Stephen, 1821-1824.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia, Elliott, 1823;  

Elliott, 1821-1824, Publication Details

Elliott (1821-1824) published his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia
Sketch Bot. S. Carolina
Botany of South-Carolina and Georgia
Elliott's Botany 
A sketch of the botany of South Carolina and Georgia. Elliott, Stephen, 1771-1830. Hoff, John, , printer. Charleston, S.C. :J.R. Schenck,1821-24. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coreopsis tinctoria, Nuttall, 1821;  

Nuttall, 1821, Publication Details

Nuttall (1821) describes his nearly disastrous exploration of the Arkansas River in 1818-1820.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 2: (1821). A Description of some new species of Plants, recently introduced into the gardens of Philadelphia, from the Arkansa territory. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 2: URL:


Literature Cited:
- Roemerm Johann Jacob, and Josef August Schultes, 19=819.
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.  

Sprengel, 1826, Publication Details.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Syst. Veg., ed. 16 Systema vegetabilium [Caroli Linnaei ... ]. Editio decima sexta. Gottingae URL:

Although purporting to be 16th edition Linnaeus' Systema vegetabilium, this work must be attributed to Sprengel. In fact this should count as the 17th edition, as the real 16th edition that of Roemer & Schultes.


Rafinesque, 1833, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Atlantic J
Atlantic Journal, and Friend of Knowledge. Philadelphia, PA.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis, additional information;  Solidago missouriensis, additional information, Nuttall, 1834;  

Nuttall, 1834a, Publication Details

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 7: pp (1834). Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII. A Catalogue of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Valleys of the Rocky Mountain or Northern Andes, towards the sources of the Columbia River, by Mr. Nathaniel B. Wyeth, and described by T. Nuttall Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA URL:
New names of plants found in Colorado that were published in this paper.
  • Crepis occidentalis Nutt. Largeflower Hawksbeard.
  • Solidago missouriensis Nutt. Missouri Goldenrod.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aristida purpurea, Nuttall, 1834;  

Nuttall, 1834, Publication Details

The following is an intentionally empty table …
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 5: 145 (1835). Article VI. Collections towards a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas. By Thomas Nuttall. Read before the American Philosophical Society April 4, 1834. URL:

  • Aristida purpurea Nutt. Purple Threeawn.


Literature Cited:
- Fresenius, Georg, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cyclachaena xanthifolia, Fresnius, 1836;
Full Size ImageFootnotes from Index Seminum in which Cyclachaena is proposed  

Fresenius, 1836, Publication Details

Johann Baptist Georg (George) Wolfgang Fresenius (1808-1866) was a German physician and botanist, known for his work in the field of phycology. He was a native of Frankfurt am Main.

He studied medicine at the Universities of Heidelberg, Würzburg and Giessen, earning his doctorate at the latter institution in 1829. Afterwards he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he worked as a general practitioner of medicine while maintaining an active interest in botany.

As a student in Heidelberg and afterwards, he studied botany with his friend George Engelmann (1809-1884), who later became a renowned German-American botanist. From 1831 Fresenius was curator of the Senckenberg herbarium and a teacher at the Senckenberg Research Institute (Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg). With his student Anton de Bary (1831–1888), he conducted microscopic investigations of algae and fungi. He died in Frankfurt on 1 December 1866 at the age of 58.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
Index Sem. (Frankfort/M) Index Seminum. Frankfort am Main. Universita¨t Frankfurt am Main. Botanischer Garten. URL:

In the online publication, the various parts are mixed up as to the date order.

Full Size Image
Page 1 from Index Seminum Frankfort/Am Main


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  Troximon glaucum, Nuttall, 1841;  Agoseris parviflora, Nuttall, 1841;  Franseria discolor, Nuttall, 1841;  Antennaria parvifolia, Nuttall, 1841;  Crepis occidentalis, Nuttall, 1814;  Helianthus pumilus, additional information;  Packera plattensis, Nuttall, 1841;  Solidago nana, Nuttall, 1841;  

Nuttall, 1841, Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands

In 1834, Nuttall resigned his post and set off west again on an expedition led by Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth, this time accompanied by the naturalist John Kirk Townsend. They travelled through Kansas, Wyoming, and Utah, and then down the Snake River to the Columbia. Nuttall then sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Hawaiian Islands in December. He returned in the spring of 1835 and spent the next year botanizing in the Pacific Northwest, an area already covered by David Douglas. On the Pacific coast, Nuttall heard of the ship Alert leaving San Diego in May 1836, bound for Boston.

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. ser. 2, 7 (1841).
Descriptions of new Species and Genera of Plants in the natural Order of the Compositae, collected in a Tour across the Continent to the Pacific, a Residence in Oregon, and a Visit to the Sandwich Islands and Upper California, during the Years 1834 and 1835. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting useful Knowledge. Series 2, Volume 7. Philadelphia. URL:

Nuttall types published in this volume:

  • Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr., published in 1841 as Troximon parviflorum
  • Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. Small-Leaf Pussytoes.
  • Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. Tasselflower Brickellbush.
  • Helianthus pumilus Nutt. Little Sunflower.
  • Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. Showy Golden Eye.
  • Psilochenia occidentalis Nutt. (Syn: Crepis occidentalis Nutt.)
  • Senecio plattensis Nutt. =Packera plattensis (Nutt.) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve
  • Solidago nana Nutt. Baby Goldenrod.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca, Dietrich, 1847;  Agoseris parviflora, Dietrich, 1847;  

Dietrich, 1847, Publication Details

David Nathaniel Friedrich Dietrich (1800 – 1888) was German botanist and gardener. In 1828 Dietrich worked as a botanical gardener in Jena. In 1836 he received his doctorate at the University of Jena, and later served as a curator at the botanical garden in Jena. Dietrich wrote pamphlets on poisonous plants, mosses, and forest flora and fauna of Germany as well as several botanical encyclopedias. His five-volume, 1839-1852 Synopsis Plantarum, cited here, included about 80,000 species and 524 genera. The five-volume Flora of Germany published from 1833 to 1864 contains 1150 colored panels. The two-volume Forst Flora and the 476 booklets of the comprehensive Flora Universalis are his most famous work (Wikipedia, 2020).

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Syn. Pl.
Synopsis Plantarum seu enumeratio systematica plantarum…. 4. Issued in five volumes: Vol. 1, Jul 1839, Vol. 2, 1-20 Dec 1840, Vol. 3, late Dec 1842, Vol. 4, early Jan 1847, Vol. 5, Apr 1852 URL:


Literature Cited:
- Emory, William H., 1848.  

Emory, 1848, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Emory's Rep.
Emory, Notes milit. Reconn. 1848
Emory, William H. 1848. Notes of a military reconnaissance, from Fort Leavenworth, in Missouri, to San Diego, in California, including parts of the Arkansas, Del Norte, and Gila rivers. Washington: Wendell and Van Benthuysen, printers, 1848.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Mentzelia multiflora, Nuttall, 1847;  

Nuttall, 1848, Plants collected by William Gambel

Nuttall, 1848, Plants collected by William Gambel.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online
  • Nutt. Pl. Gamb. In Jour, Acad, Philad. N. ser. 1
Descriptions of Plants collected by William Gambel, M. D., in the Rocky Mountains and Upper California. URL:


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sphaeralcea coccinea, Gray, 1849;  Mentzelia multiflora, Gray, 1849;  Gray, 1849;  Brickellia californica, Gray, 1849;  9330510280Erigerontra1849Gray;
• Field Notes:  Gray, A., 1849;  

Gray, 1849, Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae

Nuttall, 1848, Plants collected by William Gambel.
Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Gray, Pl. Fendl.
Mem. Am. Acad. 4
Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae; An Account of a Collection of Plants made chiefly in the Vicinity of Santa Fe, New Mexico, by Augustus Fendler; with Descriptions of the New Species, Critical Remarks, and Characters of other undescribed or little known Plants from surrounding Regions. Memoirs of the American Academy. IV(I):1-116. URL:


Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

Marcy, 1854, Publication Details

Abbreviation Full Title Availability Online

Explor. Red River Louisiana
Marcy, Randolph B., 1854. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana. Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson, Public Printer, 1854. URL:



Types from the Golden Area



Namesakes of the Golden Area




General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes



Populus angustifolia E. James

James provided a validating diagnosis: "The long leaved cotton-wood … is found intermixed with the common cotton-wood, resembling in size and general aspect. Its leaves are long and narrow, its trunk smoother, and its branches more slender and flexile than those of Populus anuglata. Some of its fruits was fortunately still remaining …"


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Salix exigua;  

Salix exigua Nutt. “Coyote Willow.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1842-1849.  

Original Text Comments
Salix exigua. Foliis linearibus utrinque acutis subintegerrimus sericeis, stipulus nullis, amentis scrotinis elongatis, capsulis lanceolatis sessilibus, demum nudiusculis.  
This species is also a native of the Territory of Oregon, and grew with the preceding, which it strongly resembles: it is, however, a smaller species; the serrulations are mostly wanting, though very minute ones are sometimes seen: the capsules are smaller and not pedicellated. The male plant I have not seen. The branches are reddish brown and smooth. The preceding was River Willow Salix fluviatilis that is now treated as a synonym of Salix melanopsis Nutt.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Quercus gambelii;  

Quercus gambelii Nutt. “Gambel Oak”


Literature Cited:
- Jercinovic, Gene, n.d..
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.  

William Gambel (June 1823 – December 13, 1849) was an American naturalist, ornithologist, and botanist from Philadelphia. As a young man he worked closely with the renowned naturalist Thomas Nuttall. At the age of eighteen he traveled overland to California, becoming the first botanist to collect specimens in Santa Fe, New Mexico and parts of California.

In March 1841, at the age of eighteen, Gambel set off on his own for California to collect plants and other specimens for Nuttall. He planned to take a more southerly route than that taken in 1834 by Nuttall and John Kirk Townsend. Upon reaching Independence, Missouri he joined a group of traders and headed for Santa Fe following the Santa Fe Trail. Gambel reached Santa Fe in June and spent the next couple months collecting plants. In September Gambel joined a party heading to California and accompanied them along the Old Spanish Trail, arriving in Mexican Alta California in early November, 1841, becoming the first botanist to enter California overland from the east.

Nuttall (1848) described an oak collected on the Rio Grande by William Gambel.

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
Q. Gambelii. Leaves obovate, shortly petiolate, narrowed below, sinuately lobed, dilated and somewhat 3-lobed at the summit, beneath pubescent, the lobes rather obtuse, the upper ones subdentate ; fruit sessile, small, the cup hemispherical, scales ovate-acute ; the glande ovate and acute, about half immersed in the cup ; the conic summit short.
HAB. On the banks of the Rio del Norte, but not abundant. With the aspect of our northern oaks, but very distinct ; in the leaf approaching a little to L. obtusiloba, but without any near affinity. [The Rio del Norte is now called the Rio Grande. – Ed.]


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Comandra umbellata pallida;  

Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. ssp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl. “Pale Bastard Toadflax.”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Linnaeus (1753) first described Comandra umbellata from plants collected in Virginia and Pennsylvania.
Original Text Comments
umbellatum THESIUM floribus umbellatis, foliis oblongis.
Centaurium luteum afcyroides virginianum. Plnk. mant. 43. t. 342. f. 1.
Habitat in Virginiae, Penfylvaniae pafcuis ficcis Kalm.
Radix . Folia alterna, ovali-lanceolata, integerrima. Rami alterni, in fummitate caulis: Umbellulae terminales: involucro tetraphyllo, parvo: Flofculi 5.
“Kalm Petr. Plante canadenfes propediem edendae.” Although, I think his first name was actually “Pehr” and that his name is the source of the genus Kalmia.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) defined a new genus, Comandra, and places the North American Thesium into it. Nuttall also suggests that some of Linnaeus' eastern hemisphere Thesium might belong in Comandra.
Original Text Comments
233. *COMANDRA.† Thesium. L. Calix angular, tubular-campanulate, coalescing with an internal 5-toothed, glandulous disk. Petals 5, ovate, ingrafted upon the margin of the calix, persistent. Anthers attached to the petals by a tuft of filaments! Germ 3-seeded, immersed in the glandulous disk. Capsule valveless, 1-seeded, coated by the base of the calix.
Perennial, root ligneous, stem herbaceous; leaves simple, alternate, stipules none; radical gemmaceous scales numerous, persistent; flowers in a corymbulose terminal panicle.
Species. 1. C. umbellata
Thesium umbellatum. Linn. Willd. Sp. Plant.
Stem round and erect, sending out 2 or 3 infertile beanches below the panicle. Leaves approximating, erect, oblong-ovate, obtuse, smooth, reflected in the margin, and reticulately veined. Panicle short, ramuli axillary, corymbulose, corymbs about 5-flowered, with 4 involucrate bractes, uppermost peduncles fewer flowered. Calix uniting with the glandulous and nectariferous germinal disk; disk 5-toothed, obtuse. Petals 5, calycine, often 4 and 6, with the same number of stamina, ovate, acute, persistent, growing to the margin of the calix, white, internally villous (Seen through a lens), before expansion parallel. Stamina seated at the base of the petals, alternating with the dentures of the glandulous disk; filaments subulate, about half the length of the petals; anthers oval, 2-celled, connected at their summits to the petals near their base by a fascicle of yellow filaments — Style terete, simple; stigma round, entire; germ about 3-seeded, ovula pendulous, attached to the apex of a filiform contractile funiculus arising from the base of the capsule. Capsule nearly globular, and angular, 1-seeded, not opening, thin and brittle, not osseus, coated by the base of the calix. Seed round, about the size of a small pea, consisting almost entirely of a large carnose and oily perisperm, embryon inverted, small flat, nearly in the axis of the perisperm; radicle superior, thick and obtuse; cotyledons linear and acute.
Obs. The connecting fibres of the petals, appear to be a separation of a portion of the central vessels, for at that point the petal is greenish and callous, and the central nerves there commencing trichotomously, disappear above the connectile fibres, and the rest of the petal is then white.
This plant has some relation to the preceding, and they both appertain to the Natural Order Santalaceae of R. Brown, approaching at the same time very nearly to the Rhamnei of Jussieu. The genus here proposed may probably include some of the species of Thesium indigenous to the Cape of Good Hope.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1857.
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.
- Wikipedia contributors, 2020.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  Suffrutex;
• U. S. Highway 95:   in Lapwai;

Locations: Lapwai.  

DeCandolle (1857) proposed C. pallida from a collection in Oregon Territory.
Original Text Comments
3. C. pallida, foliis lividis inferioribus elliptico-oblongis acutis supremis lineari-acuminatis, lobis perigonii erecto-patentibus. Suffrutex Prope Clear Water, Oregon (Rev. Spalding ! Sub nom. Erroneo C. livide Hook. In h. meo et Boiss.). Caules semipedales, sublignosi, striati, erecti, apice solum ramosi. Folia non pellucida, ima squamaeformia, late ovata, 2 lin. Loga ; media 8-10 lin. Longa, 2-3 lin. Lata, mucronata-acuta, summa variabilia, pleraque 1-2 lin. Solum lata et 5-7 lin. Longa, quaedam latiora vel angustiora breviora. Cymae pauciflorae. Bracteae lineari-lanceolatae, 2 lin. Longae. Pedicelli graciles, lineam longi. Flos ut in C. umbellata, sed lobi magis papilloso-velutini praesertum ad marginem et intus. Differt a C. umbellata praecipue foliis angustis elongatis ramorum non florentium. (v. s.) I assume “Rev. Spalding” was Henry H. Spalding who travelled the Oregon Trail in 1836 and established a mission to the Nez Perce at Lapwai near present-day Lewiston, Idaho. Present-day Lapwai is several miles south of the Clearwater River, just up-river from Lewiston.

“The name C. livide Hook. is erroneous.” This refers to the currently named Geocaulon lividum (Richardson) Fernald.

“In my herbarium and that of Bossier.” The type is now at G: Conservatoire & Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Piehl (1965) states there is a photograph of this type at MICH, but I have been unable to find it online.

β. angustifolia, foliis mediis et superioribus omnibus lineari-acutis. Suffrutex In Novo Mexico (Wright ! N. 1783 in h. Boiss.). Folia ima ut in specimine oregonensi. (v. s.)  

Literature Cited:
- Oliphant, J. Olin, 1934.  

Oliphant (1934) published a paper on the botanical labors of the Reverend Henry H. Spalding. Spalding collected for one year and sent one box of dried plants east. He was apparently stimulated to this activity by contact with Charles A. Geyer, a German botanist, who was in Oregon Country in 1843-44. Spalding sent one box in 1846, which was received in Boston in 1848. By the time that Gray's encouragement for Spalding to continue collecting was sent to him in March 13, 1849, a massacre at Waiilatpu had sent Spalding and others fleeing to Lower Oregon ending his botanical career.

I don't know how Spalding's collections ended up in DeCandolle's herbarium, and why it was he and not Asa Gray who published Spalding's Comandra collections.

Literature Cited:
- Piehl, Martin A., 1965.  

Piehl (1965) wrote a natural history and taxonomy of Comandra. It is almost a monograph, but I don't think we do monographs about single species.
Original Text Comments
The name Comandra is from the Greek Kome (hair) and aner (man), alluding to the hairs superficially attached to the anthers, which actually are not staminal, but develop from the base of the sepals … … The name has frequently been misspelled “Commandra.”  
4. Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Subsp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl, comb. nov.

Comandra pallida A. DC., in DC. Prodr. 14:636-37. 1857
Comandra pallida β angustifolia A. DC., in DC. Prodr 14:637. 1857. Isotypes: New Mexico, in 1851-52, C. Wright 1783 (GH!, NY!).
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. angustifolia (A. DC.) Torr. Rept. U. S. Mex. Bound. Surv. (Bot.) 2 (Part 1): 185. 1859.
Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Var. pallida (A. DC.) M. E. Jones, Proc. Calif. Acad., Ser. 2, 5:722. 1895.
Comandra linearis Rydb., Fl. Rocky Mts. 818, 1066. 1917. Holotype: Green River, Utah, 19 Aug. 1887, S. M. Tracy and Evans 716 (NY!).

Holotype: Clear Water, Oregon (now Idaho), s.d., Rev. Spalding s.n. (G!; photograph 1454 (MICH)) ; two probable isotypes (GH!). Another specimen labeled “plains — Oregon, May 7,” (GH!) could also be type material.  
… subsp. pallida intergrades with both subsp. californica and subsp. umbellata … is also quite variable, but more of the vaiation appears to be correlated with various habitats … contracts with the other species in that it characteristically sprouts from buds which are at or below the soil surface … the aerial part of the plant dying each season ….  
Selected Specimens Examined. COLORADO. Denver Co.: hilltops, Clear Creek near Denver, Clokey & Bethel 3260 (CAS, GH). Collection date: 8 June 1919, also at RM; Piehl does not cite any specimens from RM.

Literature Cited:
- Der, Joshua P., and Daniel L. Nickrent, 2008.  

Der and Nickrent (2008) … phylogenetic analysis supports a Comandra clade consisting of Comandra and Geocaulon lividum, i.e., the C. livide rejected by DeCandolle.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum arcuatum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1401.1, 8 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 1695, 29 Jun 2017;
Full Size ImageInflorescence of Coll. No. 1401.1, Eriogonum arcuatum
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1695, Eriogonum arcuatum  

Eriogonum arcuatum Greene. “Baker's Buckwheat.”

Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum. Near E. flavum, about as large, more extensively caespitose, forming broad matted tufts : leaves oval, obtuse, an inch long or less, abruptly tapering to a rather slender petiole about as long, white-tomentose beneath, pale-green and thinly tomentellous above : scapiform peduncles 6 inches high, bearing a single large sessile involucre and a pair of long-peduncled ones arising from its base, these opposite each other and curving upwards to the length of 1½ to 2 inches : perianths yellow, very sparsely silky-villous : stamens long-exserted.
On hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Colorado, 17 July, 1899. C. F. Baker.

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1901.  

Six weeks later, Greene (1901a) published Eriogonum bakeri.
Original Text
Eriogonum Bakeri. Allied to E. flavum, rahter taller, the branches of the caudex very slender and only loosely leafy, the leaves thin, the elliptic-lanceolate blades 1/2 to 1 inch long, on slender petioles much longer, white-tomentose beneath, sparsely villous above: scapiform peduncles 5 to 8 inches high, erect slender; inflorescence of a sessile involucre and 1 to 3 dichotomous peduncles from its base, the whole number of involucres thus 7 to 9, all turbinate: perianths yellow, small very long-stipitate, silky villous, the inner segments much longer than the outer, all obovate, obtuse.
Black Cañon, 1 Aug., n. 696. Said to be caespitose in rather small tufts. The inflorescence is like that of E. Jamesii, though far less ample; and the real affinity is with E. flavum.

We now treat E. bakeri as a synonym of E. arcuatum.

Original Text
Eriogonum arcuatum Greene, Pittonia 4: 319. 1901. – T.: Hillsides about Pagosa Springs, Archuleta Co., Colorado, 17 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 284. Holotype: NDG (sheet number 118); isotypes: B, BM, E, F, G, GH, K, MO, NDG, NMC, NY, P, POM, RM(2), UC, US. – E. jamesii Benth. Var. arcuatum (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936.  
Eriogonum bakeri Greene, Pl. Baker. 3: 15. 1901. – T.: Black Canyon, Montrose Co., Colorado, 1 Aug 1901, C. F. Baker 696. Holotype: NDG; isotypes: E, G, GH, K, LY, MIN, MO, NY, POM, RM(2), UC, US, VT, W. – E. jamesii Benth. Subsp. bakeri (Greene) S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 118. 1936. Elsewhere, Reveal noted that Greene published E. bakeri six weeks after E. arcuatum.
Eriogonum flavum Nutt., Cat. Pl. Upper Louisiana: [2,] no. 34. 1813. – T.: Variously stated as “in the vicinity of the rocky mountains” or “from the Arikare village,” most likely found in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – A Nuttall sheet at PH with a label alluding to the Rocky Mountains was collected in 1834 and is not original material.  
Reveal lists eight synonyms of E. flavum, two of which are particularly interesting.  
Eriogonum laterifolium Raf. New Fl. N. Amer. 4: 53. 1838. – LT.: Upper Missouri River, probably in South Dakota, Jun 1811, J. Bradbury s.n. Lectotype: BM, designated here; isolectotype: LINN.

The original collection in Rafinesque's possession was probably destroyed, not found at P or PH.

This is one of the few published names I have seen that specifically refer to a Bradbury collection.
Eriogonum sericeum Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2:277. 1813. – T.: “On the prairies of the Missouri [River',” probably in the vicinity of the site of Fort Mandan, Mercer or McLean counties, North Dakota, Jul-Aug 1811, T. Nuttall s.n. Holotype: PH; isotype: P. – E. flavum Nutt. Var. sericeum S. Stokes, Eriogonum: 116. 1936. I assume this was Pursh's view of the same collection that Nuttall published as E. flavum.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.
- SEINet, 2019+.  

The treatment of subfamily Eriogonoideae in Flora of North America was written by Jim Reveal. Eriogonum arcuatum, E. flavum, and E. jamesii are all in subgroup Oligonum, and couplet 20 separates E. arcuatum and E. flavum. (I might add that the original online key contains an HTML coding error that will throw you off, and has been corrected below.) The way I read
Original Text
22 (21) Inflorescences compound-umbellate or, if umbellate or capitate, not of distribution of E. flavum; Colorado Plateau, s Rocky Mountains and w edge of Great Plains from s Wyoming to n Arizona and n New Mexico   129. Eriogonum arcuatum
+ Inflorescences subcapitate or umbellate; n Great Plains and n Rocky Mountains, Wyoming and Nebraska north to Canada and Alaska, west to e Oregon and Washington   133. Eriogonum flavum

The way I read this key, E. arcuatum and E. flavum should not be sympatric. Yet the map of collections determined one of the two taxa in Colorado are definitely geographically intermixed (SEINet, 2020). Similarly, the distribution maps in Ackerfield (2015) show the distributions of the two taxa are quite similar.

Full Size Image
Map of collections determined one of the two taxa of Eriogonum in Colorado

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) do not distinquish between E. arcatum and E. flavum.
Original Text
7b. Flowers E. flavum (Nuttall) [yellow]. Plains to alpine. As we see it, this species consists of various distinctive local forms that probably evolved in isolation. Alpine plants tend to be of shorter stature, with congested umbels (E. arcuatum var. xanthum (Small) Reveal, E flavum subsp. chloranthum (Greene) Stokes). On the eastern plains the inflorescence varies from simple to compound umbels. In the foothills, taller forms have been called E. arcuatum Greene. One might be justified in considering the local races of no nomenclatural significance, and even treating E. jamesii as E. flavum subsp. jamesii.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) distinguishes between E. arcuatum and E. flavum on the basis of pedunculate involucres.
Original Text

4a. Involucres elevated on evident peduncles ... E. flavum var. flavum
4b. Involucres sessile or nearly so ... E. arcuatum


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum effusum;  

Eriogonum effusum Nutt. “Spreading Buckwheat.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.  

Nuttall (1848) described Eriogonum effusum in his description of plants collected by William Gambel. It is, however, a Nuttall collection made on the “… Platte plains …” and therefore on his 1834 journey across the Rocky Mountains. An isotype is at the Gray Herbarium (GH) and can be seen through SEINet.
Original Text Comments
E. *effusum. Suffruticose ; leaves linear, oblong, obtuse, beneath whitely tomentose, above pubescent, greenish ; stem tomentose, two or three times trichotomous, divaricate ; bractes ternate, lanceolate-acute ; (flowers not seen.)  
Stem divided into many simple branches below ; flowering stem bearing bractes only, divided compoundly and numerourly, each division subtended by conspicuous trifid bractes.  
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains. (Nuttall.) I assume that “Nuttall” indicates this is a Nuttall collection rather than a Gambel collections.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Eriogonum umbellatum;  

Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. “Sulphur-Flower Buckwheat.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1827.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.
Original Text Comments
391. R. umbellatum, caule nudo, simplici ; pedunculis elongatis (sub-senis) umbellatis, apice involucrum singulum gerentibus ; calycibus glabris ; laciniis obovatis, basi angustatis, obtusis ; foliis obovato-spathulatis, subtus lanuginosis, supra glabriusculis.  
Desc. Perennial, herbaceous, cespitose. Caudex divided at the base into several branches ; most of the branches short, bearing fasciculi of leaves at the extremity, one of them elongated and resembling a scape ; covered with a copious loose tomentum. Leaves obovate-spathulate, about an inch long, and less than an inch broad, white tomentose beneath, smoothish above. Flowering stem a span high, bearing a simple umbel at the extremity. Peduncles or rays an inch and a half long, wooly, thick, furnished with several oblong-lanceolate leaves at the base. Involucrum about 20-flowered, campanulate, with lanceolate obtuse teeth. Florets distinctly pedicellate. Calyx very smooth ; segments obovate-oblong, obtuse, narrowed at the base. Stamens 9. Seed acutely triangular.  
Hab. With the preceding. The preceding appears to be 390. E. tenellum which is also described as being “… with the preceding …” E. tenellum is known from southeastern Colorado. The next preceding is
389. E. annuum, n. sp. Nutt. Mss. Near the Rocky Mountains. Found also on the Arkansa by Mr. Nuttall. Root annual !
E. annuum is known from eastern Colorado, but not Jefferson County.
Obs. Flowers larger than in E. tomentosum. It is remarkable that Humboldt and Bonpland did not observer any species of Eriogonum in Mexico, as they abound, accoding to Dr. James, about the sources of the Canadian.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 2004.  

Reveal (2004) proposed variety ramulosum.
Original Text
Eriogonum umbellatum Torr. var. ramulosum Reveal, var. nov. TYPE: UNITED STATES. Colorado, Jefferson Co.: Along U. S. Hwy 6 adjacent to I-70, 0.4 mi E of Exit 256 to Buffalo Bill's Grave, N39°42'12", W105°14'32", T4S, R70W, sec. 18, 7100 ft elev., 25 Jul 1992, J. L. Reveal 7244. HOLOTYPE: NY. Isotypes: BY, CAS, COLO, GH, MARY, MO, RENO, RM, RSA, UC, US, UTC.
A Eriogono umbellato var. umbellato inflorescentibus divisis differt.
Plants low, often rather compact, mats 2-4 dm across; leaves in loose rosettes, the leaf-blades mostly elliptic to oval, 1-2.5 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm side, densely white to gray tomentose abaxially, floccose and green adaxially; flowering stems erect, mostly 1-3 dm long, floccose; inflorescences compound umbellate and divided 2-3 times; involucral tubes 2-3 mm long, the lobes 1.5-3 mm long; flowers bright yellow, 4-7 mm.
Other specimens seen
UNITED STATES. Colorado, El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs, Jul 1892, Eastwood s.n. (F, MO, RM); Jefferson Co.: Mt. Vernon Country Club, Golden, 7 Aug 1941, Ehlers 8159 (COLO, MICH, TEX, WTU), Larimer Co.: Cherokee Park, 15 Jul 1934, R. J. Davis 394-W (IDS); Estes Park, 16 Jul 1978, Hampton s.n. (NY); 2.1 mi W of Drake, 9 Aug 1967, Neal & Neal 2 (ASU); Estes Park, Aug 1931, E. C. Smith s.n. (MONT); Big Thompson Canyon, 7500 ft elev., 3 Jul 1934, S. Stokes 201a (RM). Mineral Co.: Piedra, 12 Jul 1899, C. F. Baker 291 (RM).
Eriogonum umbellatum var. ramulosum (from the Latin ramulosus, meaning “with small branches”) is encountered mainly but infrequently along the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains mainly west of Fort Collins south to Colorado Spring then westward to Piedra. Buffalo Bill's sulphur flower is related to var. umbellatum, differing consistently in having a compound umbellate inflorescence.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Atriplex canescens;  

Atriplex canescens (Pursh.) Nutt. “Four-wing Saltbush.”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814, v. 2) …
Original Text Comments
  441. CALLIGONUM. Gen. pl. 834.
canescens. 1. C. dioicum, pulverulento-tomentosum ; foliis lanceolatis, floribus axillaribus glomeratis in apice ramulorum, subspicatus, frictibus alatis, alis venosis cristato-dentatis.
  In the plains of the Missouri, near the Big-bend. ♄. July, Aug. v. s. in Herb. Lewis flowers exceeding small. Goats delight to feed on this shrub.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) …
Original Text Comments
283. ATRIPLEX. L. (Orache.)  
Flowers polygamous. — Calix 5-parted. Corolla none. Style bifid. Feminine flower; calix 2-parted, compressed. Seed vertical.  
Flowers glomerate, paniculate; bisexual; masculine and feminine flowers intermixed, or on separate plants; leaves alternate, rarely subopposite. Mostly annual, rarely shrubby.  
Species. 1. A. *canescens. (Calligonum canescens, Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 370.) Dioicous; pulverulently furfuraceous and canescent; stem shrubby, diffuse; leaves linear-oblong, entire, obtuse, attenuated towards the base, younger leaves acute. — Obs. Stem much branched, and diffuse, about 3 or 4 feet high, with round gray branches. Leaves alternate, 15 to 20 lines long, about 3 wide, sometimes cuneate-oblong, obtuse and now and then emarginate, very entire, covered with the white branny scales common to this and the preceding genus. Flowers dioicous, with 4, 5, and 5 stamens, conglomerated towards the ends of the branches; male clusters (at least the lower ones) pedunculate. Calix of the female flowers 2-parted, becoming indurated, acute, with 4 unequal cristated or dentated angles. Style 1, deeply bifid, exserted.  
Nearly allied to A. portulacoides. Hab. On the denudated saline hills of the Missouri; commencing about 15 miles below the confluence of White river, and continuing to the mountains. Flowering in May.  

2. hortensis.
3. patula. …
4. laciniata.
5. *argentea. …
6. * arenaria. …
Chiefly an European genus, the above excepted, with 1 species at the Cape of Good Hope, 1 in Barbary, 1 in Siberia, 2 in Tartary, from whence A. hortensis is said to have originated, and 1 in Bengal.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Abronia fragrans;  

Abronia fragrans Nutt. Ex Hook. “Snowball Sand Verbena.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phemeranthus parviflorus;

Locations: North Table Mountain.
Full Size ImagePhemeranthus parviflorus on top of North Table Mountain.  

Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nutt.) Kiger. “Sunbright.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) proposed Talinum parviflorum from a manuscript by Nuttall.
Original Text
2. TALINUM. Adans. (in part.); Sims, bot. mag. t. 1357.
Sepals 2, ovate, concave deciduous. Petals 5, sessile, hypogynous. Stamens 10-20, inserted with the petals, and often coherent with them at the base. Style trifid. Capsule subglobose, 3-valved, many-seeded.
§ Stigmas or lobes of the style short, connivent, Perennial herbs, with a short thick and firm stem, and terete subulate fleshy stems : flowers in a terminal dichotomous cyme, expanding for a single day. — Phemeranthus, Raf.
1. T. teretifolium (Pursh): ...
2. T. parviflorum (Nutt. ! mss.): “small; leaves slender; stamens 5?-10.”

On rocks, Arkansas; with te preceding species, Nuttall! — A distinct species, according to Nuttall, with muvh smaller flowers than T. teretifolium.

Literature Cited:
- Kiger, Robert W., 2001.  

Kiger (2001) described new combinations to be used in his treatment of Portulacaceae in Flora of North America.
Original Text Comments
... recent molecular data ... congruent with morphological evidence ... indicates that Phemeranthus is phylogenetically distinct from the mainly Old World Talinum ... ... morphological differences between Phemeranthus and Talinum ...
Phemeranthus parviflorus (Nuttall) Kiger. comb. nov. Basionym: Talinum parviflorum Nuttall, in J. Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 197. 1838. TYPE: U.S.A. Arkansas: n.d., T. Nuttall s.n. (possible isotypes or syntypes, K [in type folder, on sheet with Drummond 34], K [in general herbarium]) There follows some discussion of whether the specimen at K is a type or, if not, further search should be conducted before designating a lectotype.




Literature Cited:
- Ray, John, 1686.
Full Size ImageRay's (1686) description of Aquilegia.  

Latin Automated Translation to English My Interpreted English
Aquilegia recens vocabulum est, quasi Aquilina ob florum mucrones aduncos ut sunt Aquiline ungues. Anglis Columbine dicitur, quia florum calcaria recurva columbarum cervicem cum capite & rostro tum figura tum colore referunt. An veteribus Graecis vel Latinis cognita, aut quo nomine dicta nondum constat. Aguilegia recent designation is, as Aquilina of flowers blades that are AQUILINE hooked claws. English Columbine called for bits of flowers and beaks and curved shape and color the dove's neck and head. Is it known to the ancient Greeks, or to the Latins, the name of which it was said, or not yet been agreed. … flower petals that are like an eagle's hooked claws …
Notae illius genericae sunt folia Umbelliferarum modo divisa, flores penduli cum pluribus corniculis recurvis, femina nigra lucida. Note that the generic Umbelliferarum newspapers are now divided, with many little flowers hanging bend, female black cloud.
Aquilegiam stellatam, quae caret illis corniculis recurvis in flore, pro specie degenere habeo. Aquileia the Star, which has no unto them, little curves that bend in the flower, here standing for species degenerates I have.


  1. “aquiline” like an eagle
    • (of a person's nose) hooked or curved like an eagle's beak.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis columbiana;  

Clematis columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray. “Rock Clematis.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Clematis ligusticifolia;
• Kinney Run Trail:   near Eagle Ridge Drive;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1970, Clematis ligustifolia  

Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt. “Western White Clematis.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Published in Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) from a Nuttall manuscript.
Original Text Comments
8. C. ligusticifolia (Nutt. ! mss.): “plant somewhat pubescent ; flowers in paniculate corymbs, dioecious ; leaves pinnate ternate ; leaflets oblong, acute, mostly somewhat lanceolate-cuneate, incisely toothed and trifid ; petals and stamens equal in length ; carpels with long plumose tails. — C. Virginiana, Hook. fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 1. (in part). It appears that this entire description is a quote from Nuttall's manuscript.
β. brevifolia : leaves smoother, shorter and broader.  
“Plains of the Rocky Mountains, in open and in bushy places, near streams. β in the Blue Mountains and on the borders of the Oregon. — Very similar to C. Virgoniana, but the leaves are mostly 5-foliolate, and almost lucidly coriaceous ; They are also much smaller, and in the var. α much narrower and longer. The tails of the carpels are also longer and more densely plumose in C. Virginiana. Flowers white and fragrant.” Nutt. This must be a composite of Nuttall's knowledge from Wyeth's first set of collections and Nuttall's collections on Wyeth's subsequent expediditon.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Delphinium carolinianum;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1440, 15 Jun 2016;  Coll. No. 2359, 12 Jun 2020;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2359, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1440, Delphinium carolinianum subsp. virescens  

Delphinium carolinianum ssp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks. “Plains Larkspur.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall (1818) described the Plains Larkspur from his collection on the plains of the Missouri.
Original Text
371. DELPHINIUM. L. (Larkspur.)
Calix none. Petals 5. Lepanthium (nectary) bifid, cornutely produced behind. Siliques 3 or 1.
Herbaceous, lower leaves digitate or palmate, upper ones often undivided; flowers spiked or paniculate, blue, violaceous or yellowish.
Species. 1. D. tricorne 2. azureum 3. exaltatum. 4. consolida. Naturalized.
5. *virescens. Perennial, pubescent; lepanthium 4-leaves, shorter than the 5 calicine petals, interior laminae densely bearded; leaves 3-parted, segments linear, subtrifid, lower ones divaricate.
Hab. On the Plains of the Missouri.
Obs. Stem simple about 8 to 12 inches, pubescent; leaves upon long petioles, partly digitate or 5-parted, 10 to 15 lines wide; spike few-flowered, flowers greenish white, petalois calix, 5-leaved, leaves oblong, spur longer than the flower, nearly straight. Petals of lenanthium 4; the 2 internal ones irregularly concave, small, the 2 lateral larger, flat, and unguiculate, bearded, claw sending out a short spur at the base; capsules 3. Flowering in June.
A genus almost equally divided betwixt Siberia and the south of Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Brooks, Ralph E., 1982.
- Warnock, M. J., 1981.  

Original Text Comments
Delphinium carolinianum Walt. subsp. virescens R. E. Brooks, comb. nov. Basionym: D. virescens Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 14. 1818.  
Warnock (1981) treated virescens as a synonym of D. carolinanum subsp. pernardii (Huth) Warnock. Field examinations of numerous individuals combined with mor[hological evaluations, including SEM studies of the seeds, indicate that virescens is sufficiently distinct from pernardii to warrant taxonomic recognition of virescens. Warnock's (op. cit.) concept of subspecies in this group is new, however, and one with which I agree. Subsp. virescens has mostly equally distributed cauline leaves with a few basal leaves and the upper stem and rachis are covered with basally yellow, pustualte (sic) trichomes. It occurs in the eastern Great Plains and adjacent eastern areas from North Dakota south to northeast Texas and Missouri. Subsp. pernardii usually has a distinct basal rosette of leaves with a few cauline leaves, the upper spem is canescent and sparsely pustulate hairy, and the rachis is canescent. The subspecies occurs in the western Great Plains from western Nebraska south to Texas.  

Literature Cited:
- Warnock, M. J., 1995.  


Literature Cited:
- Jabbour, Florian, and Susanne S. Renner, 2012.  

… phylogeny of Delphineae …


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Myosurus minimus;  

Myosurus minimus L. “Tiny Mousetail.”


Literature Cited:
- Linne´, Carl von, 1753.  

Myosurus minimus was first published by Linnaeus (1753), and some other previous works. It's still an accepted name.
Original Text
minimus. 1. MYOSURUS.
Myofurus foliis integerrimis. Hort. Cliff. 177. Fl. Fuet. 261. Roy. Lugdb. 492.
Holofteo affinis Cauda mirus. Bauh. Pin. 190.
Cauda muris. Dod. Pempt 112.
Habitat in Europae collibus apricis aridis. ☉


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Corydalis aurea;  

Corydalis aurea Willd. “Scrambled Eggs.”


Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl Ludwig, 1809.  

Corydalis aurea was published by Willdenow (1809), in an enumeration of plants growing in the Berlin garden.
Original Text Interpretation and Comments
* 8. CORYDALIS aurea.  
C. caule ramoso erecto, siliquis linearibus pedunculo triplo longioribus, foliis glaucis, caulinis biternatis.  
Fumaria aurea. Muhlenberg. nom. inval., does not appear that Muhlenburg published this name.
Habitat in Canada. ♂ D. The Mars sign ♂ indicates the plant is a biennial. D indicates “planta semper sub dio vegetans” — the plant always grows in the open air (?)
Folia glaucescentia bipinnata, pinnis inferioribus alternis, pinnulis alternis sessilibusque simplicibus et partitis, brevibus angustis lineari-lanceolatis utrinque acutis. Flores aurei spicato-racemosi approximati.  


Boechera Á.Löve & D.Löve. “Rockcress”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Boechera fendleri;  

Boechera fendleri (S.Watson) W.A.Weber. “Fendler's Rockcress.”


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1878-1895.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  syntopical;  

Sereno Watson in his work on volume 1 of Gray (1878) Syntopical Flora of North America described our Boechera fendleri as Arabis holboellii var. fendleri.
Original Text
164 CRUCIFERAE Arabis.
A. Holboellii, Hornem. Biennial ...
Var. Fendleri, Watson, n. var. Stems often several and ascending from a biennial root, a foot high, hirsute below with simple of branched hairs, glabrous above : lower leaves roughly stellate-pubescent and petioles ciliate ; the upper glabrous : pods somewhat curved.
— From Colorado, Parry, no. 94, Hall & Harbour, no. 36 ; N. Nevada to New Mexico, Fendler, no. 27, Palmer, Rusby ; and California, Tulare Co., Coville & Funston, no. 1388. (Chihuahua, Wright, no. 1313.)

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward L., 1897.  

Two years later, Greene (1897) published Arabis fendleri differnentiating it mostly on the different pubescent compared to A. holbollii
Original Text
Arabis Fendleri. More slender than the above and less tall, mostly or whiolly destitute of stellate hairs, only the lowest entire oblanceolate leaves very distinctly hirsute-ciliate, and with scattered trifurcated hairs on the lower face, all the upper parts of the plant, including all but the lower cauline leaves, glabrous and glaucus ; the sessile cauline leaves barely auricled, not sagittate : pods mostly less than 2 inches long, scarcely curved, acutish, on spreading or scarcely deflexed pedicels of 1/2 inch or more : seeds in 2 rows, small marginless.
A somewhat variable plant of subalpine situations in the Rocky Mountains from New Mexico to Wyoming ; but in none of its phases does it exhibit the pubescence of A. Holbollii, but always its own, which is chiefly conspicuous as a ciliation of the leaf-margin. The description here drawn mainly from Colorado specimens of my own collecting, which exactly match Fendler's n. 27 from New Mexico, which is the type of Mr. Watson's A. Holbollii Fendleri, in Gray, Syn. Fl. i. 164.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1982.  

Weber (1982) published Boechera fendleri after taking Rollins to task.
Original Text
Love & Love (1976) proposed the genus Bochera to accommodate species of Arabis having the chromosome base number x=7, the type species of Arabis (alpina) having x=8. Rollins (1977) certainly had the right to criticize the Love's for not pointing out morphological evidence to support their separation on cytogenetic grounds. But at the same time, the difference in basic chromosome number, especially when it continues to be borne out on examination of other species, does represent a divergent phylogenetic line, and the genetic barrier that it presents to interbreeding of the units is sufficient justification for thinking in terms of discrete genera. However, Rollins is not scientifically objective when he says that “their describing a new genus to accommodate perfectly ordinary species of Arabis has no merit and shoule not be followed.” Posterity, rather than appeal to authority, should be allowed to decide the wisdom of this.
Rollins himself says earlier that “those species if North America most closely to Arabis of Eurasia have the same basic chromosome number pattern, i.e., x=8, whereas those species with a somewhat different circle of close affinity [my italics] are based on x=7.” Even a cursory examination of Arabis in the herbarium results in fairly easy separations: the loose slender root systems, large and numerous cauline leaves, most commonly toothed in Arabis, versus the short clustered caudices, small or absent and almost always entire cauline leaves of Boechera. The often very dense indument of forked or stellate trichomes of Boechera is not a characteristic feature of Arabis.
Even with Boechera removed, Arabis in America remains a genus in need of additional fragmentation. One group in particular deserving attention is the purple-flowered species endemic in the ancient Siskiyou area of southwestern Oregon and northwestern California (cf. Rollins 1977). At present, however, I am confining transfers to those taxa in the Colorado flora.
BOECHERA FENDLERI (S. Wats.) W. A. Weber, comb. Nov. Arabis holboellii var. fendleri S. Wats. In Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Am. 1:164. 1895.
Love, Askell & Doris Love. 1976. Nomenclatural notes on Arctic plants. Bot. Not. 128:497-523.
Rollins, Reed C. 1973. Purple-flowered Arabis of the Pacific Coast of North America. Contrib. Gray Herb. 204:149-154.
Rollins, Reed C. & Lily Rudenberg. Chromosome numbers of Cruciferae III. Contrib. Gray Herb. 207:101-116. 1977,


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erysimum asperum;
• Glossary:  divaricate;  

Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. “Prairie Wallflower.”


Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Original Text
527. ERYSIMUM. Gen. pl. 1090.
lanceolatum. 3. E. foliis lanceolatis inferioribus dentatis, unguibus calyce longioribus,' laminis orbiculato-obovatis, stigmate sessili. Ait. Kew. Ed. 2. t. 4. p. 116.
Chieranthus erysimodes. Willd. Sp. Pl. 3. p. 514.
Icon. Jacq. Fl. Austr. 74.
On the banks of the Missouri. ♂. June. v. s.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  asperate;  

Original Text
462. CHEIRANTHUS. L. (Wall-flower. Stock.)
Calix closed; 2 of the leaves gibbous at the base. Petals dilated. Disk of the germ biglandulous. Silique compressed or terete. Stigma bilobed. Seeds flat, sometimes marginated.
Herbaceous or suffruticose; leaves more or less pubescent, entire or pinnatifid; flowers yellow or purple, large, and often odorous. A genus very nearly allied to Hesperis and to the entire leaved species of Erysimum, excluding E. Alliaria.
Species. 1. C. Pallasii. Ph.—North West Coast. 2. *asper. Stem simple, and acutely angular; leaves canescently polise, sublinear, entire, margin acculeately and retrorsely asperate, radical fasciculated attenuated-sublanceolate, acute, retrorsely toothed; silique very long quadrangular and divaricate; claws of the petals longer, than the calix. Cheiranthus erysimoides. Ph. Hab. On the plains of the Missouri, commencing near the colfluence of the White river. Fl. June. Obs. Biennial. Stem 12 to 18 inches high, mostly simple, but now and then branching towards the summit. Leaves every where covered with white short, retrorse, strigose and appressed hairs; margin aculeolate, stem leaves crowded, 2 or 3 lines wide and 2 inches long. Flowers very similar to those of C. Cheiri, and almost equally odorous. Calix oblong, 2 of the leaves distinctly gibbous at the base. Petals dilated, claws long, limb broud obovate, bright yellow. Stigma bilobed. Silique 2 or 3 inches long, spreading, 4-sided, 2 of the angles asperate.
A genus of about 40 species, indigenous to Europe and the temperate and colder parts of Asia and Africa in both hemispheres.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1818.  

Original Text
29. Erysimum asperum

Erysimum lanceolatum. Pursh. fl. bor. am. 2. p. 436.
Chieranthis asper. Nutt. gen. am. 2. p. 69.*
Hab. in campis Missouriensibus (Nutt.). (2) fl. jun. (v. s. sp. in h. Banks et Lamb.)


Literature Cited:
- Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A., and Steve L. O'Kane, 2002.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  cytology;  


The taxonomic world knew for a long time that keeping Physaria and Lesquerella separate was very tenuous. More recently molecular data clearly showed that Physaria is nested within Lesquerella. Also, the data showed that Physaria evolved more than once from Lesquerella. Regardless of how many times Physaria evolved from Lesquerella, Physaria is polyphyletic and Lesquerella definitely paraphyletic. The two genera could no longer be maintained separately on either molecular, morphological, cytological, biogeographic, or ecological grounds. Therefore the two genera should be combined. Physaria is the older of the two names and thus has priority, but there are far more species in Lesquerella. It might make more sense to conserve Lesquerella and transfer the Physaria thereto. An proposal to conserve the name Lesquerella against Physaria was made to the Committee for Spermatophyta (2000). However, the proposal was denied. Therefore, names in Physaria were proposed for most of the former Lesquerella (Al-Shehbaz & O'Kane, 2004).

One of the taxa transferred to Physaria was P. montana a bladderpod found in Jefferson County, including Golden.

Seven taxa of Physaria have been reported for Jefferson County. Four of the taxa are unlikely to occur here, as the collections are misidentified or otherwise quesitonable data. The three confirmed Jefferson County taxa are:

  • P. bellii
  • P. montana
  • P. vitulifera
The four spurious reports of Physaria in Jefferson County are:
  • P. acutifolia — there may be two collections of P. acutifolia from the Evergreen - Kittridge - Parmalee Gulch area. They are old records and a bit sketchy. Otherwise this is an western slope taxon.
  • P. didymocarpa -- misidentified, two vouchers at YU, duplicate at CS9266 determined P. vitulifera.
  • P. floribunda — western slope taxon. Data point from NY showing P. floribunda in Golden is misidentified.
  • P. rollinsii — generally known only from the Gunnison River basin, except for Rollins No. 5151, July 6, 1951, 2 miles west of Deckers, GH 01691383, which has been annotated P. rollinsii, date and name of annotator unknown.

The following key is abstracted from Ackerfield (2015).

(1b.) Fruit (and ovary) pubescent with stellate hairs … 4
(4b.) Plants not present in the alpine, found below 11,000 ft in elevation … 6
(6b.) Inflorescence usually obviously exceeding the leaves, or if included then the plants otherwise unlike the above; plants sometimes mound-forming, but the mounds usually not small and button-like … 8
(8b) Mature fruiting pedicels S-curved (sigmoid), ascending, or sometimes horizontal … 12
(12a) Plants of the eastern slope … 13

(13a) Fruit entire at the apex, not or only slightly inflated; ovules 4-20 per ovary … 14
(14a) Basal leaves suborbicular, obovate, or elliptic, mostly over 4 mm wide (rarely narrowly elliptic and 2-3 mm wide), usually with a well-defined petiole; stem leaves usually secund; ovules (8) 12-24 per ovary … P. montana

(13b) Fruit notched at the apex (didymous), usually inflated; ovules 4 per ovary … 16
(16b) Plants of the foothills, absent from the northeastern plains; fruit not conspicuously broader at the apex or appearing flared from the base … 17

(17a) At least some basal leaf margins deeply and broadly incised, rarely almost entire … P. vitulifera

(17b) Basal leaf margins shallowly dentate or entire … 18
(18a) Basal leaves gradually tapering to an ill-defined petiole; fruit 2-8 mm wide … P. bellii


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physaria vitulifera;  

Physaria vitulifera Rydb. “Roundtip Twinpod.”


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1901.  

Rydberg (1895) described a new Physaria that he called P. vitulifera from a collection he made at Idaho Springs. An image of this specimen at NY is available through SEINet. Rydberg (1895) also cited a collection by Parry made in 1861 in the headwaters of Clear Creek. An image of this voucher at GH is also available through SEINet.
Original Text Interpretation
Physaria vitulifera sp. Nov.  
A densely tufted finely stellate-pubescent perennial with deep tap-root. Basal leaves numerous, fiddle-shaped, the larger 4-5 cm. long ; terminal lobe nearly orbicular to broadly obovate, subentire, obtuse ; upper sinuses rounded : lateral lobes 1-2 pairs, much smaller : stems ascending, or decumbent, 1-2 dm. high : stem-leaves 1-2 cm. long, obovate or oblanceolate, entire : pedicels short, usually curved in fruit : sepals about 4 mm. long, oblong, acute : petals clawed, 8-9 mm. long : fruit obtuse at the base, deeply divided above ; cells much inflated, round-obovate, divergent, about 5 mm. in diameter : style about 5 mm. long.  
This species, as well as the two following, differs from P. didymocarpa in the smaller fruit, which is divided only above, not at the base. In this respect they resemble P. Newberryi ; but the fruit is much smaller and not flattened on the sides. P. vitulifera differs from the following in the form of the leaves and the curved pedicels. It grows in dry places at an altitude of about 2500 m. The "following" are Physaria floribunda and Physaria acutifolia.
Colorado : Idaho Springs, 1895, P. A. Rydberg (type); Middle Park, 1861, C. C. Parry, 101.  

Rydberg's (1901) description of P. floribunda cites “Hills about Golden, 1892, Crandall, 53.” This collection can be found by searching SEINet for collections of Physaria by Crandall in 1892. Vouchers at CS and GH have been determined P. vitulifera. A voucher at YU has two specimens, determined as P. didymocarpa, one labelled as “Hills about Golden” and the other as “Hills about Dolores.” The Golden specimen looks more like Physaria montana than either P. vitulifera, P. floribunda, or P. didymocarpa.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rorippa sinuata;  

Rorippa sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Spreading Yellowcress.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Original Text Comments
5. N. sinuatum (Nutt.! mss.): “ decumbent ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments lanceolate, subserrtat or toothed on the lower margin ; pedicels spreading or recurved, longer than the oblong acute silique ; style nearly one-third the length of the silique.  
“Banks of the Oregon and its tributaries ; also in Arkansas. — Glabrous. Leaves all rqually pinnatifid ; the terminal segments more or less confluent. Flowers rather large, bright yellow. Sepals ovate. Petals oblong-ovate. Silique about one-tird of an inch long, slightly curved.” Nutt. Cotyledons o== “... the Oregon ...” is a synonym for the Columbia River.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heuchera parvifolia;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1655, Heuchera parvifolia  

Heuchera parvifolia Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray. “Littleleaf Alumroot.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

13. H. parvifolia (Nutt.! mss.): scabrous-puberulent ; scape naked ; leaves forming a small radical cluster, roundish-cordate, crenately 5-7-lobed, at length glabrous, ciliate ; the lobes short and rounded ; panicle racemose, rather loose ; bracts small, laciniate-ciliate ; flowers very small ; limb of the calys flat, dilated ; petals minute, caducous ; stamens shorter than the lobes of the calyx ; styles very short, conical. Typically when quoting a Nuttall manuscript, Torrey & A. Gray will place double quotes around the description. They did not do so in this case. I assume that was a printer's oversight in this case, and is not significant.
Rocky Mountains, Dr. James! Blue Mountains of Oregon, Nuttall! — Caudex somewhat ligneous, thick. Leaves an inch or more in diameter ; the lobes with one or two crenatures, not mucronate. Scape 8-12 inches : panicle branching below. Calyx-tube obconic, adherent nearly to the summit of the ovary. Filaments very short and thick, subulate : anthers large for the size of the flower. Seeds hispid. — Mr. Nuttall supposes this species to be nearly allied to H. Richardsonii. It seems to us, however, to form, with the succeeding species, a very well-marked section. The succeeding was “14. H. hirtiflora …”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Saskatoon Serviceberry;  

Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. “Saskatoon Serviceberry”


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.  

Collected by Lewis & Clark on April 15, 1806 at The Dalles of the Columbia River. However, it was not published by Pursh.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageNuttall (1818) description of Aronia alnifolia.  

Order IV. — Pentagynia

340. Aronia. Persoon. Mespilus. L.

Calix 5-toothed. Petals 5. Berry inferior 5 to 10-celled; cells 1 or 2-seeded. Seeds cartilaginous.

Shrubs without spines, having alternate undivided leaves, and flowers which are corymbose or racemose, generally white; fruit a small black purple or scarlet pomois berry, containing seeds similar to those of apples.

Species. 1. … 6. * Alnifolia. Smooth: leaves roundish, upperpart toothed, pinnately nerved, under side somewhat glaucous; raceme simple, elongated; fruit black and sweet. Habitat. In ravines and on the elevated margins of small streams from Fort Mandam to the Northern Andes. Observation. A shrub 4 or 5 feet high; leaves roundish and retuse, somewhat attenuated at the base, toothed towards the summit; fruit dark purple, somewhat pruinose, very agreeable and saccharine; ripening about July and August.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1834) use of the name Amelanchier alnifolia  

In 1834, Nuttall referred to Amelanchier alnifolia in his review of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth:

37. Amelanchier alnifolia. Source of the Missouri.

Unfortunately this possible publication of a new name for the taxon is invalid because there is no reference (either direct or indirect) to the intended basionym Aronia alnifolia Nutt. (1818).

Literature Cited:
- Roemer, M. J., 1847.
Full Size ImageRoemer (1847) description of A. alnifolia  

Roemer validly published Amelanchier alnifolia in 1847, referring to Nuttall's 1834 use of the name.
3) prope apicem tantum serrata, subrotunda v. late elliptica, utrinque obtusissima v. retusa ; racemi densiflori ; petala lineari-oblonga, calyce 3–4plo longiora; stamina brevissima.

18. A. alnifolia Nutt. In Joun. Acad. Philad. VII. 22

A. ovalis β semiintegrifolia Hook. L. c. 201. – G.Don l. c.

A. canadensis δ alnifolia Torr. & A.Gr. l. c.

Aronia alnifolia Nutt. gen. I. 306

Pyrus alnifolia Ser. l. c. 637. 39.G.Don l. c. 649. 56.

Ad flum. Columbia pr. Fort Vancouver et ad “the grand Rapids,” in editoribus ad flumen Multnomah. 5 5.

Literature Cited:
- Jones, George Neville, 1946.  



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla fissa;  

Potentilla fissa Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray. “Bigflower Cinquefoil.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Original Text
34. P. fissa (Nutt.! mss.): “viscidly pubescent ; stem erect, branching, leafy ; leaves pinnately 9-11-foliolate, on shory petioles ; leaflets unequal, roundish or oval, deeply incised or incisely toothed, the teeth entire ; stipules entire or toothed ; flowers rather crowded ; segments of the calys ovate, acute, shorter than the roundish (sulphur-yellow) petals.”
β. major : larger in all its parts ; flowers more crowded. — P. arguta, Nutt.! in jour. acad. Philad. 7. p. 21, not of Pursh. P. glutinosa, Nutt.! July.
Plains of the Rocky Mountains towards the Oregon, Nuttall! July. β Headwaters of the Oregon, Capt. Wyeth! — “Stem about a span high. Leaflets small, the lower ones roundish ; those of the upper cauline leaves ovate. External sepals much smaller, often toothed. Flowers rather large.” Nutt. — The plant which we have joined as a variety of this species seems to be a larger plant, and bears more resemblance to P. arguta.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Potentilla rivalis;  

Potentilla rivalis Nutt. “Brook Cinquefoil.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis
Full Size ImageTernate leaf of Coll. No. 1682.1, Potentilla rivalis  

Original Text
2. P. rivalis (Nutt.! mss.) : “clothed with soft somewhat viscous pubescence ; stem erect, much branched ; radical leaves pinnately 5-foliate ; the leaflets crowded, and the 3 upper ones confluent ; those of the cauline leaves 3, often confluent, oblong, cuneiform at the base, coarsely serrate ; stipules ovate, nearly entire ; flowers numerous, small, on rather short pedicels ; calyx-segments acute ; petals inconspicuous; achenia smooth and even.
“In alluvial soil along the Lewis River.&rdquo July. — A very distinct species, allied to P. Norvegica. Cauline leaves small. Flowers inconspicuous.


Astragalus crassicarpus Nutt. “Groundplum Milkvetch.”



Lupinus argenteus Pursh

  Harrington (1954) and Ackerfield (2015) neither use keel decoration as a key character nor do they describe the decoration of the keel. California floras, e.g., Munz (1965) and Baldwin (2012), use a ciliate keel, as a key character to identify L. argenteus. Welch, et al. (1993) note that the keel can be glabrous or variously ciliate.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Thermopsis rhombifolia;  

Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely. “Spreadfruit Goldenbanner”


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.  

Fraser's (1813) Catalogue, most likely written by Nuttall, is the first reference to T. rhombifolia.
Original Text Comments
26. *Cytisus rhombifolius. ‡ Fl. not seen. I am a little surprised this is not marked by an “M” from the Missouri because in Nuttall (1818), two paragraphs down, Nuttall will tell us that he collected this plant at Fort Mandan.

Symbols used by Fraser (Nuttall).
* – New Species.
‡ – Perennial.
M. – from the Missourie. ;

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (1814) published Cytisus rhombifolia in the supplement to Vol. 2 of his Flora Americae Septentrionalis. Many of the entries in the supplement were Bradbury collections or from Nuttall descriptions in Fraser's Catalogue.
Original Text
Cytisus rhombifolius — C. pubescens ; racemis terminalibus erectis, leguminibus falcatis subarticulatis, foliolis oblongo-rhomboideis obtusis, stipulus rotundato-ovatis obliquis.

C. rhombifolius. Fraser. Catal. 1813.
In Upper Louisiana. Bradbury. v. s. in Herb. Bradbury. The stipulae are large and foliaceous ; the specimen I have seen was in fruit, and Mr. Bradbury has seen only one plant in flower.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  carina;  vexillum;  

Nuttall (1818) published it as Thermia rhombifolia eschewing the Thermopsis of R. Brown.
Original Text
401.THERMIA. Thermopsis. R. Brown. Hort. Kew. 3. p. 3.
Calix subcampanulate, half 4-cleft, the supper segment truncate and emarginate. Corolla papilionaceous, petals nearly equal in length; vexillum reflected at the sides; carina obtuse. Legume compressed and falcate, attenuated at the base, many-seeded.
Herbaceous; leaves ternate petiolate, stipules large and foliaceous; spikes terminal, interrupted, subverticillate, erect; flowers yellow. Very distinct in habit from Cytisus but requires further comparison with that genus?
Species. 1. *rhombifolia. Leaflets rhombi-ovate … … raceme interrupted. Cytisus rhombifolius T. N. in Fras Catal. 1813. Pursh, Flor. Am. Sept. 2. p. 741. Suppl. Obs. Roots perennial … … — On denudated argillaceous hills near Fort Mandan. This plant is very closely allied to Sophora lupinoides of Pallas, Thermopsis lanceolata of Brown, and they appear inseparable in genus, that species when in perfection produces a long verticillated spike of flowers; some of Pallas's specimens, however, in the herbarium of A. B. Lambert, Esq., have a single verticill of flowers only as in the starved specimen figured in the Botanical Magazine, in this species the leaves are on both sides closely covered with a silky villous; the primary leaves it appears occur sometimes simple but always accompanied by the stipules after the manner of Baptisia.

Literature Cited:
- Richardson, John, 1823.  

Richardson (1823) wrote the botanical appendix for Franklin's (1823) report of the voyage to the polar sea.
Original Text Comments

No. VII.




The collections of Pallas and Pursh, now belonging to Mr. Lambert, rendered the power of referring to his valuable Herbarium an object of the utmost importance to me ; and the desire of promoting the science, whoch so eminently distinguishes his character, induced him cheerfully to accord it. I include this note because it confirms that Lambert had collections made by Pallas. Pallas and Lambert must have been frequent correspondents. This is possibly relevant to explanation of how a Pallas' manuscript describing Chrysocoma nauseosa might have been seen by Pursh.
137. Thermopsis rhombifolia: Nuttall. Am. 1. p. 282. (C.)  

(C.) Denotes the sandy plains in the neighborhood of Carlton, strongly resembling the plains of the Missouri, upon which the American botanists have lately made extensive collections.


Literature Cited:
- Nelson A., 1898.  

Nelson (1898) ...
Original Text Comments
The species of this region, as they now appear to be, are T. montana, T. rhombifolia, and the two proposed species. The fruits of these are very characteristic, a fact shown in the accompanying plate. The four fruiting racemes are all from the Wyoming material, are mature and typical each of its species They were photographed on one plate, hence the size is relatively correct (about one-third natural size).  
Thermopsis rhombifolia n. sp. — … …  
It is found near streams, preferring the moist, rich soil among the open underbrush. Type specimens in Herb. Univ. of Wyo., no. 3424 by Elias Nelson, Pole creek, July 22, 1897 ; and no. 3903 by the writer, Johnson's ranch, Big Laramie river, August 8, 1897.  

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) treated the Colorado taxa at the rank of species, saying, “… The mature or nearly mature fruit is necessary to be sure of the species. Even then some intergradations occur in Colorado plants.”

Literature Cited:
- Isely, Duane, 1978.  

Isely (1978) proposed var. divaricarpa despite recognizing that infraspecific divisions and those with T. macrocarpa are not that well-defined.
Original Text Comments
Thermopsis rhombifolia var. divaricarpa (A. Nels.) Isely, Comb. Nov.  .
Thermopsis divaricarpa A. Nels. Bot. Gaz. 25:275. 1898. Type: United States. Wyoming, Albany Co.: Johnson Ranch, 8 Aug 1897, A. Nelson 3902 (Holotype: RM!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!).  
I view Thermopsis of the western states as one vast complex, but have divided it into two “convenience” species, T. macrophylla of the Pacific states, and T. rhombifolia, which extends east to the high plains. These combinations provide the needed names. Isely also proposed var. montana based on a Nuttall type, and var. ovata based on T. ovata Robinson ex Piper.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittman (2012) treat Thermopsis rhombifolia, T. montana, and T. divaricarpa at the rank of species.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) ...
Original Text Comments
This is a polymorphic species with considerable variation and is often divided into three species (T, divaricarpa, T. montana, and T. rhombifolia). However, when one examines all three species together, considerable overlap in morphology is evident. … Intermediates between all three taxa can be seen where their ranges overlap.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Vicia ludoviciana;  

Vicia ludoviciana Nutt. “Louisiana Vetch.”


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

Original Text
8. V. Ludoviciana (Nutt. mss.): glabrous (except the young shoots) ; leaflets 10-12, elliptical or obovate, obtuse or emarginata ; stipules subulate, simple or semisagittate ; peduncle 2-6-flowered, at length longer than the leaves ; flowers (minute) closely approximated ; teeth of the calyx broad, acuminate, shorter than the tube ; legume broadly sabre-shaped, glabrous, 5-6-seeded ; seeds compressed, dark brown.
Grassy places on the Red River, and in Texas, Dr. Leavenworth! “In Louisiana, M. Tainturier,Nuttall. May. — ♃ Stem 2-3 feet long, rather stout, strongly angled, climbing. Leaflets 6-8 lines long, 2 lines wide, commonly emarginate. Stipules very small. Flowers blue, smaller than in V. Cracca, rarely solitary, onten 2-6 on a peduncle. Calyx hairy. Keel marked with a deep blue spot at the summit. Legume ¾ of an inch long and 3 lines wide. — Mr. Nuttall in his manuscript describes the peduncles as 1-2 flowered, which is the case in some of our specimens; but the peduncles are more commonly at least 4-flowered.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:   Rhus trilobata;
Full Size ImageRhus trilobata at the southern end of the Survey Field.  

Rhus trilobata Nutt. Squawbush.

Rhus L. is a Linnean name published in his Species plantarum in 1753, although the name had been previously used in six other works that Linnaeus cites. The genus is native to temperate and tropical Asia, Europe, Africa, the Pacific region, and North and South America. There are ten other names that are synonyms for Rhus including Lobadium Raf. that is now treated as a group within Rhus and contains our R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Aiton, William, 1789.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  ♄;
Full Size ImageAiton (1789) description of Rhus aromatica  

Since Rhus trilobata is sometimes reduced to the rank of variety or subspecies under Rhus aromatica Ait. we need to understand the source of that name and its distribution. R. aromatica was described from a plant growing in the Kew Gardens, in 1789. The plant was provided to the garden in 1772 by John Bartram. The source of the plant was “Carolina,” which we now separate into North and South Carolina. Aiton's description is:
Mixed Latin and English My Interpretation of the Mixed Latin and English
11. R. foliis ternatis : foliolis sessilibus ovato-rhombeis inciso-serratis pilosiusculis.
Aromatic Sumach.
Nat. of Carolina. Mr. John Bartram.
Introd. 1772.
Fl. May.     H. ♄.
11. R[hus] leaves in three parts : leaflets sessile, ovate-rhomboid, serrate, puberulent(?).
Aromatic Sumac.
Native to Carolina. [Collected by] Mr. John Bartram.
Introduced (to Kew Garden) in 1772.
Flowers in May.       Hardy. Shrubby.
As was common at the time, Aiton used the astrological sign for Saturn to indicate shrubby plants.
Full Size Image
Abbreviations used by Aiton (1789)

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.
Full Size ImageNuttall's description of Rhus trilobata in Torrey & Gray (1838).  

Rhus trilobata was published by Torrey & Gray (1838-1843) from a manuscript written by Nuttall. From the location “Rocky Mountains” and the date of publication — 1838 — it is likely Nuttall made his collection on the Nathaniel Wyeth expedition of 1834-1836 (Graustein, 1967, pp. 277-304).

It seems as though the author should be “Nutt. ex Torrey & A. Gray,” but no one seems to spell it out that way.

§ 3. Flowers dioecious or polygamous : disk glandular, deeply 5-lobed (lobes opposite the petals) : drupe globose, villous : nut smooth, compressed: flowers in short aments, preceding the leaves. Leaves 3-foliolate. — Lobadium, Raf.
8. R. aromatica (Ait.) …
9. R. trilobata (Nutt ! Mss.) : “leaves glabrous, small ; lateral leaflets obovate, obtuse, 3-lobed at the apex or nearly entire ; terminal leaflet cuneiform, 3-lobed at the summit, the middle lobe sometimes 3-toothed.
“In the central chain of the Rocky Mountains. — A low leafy shrub ; the leaves much smaller than in R. aromatica : terminal leaflet broad, ½–1  inch in length ; lateral ones smaller. Drupes scarlet, acid ; the nut flat, scarcely striate.” Nutt.

Graustein (1967), Nuttall's biographer, does not mention Rhus trilobata or Nuttall's collection of it.

Literature Cited:
- Watson, Sereno, 1871.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus trilobata, Barkley, 1937;

Locations: Raft River Mountains. Salt Lake Valley.  

The Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel was a geological survey made by order of the Secretary of War under the direction of Brig. and Bvt. Major General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, by Clarence King, U. S. geologist. More commonly known as the Fortieth Parallel Survey, the survey conducted field work from 1867 to 1872, exploring the area along the fortieth parallel north from northeastern California, through Nevada, to eastern Wyoming.

Volume 5, Botany, was written by Sereno Watson (1871) with the assistance of Drs. Gray and Torrey and others. Asa Gray reduced R. trilobata to the rank of variety, which was published in this volume by Watson.

Rhus aromatica, Ait., Var. trilobata, Gray. (R. trilobata, Nutt.) Leaves small, rarely exceeding 1' in length, usually glabrous ; leaflets lobed, the divisions entire or sparingly crenate. — Growing in dense leafy clumps, 3-6° high, and having a heavy disagreeable odor, It is the prevalent western form, extending from Western Texas to Southern California, and throughout the Rocky Mountains to the Upper Missouri. Found on the foot-hills around Salt Lake Valley and at the north base of the Raft River Mountains, Utah. (219.)

The Raft River Mountains are just northwest of the Great Salt Lake. The number (219) is the collection number that Watson applied when he distributed the specimens.

Full Size Image
Gray's description of Rhus aromatica var. trilobata in Watson (1871).

Literature Cited:
- Barkley, Fred Alexander, 1937.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica var. trilobata, Watson, 1871;  

Barkley (1937) treats both Rhus aromatica and R. trilobata at the species rank. R. aromatica var. trilobata Gray (in Watson, 1871) is placed in synonomy with R. trilobata. No comment is made regarding the treatment of either species, except that R. trilobata is an
... extremely variable assemblage of plants probably best treated taxonomically as a single polymorphis species running into several more of less consistent geographic variations…
Barkley also recognizes eight varieties of R. trilobata.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt. Ex T. & G. and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkley.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, W.A., B.C. Johnston, and R. Whittmann., 1981.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata, Weber, 1989;  

Weber, et al. (1981) published Rhus aromatica Ait. subsp. pilosissima (Engelm.) W. A. Weber, without the similar new combination for R. trilobata. This will be corrected in Weber (1989).

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1989.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Rhus aromatica, Weber, et al., 1981;  

Rhus aromatica Ait. Subsp. trilobata (Nutt.) W.A. Weber was published in Weber (1989) with the following explanation:
This is a combination inadvertantly omitted from an earlier treatment of Rhus (Weber, et al. 1981).
Neither publication gives any hint of why Weber reduces R. trilobata to a variety of Rhus aromatica

Literature Cited:
- Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins, 1993.  

Welsh et al. (1993) accept R. aromatica var. trilobata, and one variety, var. simplicifolia (Greene) Conq.

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Allison J., David A. Young, and Jun Wen, 2001.  

Miller, et al. (2001) paper about the phylogeny and biogeography of Rhus based on ITS sequence data is hidden behind a paywall.
Abstract. Rhus L. (sensu lato) has been considered the largest and most widespread genus in the Anacardiaceae. Controversy has surrounded the delimitation of the genus. Historically, seven segregate genera have been recognized: Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Melanococca, Metopium, Searsia, and Toxicodendron. These genera, together with Rhus s.str., are commonly referred to as the Rhus complex. Rhus s.str. Includes two subgenera, Lobadium (ca. 25 spp.) and Rhus (ca. 10 spp.). Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to examine the monophyly of Rhus s.str. And to provide insight into the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of the genus. The ITS data set indicates that Rhus s.str. Is monophyletic. Actinocheita, Cotinus, Malosma, Searsia, and Toxicodendron are distinct from Rhus s.str., although the relationships among these genera of the Rhus complex are not well resolved. Rhus subgenus Rhus is paraphyletic; the monophyletic subgenus Lobadium is nested within it. The ITS data set indicates that, for Rhus, the Madro-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Lobadium) had a single origin within the Arcto-Tertiary floristic element (subgenus Rhus).

Literature Cited:
- Yi Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2004.  

Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification of Rhus (Anacardiaceae) in the Northern Hemisphere

Literature Cited:
- Yi, Tingshuang, Allison J. Miller, and Jun Wen, 2007.  

Yi, et al. (2007) published a similar paper on phylogeny of Rhus based on sequences of nuclear and chloroplast genetics found that

(1)Species of Rhus form a monophyletic group … (9) R. aromatica and R. trilobata are sister taxa.

With two notable exceptions … species of subgen. Lobadium were resolved into two clades: … and (2) R. aromatica–R. trilobata and R. integrifolia–R. ovata.

The present distributions of R. microphylla, R. aromatica–R. trilobata, R. lanceolata, and R. copallina indicate that the opportunity for hybridization between some or all of these species exist (and likely existed) in the southwestern U. S. and northern Mexico.

This is one of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, A. R., and T. Terrazas, 2009.  

Andres-Hernandez (2009) published their analysis of leaf architecture of Rhus. This was part of their PhD thesis, and will be integral to a later paper (2014) on phylogeny of Rhus using structural and molecular data.

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) accept R. aromatica Aiton ssp. trilobata (Nuttall) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1989, and one subspecies, ssp. pilosissima (Engelmann) W. A. Weber, which Weber published in 1981.

Literature Cited:
- Andres-Hernandez, Agustina Rosa, Teresa Terrazas, Gerardo Salazar, and Helga Ochoterena, 2014.  

For R. aromatica, the leaf texture is described as membraneous and the aureole is described as imperfect. For R. trilobata, the leaf texture is described as chartaceous and the aureole is described as incomplete.

This is another of several phylogeny of Rhus papers that treat both R. aromatica and R. trilobata at the rank of species, although the relative rank of those two entities is not central to the purpose of those papers.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield (2015) accepts Rhus trilobata Nutt., placing R. aromatica Aiton in synonomy, and accepts three varieties: var. simplicifolia (Greene) Barkl., var. pilosissima Engelm., and var. trilobata.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Sphaeralcea coccinea;  

Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb. “Scarlet Globemallow.”


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.

Locations: Marias River.  

Moulton (1999) presents two vouchers of Sphaeralcea coccinea from the Lewis & Clark herbarium. Both were of the same collection dated July 20, 1806, on the Marias River, Toole County, Montana. The material was separated and some stayed at the Americal Philosophical Society, while some was taken by Pursh to England and ended up in the Lambert Herbarium, which Pursh (1814) cited.

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Fraser's (1813) Catalogue, with at least some entries written by Nuttall, is the first publication of S. coccinea.
Original Text Comments
51 *Malva coccinea. ‡ Flowers scarlet, produced in dense spikes. Met with from the river Platte to the Rocky Mountains. The double dagger (‡) indicates that the plant is a perennial.

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Pursh (Vol. 2, 1816) describes Cristaria coccinea from Fraser's (1813) Catalogue and the Lewis herbarium.
Original Text
553. CRISTARIA. Cavan. ic. 5. p 10.
1. C. undique cano-tomentosa et pilis stellatis obsita ; foliis 3-5-fidis, laciniis incisis acutis, racemis terminalibus, caule diffuso. coccinea.

Malva coccinea. Fraser. Catal.
On the dry prairies and extensive plains of the Missouri. ♃. Aug. Sept. v. v. ; v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers scarlet.
[Long Latin description not reproduced.]  
The singularly stellated fasciculi of hair, placed in the close tomentum, and its bright scarlet flowers, make this plant particularly interesting.  

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Original Text
478. MALVA. L. (Mallow.)
Calix double; the exterior mostly 3-leaved. Petals 5. Capsules many, 1-seeded, disposed orbicularly.
Shrubby or herbaceous; leaves alternate and stipulate, undivided, or palmately lobed; flowers axillary or terminal, solitary, more or less aggregated or racemose. (Pubescence stellate.)
Species. 1. M. abutiloides. 2. caroliniana. A Sida? 3. rotundifolia Introduced. 4. triloba. In Carolina. 5. * coccinea. T. N. in Fras. Catal. 1813. A very beautiful species with scarlet flowers disposed in dense recemes (sic); outer calix wanting, leaves mostly trifid, canescently tomentose. Hab, From the confluence of the river Platte and the Missouri, often extending over the plains in such quantities as to communicate a brilliant redness to thousands of acres. This plant has no sort of affinity to Cristaria, and by the fruit is a genuine Malva.
A genus of more than 60 species, many of them indigenous to tropical America, to the Cape of Good Hope, and some to Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Original Text
81, 82. Malvastrum coccineum : humilis, incanum ; cailibus e basi sublignosa ramosis diffusis ; foliis trisectis tripartitisva, segmentis lateralibus saepius bipartis intermedio trifido, lobis oblongis linearibusve integris seu paucidentatis ; floribus inferioribus solitariis rariusve geminis in axillis foliorum, sperioiribus in racemum strictum digestis ; bracteis subulatis deciduis ; bracteolis involucelli 1-2 setaceis fugacibus ; coccis 9-12 clausis dorso subtiberculatis cano-tomentosis. — Gray, Gen. Ill. t. 219. Cristaria coccinea, Pursh ! Fl. 2. p. 453. Malva coccinea, Nutt. ! Gen. 2. p. 81 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1643. Sida coccinea. DC. Prodr. 1. p. 465 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1. p. 109; Torr. & Gray ! Fl. 1. p. 235. — Var. β dissectum : nanum ; foliis 3-5-partitis, segmentis 3-5-fidis lobisque anguste linearibus. Sida dissecta, Nutt. ! in Torr. & Gray, l. c.; Hook. & Arn. ! Bot. Beech. Suppl. p. 327. — Plains, &c., Santa Fe, and East to Rock Creek and Poñi Creek of the Canadian ; June to September. In flower and fine fruit. Some varying forms as to foliage are distributed under these numbers ; under one of them there are a few specimens of the var. dissecta, or of forms that evidently collect the Sida dissecta of Nuttall with the S. coccinea. I have for several years cultivated this species, from seed brought from the Upper Missouri by Mr. Sprague, and had ascertained that its radicle is inferior, as in Malva. — An account of the genus, of which this is one of the typical species, is given in the subjoined revision of the genera allied to Malva.  

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1913.  

Rydberg (1913) argued that Gray's (1849) Malvastrum should be merged into Sphaeralcea.,
Original Text
Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.

Malva coccinea Nutt. Fras. Cat. 1813.
Cristaria coccinea Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 454. 1814.
Sida coccinea DC. Prod. 1: 465. 1824.
Malvastrum coccineum A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. 4: 21. 1849


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Mentzelia multiflora;  

Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray. “Adonis Blazing Star.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1848, publication details;  

Nuttall (1848) plants collected by William Gambel
Original Text
B. *multiflora. Biennial ? Stem smooth, white and shining, corymbosely branched ; leaves narrow-lanceolate, sinuate, pinnatifid, attenuated below and sessile ; flowers subtended by one or two linear bractes; petals 10, oblong-oval, obtuse; capsule urceolate, with three to four valves ; segments of the calyx long and subulate ; seeds in a double series, winged.
Hab. Sandy hills along the borders of the Rio del Norte. Santa Fe, (Mexico.) Flowering in August.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Gray (1849) placed the plant in Mentzelia in his Plantae Fendleriana.
Original Text
242. M. multiflora. Nutt. Pl. Gamb. in Jour, Acad, Philad. n. ser. 1. p. 180? under Bartonia. Santa Fe ; June, July. Flower seldom open in the day-time. Also along the Arkansas near Bent't Fort ; Sept. (I have not seen the latter specimens.) — The specimens are a foot of more in height, with most of the leaves rather deeply pinnatifid, and flowers about one fourth larger than those of an original specimen of Nuttall's Bartonia pumila in Dr. Torrey's herbarium. with which, except in the greater size, they accord tolerably well. The stems become bright white with age, as in other species. The petals apparently straw-color, perhaps white, are one half or one third of an inch in length, obovate or spatulate and rather obtuse, except with age, exceeding the subulate calyx-segments, and longer than the ovary. The outer filaments are conspicuously dilated. In have the same species, apparently, from Coulter's Californian collection, but with rather larger flowers, and mire interruptedly pinnatifid leaves. In Dr. Torrey's herbarium I notice specimens, for the most part imperfect, referable either to this plant or to M. pumila itself, gathered on the Upper Platte or Arkansas byt Dr. James in Long's expedition, and in the valley of the Rio del Norte, New Mexico, by Lieut. Emory. I can hardly doubt that it is the Bartonia multiflora of Nuttall, although the petals are not quite so large as he describes them. There is a related species in Texas, which I have also flowered in cultivation.* This last species is M. wrightii A. Gray s. nov., which Gray goes on to describe.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coryphantha vivipara;  

Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose. “Beehive Cactus.”


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

Original Text Comments
22 *Cactus viviparus. This species has much the appearance of C. mamillaris, but produces a red flower, like C. Flagelliformis, and a greenish edible fruit, about the size of a grape. Collected near the Mandan towns on the Missourie: lat. near 49°.  

Literature Cited:
- Britton, N. L., and J. N. Rose, 1919-1923.
- Wikipedia contributors, 2020a.  

Britton & Rose (1919-1923, 4 vols.) The Cactaceae is a monograph on plants of the cactus family written by the American botanists Nathaniel Lord Britton and Joseph Nelson Rose and published in multiple volumes between 1919 and 1923. It was landmark study that extensively reorganized cactus taxonomy and is still considered a cornerstone of the field. It was illustrated with drawings and color plates principally by the British botanical artist Mary Emily Eaton as well as with black-and-white photographs.

A black-and-white reprint of the second (1937) edition of The Cactaceae was published by Dover Publications in 1963. In 2006, Daniel Schweich undertook a project to digitize the entire book, and all four volumes can now be downloaded in full color (WikiPedia contributors, 2020a).

Original Text Comments
31. Coryphantha vivipara (Nuttall) Britton and Rose in Britton and Brown, Illustr. Fl. Ed. 2. 2: 571. 1913.  

Cactus viviparus Nuttall, Fraser's Cat. No. 22. 1813.
Mammillaria vivipara Haworth, Suppl. Pl. Succ. 72. 1819
Mammillaria radiosa Engelmann, Bost. Journ. Nat, Hist. 6: 196 1850
Echinocactus radiosus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 107. 1853.
Echinocactus viviparus Poselger, Allg. Gartenz. 21: 107. 1853
Mammillaria vivipara vera Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3: 269. 1856.
Mammillaria vivipara radiosa Engelmann, Proc. Amer. Acad. 3; 269. 1856.
Mammillaria vivipara radiosa Engelmann, Cact. Mex, Bound. 15. 1859, as subspecies.
[Description not reproduced.]  
Type locality: “Near the Mandan towns on the Missouri, lat. Near 49°.”
Distribution: Manitoba to Alberta, Kansas, south to northern Texas and Colorado.
The group to which Coryphantha vivipara belongs has always been very puzzling. Dr. Engelmann, our greatest suthority on this group, was sometimes of one opinion and sometimes of another. Schumann rejected the specific name vivipara of Haworth for this plant since he thought that it was not the same as the vivipara of Engelmann, but in this he must be wrong, for Mammillaria vivipara Haworth was based upon Cactus viviparus Pursh, a name previously used by Nuttall, and both Pursh's and Nuttall's descriptions were based on the specimens collected by Nuttall in “Upper Louisiana” in 1812. This is undoubtedly the plant which Engelmann had in mind and which he called the variety vera. We have not seen the type, but Pursh stated that he had seen flowers in Lambert's Garden.  
Engelmann's remakrs regarding the variability of the species are interesting. In the Proceedings of the American Academy (3: 269) he says:
“The extreme forms are certainly very unlike one another, but the transitions are so gradual that I can not draw strict limits between them.”
Coryphantha vivipara and the three following species are closely related. They are C. neo-mexicana, C. arizonica, and C. deserti.
This plant is a day bloomer, and according to Engelmann the flowers become fully expanded about one o'clock in the afternoon.  
Hooker in Curtis's Botanical Magazine (pl. 7718) figures and describes a plant purchased from D. M. Andrews of Boulder, Colorado, in which all the spines are brown, the flower is rose-red, and the stigma-lobes are linear and white.  
[A list of illustrations by others is not reproduced.  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Oenothera cespitosa;  

Oenothera cespitosa Nutt. “Tufted Evening Primrose.”


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;  

First published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue.
Original Text
53 *Oenothera cespitosa. ‡ This species is more perfectly stemless than OE. acaulis of Cavanilles, from which it is distinct. Flowers very large and white, with dilated obcordate petals.

Note that Nuttall, as the author of Fraser's (1813) Catalogue spelled the specific epithet “cespitosa” and not “caespitosa.” Indeed some authors use caespitosa, such as Weber & Wittmann (2012), whereas others, such as Ackerfield (2015) use cespitosa. It is probably better Latin to use caespitosa. On the other hand, we could just treat the author's epithet cespitosa as valid, and caespitosa as an orthographic variant.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Evolvulus nuttallianus;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 2319, 6 Jun 2020;
Full Size ImageFlower of Coll. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2319, Evolvulus nuttallianus  

Evolvulus nuttallianus Roem. & Schult. “Shaggy Dwarf Morning Glory.”

Evolvulus nuttallianus is native to Colorado and is found from Montana and North Dakota south to Texas and Arizona. It is usually described as occuring on sandy and rocky prairies and plains, chaparral, pinyon-juniper and oak woodlands. It has also been found on limestone glades and bald knobs in the Ozark region of Missouri. It is a non-vining morning glory-like perennial that grows as a densely hairy subshrub to 20” tall with prostrate to decumbent stems that root at the nodes as they go. It has very small, bell-shaped, lavender to blue morning glories (to 1/2” across) from spring to mid-summer on stems with oblanceolate, hairy, silvery-green leaves (to 1” long). Flowers usually close up at night and on cloudy days. There is some confusion in the taxonomy of the genus Evolvulus. This species is sometimes listed as synonymous with E. pilosus.

The genus name comes from the Latin word “evolvo” meaning to untwist or unravel because this genus does not twine like many species in the Convolvulus family.

The specific epithet honors British botanist Thomas Nuttall (1786-1839) who traveled extensively in the U.S., as discussed below.

For gardeners, E. nuttallianus is winter hardy to USDA Zone 4. It is easily grown in organically rich, consistently moist, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. It also performs well in sandy soils with good drainage. But they may be difficult to find in commerce.

Literature Cited:
- Graustein, Jeannette E., 1967.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  v. s.;  

Thomas Nuttall traveled up the Missouri in 1810, partially duplicating the trip of Lewis and Clark, spending the summer in and around Fort Mandan (Graustein, 1967). I have been unable to determine where Nuttall's collection of E. nuttallianus is located. Graustein notes that many of Nuttall's collections are in the British Museum, and few of their holdings are available online. Regardless, Pursh (1814) published the first description in his Flora of North America. Pursh arrived in London in November 1811. Nuttall and Pursh met in London in the spring of 1812. Nuttall must have had his collections with him.

Pursh (1814) described Nuttall's morning-glory as E. argenteus.

Latin My Interpretation
230. EVOLVULUS. Gen Pl. 524.   230. EVOLVULUS. Gen Pl. 524.  
1. E. erectus ; foliis oblongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloribus brevibus. argenteus. 1. Evolvulus that is erect, leaves oblong silky-felted both sides, peduncles short with a single flower. argenteus.
On the banks of the Missouri. Nuttall. v. s. Flowers yellow.   On the banks of the Missouri. Nuttall. In have seen it in the dried condition. Flowers yellow.  

Full Size Image
Pursh desription of Evolvulus argenteus
The name E. argenteus was unavailable because is was previously used by Robert Brown, 1810. Pursh notes that he saw the collection “v. s.” but it was not in the Lambert herbarium. Pursh charaterizes the flowers as yellow, but since he worked from dried material, the blue to purple color may have faded.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1818) description of Evolvulus nuttallianus.  

Nuttall (1818) published his own description of E. nuttallianus in his Genera of North American Plants. He writes both Pursh's name argenteus and his own name of pilosus.

Calix 5-parted. Corolla rotate-campanulate; lobes subemarginate. Styles 2, deeply bifid; segments capillary and divergent. Stigma simple. Capsule 2-celled, 4-valved, 2 to 4 seeded.

Stem creeping, procumbent, or erect. Leaves alternate entire; flowers pedunculate, small; peduncles solitary, bibracteate, capsule perfecting 1, 2, or 4 seeds.

Species. …

3. argenteus, Ph. (pilosus.) Perennial; stems simple, erect, and low, many from the same root: the whole plant densely hairy and shining: leaves cuneate-oblong, acute, crowded; peduncles l-flowered, subsessile; bibracteate, bractes sessile in the axill; segments of the calix linear. — Obs. Allied to E. Commersoni. Stems 4 to 6 inches high; leaves 6 to 8 lines long, 2 to 4 wide, extremely hairy as well as the stem; flowers solitary, appearing sessile, purple, edge of the plaits hairy, capsule 4-valved, often perfecting only a single seed. — Hab. On arid gravelly hills near the confluence of Rapid river and the Missouri; flowering in May. This genus, with the above exceptions, exists exclusively within the tropical regions of India, Australia, and America.

By current standards of publication, one would think that Nuttall was putting his pilosus in synonomy with Pursh's argenteus.

Literature Cited:
- Ro¨mer, Johann Jacob, Joseph August Schultes, Julius Hermann Schultes, Jurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, and J. G. Cotta, 1820.
Full Size ImageRoemer & Schultes description of Evolvulus nuttallianus  

In the meantime, Roemer and Schultes (1820) published the first valid name for Nuttall's collection.
LatinMy Interpretation
18. E. Nuttallianus; erectus, foliis onlongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. E. argenteus Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ. I. p. 187.
Flores flavi. Ad ripas Missouri. Nuttall.
Obs. Nomen mutandum orat, cum sit antiquior argenteus R. Brown.
18. Evolvulus nuttallianus; erect, leaves oblong silky-felted, single flowers on short pedicels. (E. argenteus Pursh Fl. Sept. Americ. I. p. 187.)
Flowers yellow. On the banks of the Missouri River. Nuttall.
The name was changed, because argenteus was used earlier by R. Brown.

This was just a name change because Pursh's proposed E. argenteus was previously used by R. Brown (1810).

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834.
Full Size ImageNuttall (1834) description of E. pilosus  

Then, in 1834, Nuttall first publishes his name of E. pilosus in his descriptions of plants of Arkansas territory.
2. E. pilosus. Erectus, foliis lineari-oblongis utrinque sericeo-pilosis, pedunculis uniflorus brevibus. Nuttall's Gen. Am. Pl. 1, p. 174 (E. Nuttallianus, erectus, foliis oblongis utrinque sericeo-tomentosis, pedunculis unifloris brevibus. Schultes, Syst. Veg. vol. 6, p. 198; E. argenteus, Pursh, 1, 187). — Obs. Flowers purplish, coming out in the middle of the stem; peduncle shorter than the calix; calix segments partly linear and acuminate. — Hab. On the high hills of Red river near Kiamesha,

This name is, of course, superfluous and therefore illegitimate because Roemer and Schultes previously validly published nuttallianus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aliciella pinnatifida;  

Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex A.Gray) J.M.Porter. “Sticky Gilia.”


Literature Cited:
- Don, George, 1831-1838.  

G. Don (1831-1838, v. 4., p. 245) …
Original Text Comments
7 G Se'ssei; stem dwarf, branched, clothed with glandular down ; leaves pinnatifid ; segments cuneated, with pointed teeth ; brecteas ovate-lanceolate, mucronatem longer than the calyx ; corolla with a filiform tube, double the length of the calyx ; flowers faccicled. (.) [circle with a dot inside. H. Native of Mexico. Gilia pinnatifida, Sesse et Mocino, in herb. Lamb. Stamens inclosed.
Sesse's Gilia. Pl. ¼ foot.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1863.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  Gilia;  

Gray (1863) Enumeration of the Plants Collected by Parry, Hall, and Harbour notes Gilia pinnatifida ined. I assume it was ined. in Gray's hands as he published it in a revision of Polemoniaceae (Gray, 1870).
Original Text Comments
456. Gilia pinnatifida, Nutt. ined.  

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1870.  

Original Text Comments
3. GILIA, Ruiz & Pav.  
§ 10. GILLIANDRA. …  
48. G. Pinnatifida, Nutt. In herb.; Gray Enum. Pl. Parry. … [Latin diagnosis not reproduced] … — N. New Mexico and Colorado to Snake River, &c., in or near the Rocky Mountains, Nuttall, Fendler, and various collectors. A part of Geyer's 42 and 25, referred to G. inconspicus, much exserted stamens three lines long. Seeds with a close coat, wholly unchanged when wetted.  

Literature Cited:
- Porter, J. Mark, 1998.  

Porter (1998) recircumscribed Aliciella and placed G. pinnatifida in that group.
Original Text Comments
1. Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex Gray) J. M. Porter, comb. nov.  
Gilia pinnatifida Nutt. ex Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 8: 276. 1870, (basionym). Navarretia pinnatifida (A. Gray) Kuntze, Revisio, Gen. Pl. 2: 433. 1891 Gilia vixcosa Woot. & Standl, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 16; 161, 1913. TYPE: — U.S.A. New Mexico: (without location, but presumably near Santa Fe) 1847, A. Fendler 655 [lectotype: (here designated) GH!].  
Although the Nuttall collection [as a candidate for lectotype] may seem a logical choice, it presents problems because it lacks flowers, a diagnostic feature of this species. In addition, the collection locality is vague (Lewis River), referring to three different rivers in the mid 1800s. By contrast, the Fendler collection is clearly consistent with Gray's description, posessing flowers, fruit, and a basal rosette. … also the collection locality of the Fendler collection is less ambiguous.

Literature Cited:
- Porter J. Mark, and Leigh A. Johnson, 2000.  

Original Text Comments
Formerly included in Gilia ... [See publications by Grant] ... Aliciella is more closely related to Loeselia and Ipomopsis than to Gilia ... [See publications by Johnson and Porter] ..., based on DNA sequence data. Morphologically, too, Aliciella differs from Gilia in chromosome number (most, but not all, species of Aliciella are N = 8) and seed morphology (seeds do not produce copious mucilage; large seeded species tend to have an irregular wing).  


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Collomia linearis;  

Collomia linearis Nutt. “Tiny Trumpet.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 713, Collomia linearis  

Nuttall (1818) described a new genus Collomia and placed C. linearis therein.
Original Text
194. *COLLOMIA. †
Calix Cyathiform, rather large, border 5-cleft, acute. Corolla funnelform, 5-lobed, lobes oval-oblong, very short, tube straight, long, and slender. Capsule 3-cornered, 3-celled, 3-valved, 3-seeded, valves obcordate. Seed oblong, angular, enveloped by a tenacious mucilaginous integument, (visible when moistened.)
Annual, leaves alternate, simple, and entire; flowers small and inconspicuous, conglomerated in a terminal fascicle, resembling a capitulum, subtended by several bractes which are broader than the leaves.
A genus appertaining to the Natural Order Polemonideae and intermediate with Phlox and Polemonium
Species. 1. C. linearis. Minutely and pulverulently pubescent; leaves oblong-linear, or sublanceolate; involucrate leaves, ovate-lanceolate, acute; bractes and calix viscid.
Phlox linearis? Cavan. __ 6. p. 17. t. 527.
... [Long description not reproduced] ...
Hab. Near the banks of the Missouri, about the confluence of Shian river, and in the vicinity of the Arikaree village, in moist places. Flowering in June; flower violaceous. It appears to be the same plant figured by Cavanilles, and first discovered in Chili. In upper Louisiana, or above the confluence of the Platte and the Missouri, we no longer meet with any species of Phlox. To this genus probably also belongs Phlox biflora of Chili, which is also annual, but the habit appears to be different.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ipomopsis spicata;  

Ipomopsis spicata (Nutt.) V.E. Grant. “Spiked Ipomopsis.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Phlox longifolia;  

Phlox longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Phlox.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dracocephalum;  

Dracocephalum parviflorum Nutt. “American Dragonhead. ”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Monarda pectinata;  

Monarda pectinata Nutt. “Plains Beebalm.”


Scutellaria brittonii Porter

  Isotype: NY415671, T. C. Porter, s.n., Colorado, Clear Creek Canyon, 9000 ft, June 15, 1873. The 9000 ft elevation in Clear Creek Canyon is just below Silver Plume.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Physalis longifolia;  

Physalis longifolia Nutt. “Longleaf Groundcherry.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solanum triflorum;  

Solanum triflorum Nutt. “Cutleaf Nightshade.”



Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1143, 15 Jun 2015;   Coll. No. 1379, 29 May 2016;   Coll. No. 1614, 15 May 2017;  Coll. No. 1865, 23 May 2018;  

Castilleja integra Gray

In 1849, he joined an army expedition (with Gray's help) through Texas, botanising from Galveston to San Antonio and then on to El Paso. But he had to walk most of the 673 miles, (which took over 104 days effort). He collected seeds of Penstemon baccharifolius (Hook.), between Texas and El Paso, which were later given to William Hooker. Also, Castilleja lanata (found near the Rio Grande) and Castilleja integra (found in the Organ Mountains, near El Paso) (Pennell, 1935). In the spring of 1851, he joined the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (also with Gray's help). (Wikipedia)

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

Castilleja integra is not listed in Gray (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae. Although, a good part of the report is "… to be continued."

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852.  

Gray (1952) does not mention any Wright collections in the Scrophulariaceae

Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

Emory, William H., 1859. Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. Volume II. Torrey, John, 1859. Part I. Botany of the Boundary Washington, 1859. p. 119


Castilleja integra (sp. nov.): perennis; caule stricto tomentoso; foliis linearibus integerrimis subtus tomentulosis, floralibus oblongis obocatisque integerrimis coloratis (paniceis);; spica conferta; calyce aequaliter vel postice profundius bifido, lobis bifidis lanceolatis obtusiusculis labium inferius galea multoties brevius adaequantibus. — Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright, (undistributed,) Bigelow. Guadaloupe cañon, Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith. Also gathered in the Rocky Mountains further north by Dr. Kreuzfeldt, in Gunnison's expedition. Stem one or two feet high, mostly simple, rigid; leaves 1½ to 3 inches long, 2 to 3 lines wide, entire; most of the floral ones almost wholly petaloid, ample, shorted than the fully developed flowers. Calyx 8 or 12 lines long, red or reddish; “corolla reddish green;” glaea 6 to 8 lines long; the lower lip very short. Apparently a well marked new species of the section Callichroma. It is No. 584 of Fendler's New Mexican collection; and Dr. Bigelow gathered specimens in Whipple's expedition on the Llano Estacado.

  Pennell, Francis W. [Curator of Botany, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia] The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America The Academy of Natural Sciences Monogtaphs, Number 1 Philadelphia, 1935. p. 533

9. Castilleja integra Gray

Castilleja integra A. Gray, in Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. 119. 1859. “Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright ..., Bigelow. Guadaloupe canon, Conora; Capt. E. K. Smith."

Bracts red. Flowering from May to August.

Gravelly soil, plains and hills, Colorado to Texas, Chihuahua and Arizona. Known in our territory from a single record along the Rio grande.

Texas. Valverde: bluffs of Devils R., Havard (U).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Orobanche fasciculata;  

Orobanche fasciculata Nutt. “Clustered Broomrape.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Orthocarpus luteus;  

Orthocarpus luteus Nutt. “Yellow Owls Clover.”



Literature Cited:
- Herrando-Moraira, Sonia, et al., 2019.  

Tribe Cardueae

“Thistles” in the broad sense are in the tribe Cardueae Cassini, J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts. 88: 155. 1819 . Tribe Cynareae Lam. & DC. would seem to have precedence over Cardueae by nearly a decade. The North American representatives of Tribue Cardueae accepted by FNANM are as follows. Taxa found in Colorado are shown in bold.
  1. Leaves spiny
    1. Carduus L. Plumeless Thistle.
    2. Carlina L. Carline Thistle.
    3. Carthamus L. Distaff Thistle.
    4. Cirsium Mill. Thistle. All the native thistles in Colorado ae in the genus Cirsium Mill. In addition there are two non-native thistles that are also noxious weeds: C. arvense and C. vulgare.
    5. Echinops L. Globe Thistle.
    6. Onopordum L. Cotton Thistle.
    7. Silybum Adans. Milkthistle. Not listed for Colorado in Weber & Wittmann (2012) or Ackerfield (2015). There are two collections of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. “Blessed Milk-thistle”, one from Larimer County and one from Saguache County.
  2. Leaves not spiny
    1. Acroptilon Cass. Hardheads.
    2. Amberboa (Pers.) Less. Sweet Sultan.
    3. Arctium L. Burdock.
    4. Centaurea L. Knapweed. Eight species of Centaurea are known from Colorado, all of which are non-native.
    5. Crupina (Pers.) DC. Crupina.
    6. Cynara L. Cynara. C. scolymus L. is the Globe Artichoke.
    7. Mantisalca Cass. Mantisalca.
    8. Plectocephalus D. Don in R. Sweet. Basketflower.
    9. Saussurea. Saw Wort.
    10. Volutaria Cass.

There is a more recent paper (Herrando-Moraira, Sonia, et al. 2019) describing the phylogeny of Cardueae using Hyb-Seq data. It is, however, behind a paywall until August 1, 2020, and we eagerly await its unveiling.


Agoseris sp., “Goat-Chicory”

[Greek agos, leader, and seris, chicory; allusion unclear]

Agoseris has a New World, amphitropical distribution. All of the species are restricted to North America except A. coronopifolia (D’Urville) K. L. Chambers, which is found in temperate regions of southern South America. The South American disjunction appears to be the result of long-distance dispersal from North America (K. L. Chambers 1963).

Literature Cited:
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel van, 1791.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Schreber, 1789-1791, publication details;  

Schreber (1789-1791) published edition 8a of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum. In the second volume he described Krigia Schred. The volume is not available online, so I am unable to read the description. Publication of this volume preceeded the publication of Troximon by Gaertner. How much it preceeded Gaertner's publication, I don't know. But it was enough to give Krigia priority over Troximon.

Literature Cited:
- Robin, C. C. (Charles-Ce´sar), 1817.  

C. C. Robin published an account of his travels in Louisiana, West Florida and the West Indies from 1802 to 1806. He included descriptions of plants observed in Louisiana. Rafinesque undertook to translate, revise, and improve (as he says!) the plant list, and to see it published in New York.
Original Text English Translation Comments
180. Troximon odoratum Raf. Hispidum, ramis fastigiatis, foliis sessilibus ovato-oblongis acutis integris ciliatis scabris, floribus racemosis nudis, perianthis pilosis 8 partitis, sub 12 floris Raf. — Chicoracee fenouillette Rob. P. 425. Stems four feet high, round milky; leaves a little thick, flowers pale yellow, sweet-scented, ligules five-toothed, anthers and stigmas very projecting, deep yellow ; seeds oblong compressed striated with a thick long down. This species together with Tr. Virginicum, Tr. Pallidum and Tr. Bulbosum will form the genus Troximon ; the other species which are acaules and with an embricated calyx, must form a peculiar genus which I shall call Agoseris. Raf. Found in woods.   The way I read this, Rafinesque has validly published Agoseris by saying that it is like Troximon that is acaulescent and has an imbricated calyx (or the involucral bracts are imbricated).
Rafinesque gets/takes credit for the name Agoseris.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Troximon glaucum, Nuttall, 1841;  Agoseris parviflora, Nuttall, 1841;
• Glossary:  rostrum;  

Original Text Comments
TROXIMON. (Nutt. Gen. Am., non Gaertner)  
Capitulum many-flowered. Involucrum imbricate, subcampanulate, divisions lanceolate, distinct, or united at base. Receptacle naked, punctate. Achenium subterete, with ten obtuse ribs, attentuated above into a somewhat similarly striated, and rather short, thick rostrum. Pappus copious, setaceous, persistent, widest at base, longer than the achenium, and scarcely scabrous. — Stemless perennials, with fusiform roots, and mostly entire, linear, smooth, sublanceolate leaves. Scapes terete, exserted, one-flowered; flowers yellow or rose-coloured. OBS. The only species of this genus known to Gaertner, T. lanatum, is now referred to Scorzonera, the name thus unoccupied may, therefore, still be retained for the American species. The question is: was Troximon really available? Or, was Troximon illegitimate because Krigia had priority?
Nuttall then goes on to propose Troximon glaucum (=Agoseris glauca) and T. parviflorum sp. Nov. (=A. parviflorum).

Literature Cited:
- Lee, Joongku, Bruce G. Baldwin, and L. D. Gottlieb, 2003.  

Phylogenetic analysis of relationships in the Cichorieae place Agoseris in the Microseris clade along with Nothocalais, Uropappus, and Stebbinsoseris. Krigia (and Glyptopleura) was not placed in any major clade.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris glauca;  

Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Raf. “Pale Goat-Chicory”


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pale Goat-Chicory was first published by Frederick Pursh in Volume 2 of his Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text Translation and Interpretation Comments
604. TROXIMON. Gaert. Carp. P. 360. Pers. Syn. 2 p. 360          
1. T. scapo unifloro, calycinis foliolis imbricatis cuspidatis, foliis linearibus integerrimis utrinque glaucis. glaucum. Troximon with single-flowered scape, involucre with imbricate bracts with acute tips, green leaves are linear with entire margins. glaucum.    
On the banks of the Missouri. ♂. v. s. ; v. v. in Hortis. Flowers bright yellow.   On the banks of the Missouri. Biennial. I have seen it dried. I have seen it live in gardens. Flowers bright Yellow.   Pursh doesn't tell us whose dried collection he saw. It could have been a Bradley collection. It probably was not a Lewis & Clark collection because Moulton (1999) does not list an Agoseris collection in the Lewis & Clark herbarium.  

What we now consider to be a male symbol – ♂ – probably means the plant is biennial.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Troximon, Nuttall, 1841;
• Glossary:  rostrum;  

Original Text Comments
Achenium terete, shortly rostrate, with obtuse ribs This is the first section of Nuttall's Troximon and will contain T. glaucum [=Agoseris glauca].

T. parviflora [=A. parviflora] will be segregated into the second section that has a distinct rostrum (beak).

Troximon glaucum. The involucrum is usually smooth, the divisions in about three series, the outer shorter, all of them lanceolate and acute.  
HAB. On the plains of the Platte, and Missouri, about the Great Bend.  

Literature Cited:
- Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich, 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dietrich, 1847, publication details;  

Though Rafinisque published Agoseris in 1817, it wasn't until 1847 that D. Dietrich placed Pursh's Troximon glaucum in Agoseris.
3606. AGOSERIS Rafin. (1817). (Troximon Nutt.)
2. A. cuspidata;
2. A. glauca; glaucescens; fol. lineari-lanceolatis acutus integris scapoque glabriusculis; setis pappi capillaribus rigidis. Troximon Nutt. B. M. T, 1667. β dasycephalum Torr. Et Gray. T. glaucum α Hook. B. M. t 3462. Ammogeton scorzonerifolium Schrad. In Amer. Bor. ♃.
3 A. parviflora (Troximon Nutt.):
4. A. rosea
5. A. taraxacifolia;


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Agoseris parviflora;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1101, Agoseris parviflora  

Agoseris parviflora (Nutt.) D. Dietr. “Steppe Goat-Chicory”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Troximon, Nuttall, 1841;  

Nuttall (1841) described a new species of Troximon, T. parviflorum in describing the plants from his travels along the Oregon Trail in 1834 and 1835. It will become our current Agoseris parviflora.
Original Text Comments
†† Achenium compressed, with ten shallow, acute ribs, and attenuated into a distinct rostrum, shorter than the long and bristly pappus. Involucrum ovate, in about three series of unequal, lanceolate sepals. This is the second section of Nuttall's Troximon and it has a “distinct rostrum” or beak. The section starts off with Nuttall's new species T. parviflorum [=Agoseris parviflora].
Troximon * parviflorum; leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth or pubescent, often runcinately denticulate towards the base; scape pubescent at the summit, lanuginous; sepals nearly smooth, in three unequal series, lanceolate, acuminate; flowers yellow.
Hab. On the plains of the Platte to the Rocky Mountains. About four or five inches high. The leaves about two lines wide, acuminated at each end. Pappus minutely scabrous; the outermost divisions of the involucrum only about half the length of the inner.

Literature Cited:
- Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich, 1847.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Dietrich, 1847, publication details;  

Dietrich (1847) in his Synopsis Plantarum placed the North American Troximon into Agoseris Raf.
3606. AGOSERIS Rafin. (1817). (Troximon Nutt.)
. A. cuspidata;
2. A. glauca;
3 A. parviflora (Troximon Nutt.): glabriuscula; fol. Anguste lanceolato-linearibus acute asuminatis integris subretrorsp-denticulatis; pappo capillari rigido. In mont. Rocky. ♃.
4. A. rosea
5. A. taraxacifolia;


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ambrosia tomentosa;  

Ambrosia tomentosa Nutt. “Ragweed”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

603. AMBROSIA. L. (Bitter-weed.)
Monoicous (sic). — Masc. Calix 1-leaved. Anthers approximate, but not united. Receptacle naked. — Fem. Calix 1-leaved, entire or 5-toothed, 1-flowered. Corolla none. Nut formed from the indurated calix, 1-seeded.
Tall herbaceous and mostly annual plants; leaves rough, the lower most opposite, the upper alternate, bipinnatifid, trifid, or rarely entire; flowers in long terminal and proximately axillar spikes, upper flowers masculine numerous, the lower fewer, feminine, glomerated, clusters 2 to 5-flowered, tribracteate.
Species. 1. A. integrifolia. 2. bidentata. 3. trifida. 4. elatior. 5. artemisifolia. 6. paniculata. 7. heterophylla.
8. * tomentosa. Perennial; stem low; leaves bipinnatifid, upper side white and tomentose; spikes solitary. Hab. In Upper Louisiana on the banks of the Missouri; rare. Only 1 or 2 feet high.
A North American genus, with the exception of 1 species in Peru and another indigenous to the sea-coasts of the Levant.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Franseria * bipinnatifida; ...
Franseria * pumila; ...
Franseria * discolor; ♃, root creeping; leaves ubterruptedly bipinnatifid, above nearly smooth, canescently and closely tomentose, segments subovate, acute, confluent in the wide rachis; stem short, with the lateral branched decumbent.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains, neat the Colorado of the West. A very remarkable and distinct, as well as elegant species. Stem about a span long, slightly pubescent; leaves on long petioles, with a lanceolate outline, acute, about six inches lone, white beneath, green above, the pinnatifid segments lanceolate, the rachis incisely toothed. Male florets rather numerous; receptacle with narrow, pubescent palea; involucrum about five or six-toothed; female flowers few, fruit spiny.
Franseria * cuneifolia; ...


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Antennaria parvifolia;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1128, Antennaria parvifolia
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1909, Antennaria parvifolia  

Antennaria parvifolia Nutt. “Small-Leaf Pussytoes.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;
• Glossary:  sarment;  

Nuttall (1841) first described A. parvifolia collected on his trip on the Oregon Trail with the Wyeth expedition.
Original Text
Antennaria * parvifolia; subcaespitose, with procumbent sarments; stem simple; lower leaves spathulate, or spathulate-linear, the upper linear, all whitely tomentose; flowers conglomerate; scales of the involucrum oblong-ovate, eroded, yellow.
Hab. On the Black Hills and plains of the upper part of the Platte. A dwarf species, spreading out in canescent tufts with very small leaves, which are about half or three quarters of an inch long, and about two or three lines wide; the flowers in an irregular, somewhat round mass, not a circular corymb, with the scales of the corynb sulphur yellow, and very conspicuous. Radical leaves somewhat rhomboidally spathulate. The pappus of the male flower is very conspicuously clavellate: the female flower has purple oblong-lanceolate scales to the involucrum, and a filiform pappus. A specimen of this sex from Altai has a near resemblance to our plant, but is larger in all its parts, and is the A. hyperborea of Don.

Literature Cited:
- Bayer, Randall J., 1990.  

Randal J. Bayer, who wrote the treatment of Antennaria for the Flora of North America published a cladistic analysis (Bayer, 1990) of the sexually reproducing Antennaria. However, A. parvifolia is not one of them because some individuals are dioecious and others are apomictic. The article is behind a paywall. I thought this was interesting, “ … polyploidy and two asexual means of reproduction, agamospermy and horizontal stolons, have evolved in the more specialized groups, the Pulcherrimae and Catipes … ” This would imply to me that A. parvifolia would be a member of one of those two groups.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Artemisia ludoviciana;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  connivent;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1281, Artemisia ludoviciana  

Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. “Silver Wormwood”

553. ARTEMISIA. L. (Wormwood, Southern-wood, &c.)
Calix imbricated, scales rounded, connivent. Rays of the corolla none. Receptacle subvillous, or nearly naked. Pappus none.
Shrubby or herbaceous; leaves mostly multifid, flowers often racemose.
§ 1. Leaves simple.
Species. 1. A * longifolia. ... 2. * serrata. ... 3. * columbiensis. ... 4. * Gnaphaloides. ...
5. * ludoviciana. Stem simple and herbaceous; lower leaves incise, subpinnatifid, the upper lanceolate and en- entire(sic), on both sides pubescent, beneath tomentose; flowers ovate, erect and sessile; calix pubescent, panicle simple. — Hab. On the banks of the Missisippi, near St. Louis; also on the alluvial plains of the Missouri. Obs. Perennial. Stem about 2 feet high. Lower stem leaves lanceolate, irregularly and divaricately laciniate, segments entire, oblong-lanceolate and acute.
6. * cernua. ... 7. chinensis ...
§ ii. Leaves compound; stem paniculate.
8. Sontonia? Ph. 9. sericea.

The specific epithet “ludoviciana” is a Latinization of “Louisiana.”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Balsamorhiza sagittata;  

Balsamorhiza sagittata


Other articles:
• Tin Cup Ridge (social trail):   at Coll. 1109;
• Field Notes:   Coll. No. 1109, 14 May 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1109, Balsamorhiza sagittata  

How the heck did it get to Tin Cup Ridge?

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.  

Original Text
649. BUPHTHALMUM. Gen. pl. 1231.
sagittatum. 3. B. tomentosum ; foliis radicalibus longissime petiolatis oblongis sagittatis integerrimus subtrinervibus, caulinis oblongis in petiolum attenuatis, caule subtrifloro, calycinis foliolis exterioribus disco longioribus.
  On dry barren hills, in the Rocky-mountains. M. Lewis. ♃ June, July. v. s. in Herb. Lewis. Flowers large, yellow. The natives eat the young stems as they spring up, raw.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.  

From Nuttall's (1834a) catalogue of plants collected by Nathaniel Wyeth.
Original Text
ESPELETIA, Humb. and Bonpl. — BALSAMORHIZA, Hooker.
Calyx imbricatus, subsquarrosus, foliaceus. Colollulae radii femineae, vix dentatae. Receptaculum planum paleaceum. Pappus nullus. Semina compressa planiascula, subquadrangulata. Herba perennis, pumila, grandiflora. Helianthi facie ; radix resinosa.
This genus has also been proposed by Dr. Hooker in his Flora Boreali-Americana, under the name of Balsamorhiza, for a species of Heliopsis there described.
66. ESPELETIA sagittata. Tomentosa, incana, foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis cordato-hastatis integris acutis, caulinis paucis lineari-oblongis in periolum attenuatis, caule subtrifloro pumilo, calicibus foliosis squarrosis, pl. 4. BUPHTHALMUM sagittatum, Ph. 2, p. 564.
♃ With a large yellowish root like a dock. Radical leaves about the length of the stem, seven or eight inches, softly and copiously tomentose, hoary. The stem also downy, resembling a scape, with about two or three small leaves like bracts on its upper part. Calyx very white and softly tomentose, leafy, the inner leaves linear-lanceolate and somewhat acute. Rays bright yellow, very large, from sixteen to eighteen, bidentate at the tips. Seed flattish, elliptic, very smooth, and wholly devoid of any vestige of pappus.
Hab. On the borders of Flat-Head river. Flowering in June.
The root of this plant also, when fermented a day or two in the ground, in a hole made for the purpose, and heated with hot stones, is then eaten and possesses an agreeable saccharine taste. The stems are never employed for food.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Original Text
§ II. * ARTORHIZA. — Leaves entire, deltoid or cordate; involucrum very leafy at base; rays numerous. Receptacle flat.
Balsamorhiza sagittata. Buphthalmum sagittatum? Pursh., Vol. II., p. 564. Espeltia sagittata; Nutt. in Journ, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII., p. 39. Canescently tomentose; stem low, about one to three flowered; radical leaves cordate-ovate, entire, somethat three-nerved at base; cauline leaves linear, attenuated below; external leaves of the involucrum longer than the inner, spreading, lanceolate, densely tomentose; rays numerous, (twenty to twenty-four.)
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains, by Flat-Head River, towards the sources of the Oregon. Flower large and showy, about three to four inches in diameter, while the scapoid stem is not more than a span high. Stigmas very hirsute, filiform. Rays feminine, with infertile filaments.


Literature Cited:
- Elliott, Stephen, 1821-1824.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Elliott, 1821-1824, publication details;  

Brickellia Elliot

Elliott (1823) published the name Brickellia in his Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia.
Involucrum polyphyllum, inbricatum. Semina sub glabra, 10 striata. Pappus pilosus sive scaber. Receptaculum nudum, punctatum. Involucrum many leaved, imbricate. Seed nearly glabrous, 10 streaked. Pappus hairy or scabrous. Receptacle naked, dotted.
1. Cordifolia. E. …
This plant which in its artificial characters is closely allied to the Eupatorium, differing principally in size and number, in its general aspect, bear more resemblance to the Vernonia. I have named it in commemoration of Dr. John Brickell, of Savannah, who at one period of his life paid much attention to the botany of this country, and made known to Dr. Muhlenberg, Fraser and others, many of its undescribed plants.
The name is conserved against Brickellia Raf., Med. Repos. Ser. 2, 5:353 (1808), nom. Illeg. Nom rej., which turns out to be a synonym of Gilia Ruiz & Pav.

Literature Cited:
- Schilling, Edward, Randall W. Scott, and Jose L. Panero, 2015.  

Schilling, et al., 2015, infrageneric classification for Brickellia is behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Schilling, Edward E., Jose L. Panero, Bonnie S. Crozier, Randall W. Scott, and Patricia Davila, 2015.  

Schilling, et al., 2015a, also behind a paywall, results supported the hypothesis that Brickellia is monophyletic and showed Barroetea, Phanerostylis, and Kuhnia all embedded within the genus.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia californica;  

Brickellia californica (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray. “California Brickelbush.”


Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.
- Gray, Asa, 1849.
- Kunth, Karl sigismund, 1833-1850.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;

Locations: Mora River.  

Gray (1849) describes B. californica in his Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae.
Original Text Comments
308. B. (Bulbostylis) Californica, Torr. & Gray, Fl. 2. p. 79 : var. foliis plerisque subcordatis. — Rocky hill-side on the Mora River, and eight miles eastward, in bottom land; Aug. (346.) — The cauline leaves are mostly cordate, and with rather longer petioles than in the Californian specimens collected by Douglas ; but the plant of Hartweg's recent collection is wholly intermediate. Mr. Bentham (in Bot. Voy. Sulph.) has very properly carried out the intimation given in the Flora of North America, and annexed Bulbostylis to Brickellia. The pappus is so strongly barbellate-denticulate in some species (as in the original B. cordifolia and especially in B. cylindracea, Gray & Engelm., from Texas, and an undescribed Mexican species found by Dr. Wislizenus *) that Clavigera is separated by a merely arbitary character.† I almost fell off my chair to see that Torrey & Gray applied Bulbostylis DC. to our Brickellia. DeCandolle (1836) did in fact propose it for a group in the Eupatorieae. That name is now considered illegitimate and the name in Cyperaceae, which would appear to be Bulbostylem Kunth, is a conserved name (Kunth, 1833-1850, v. 2, pg. 205).

The undescribed Mexican species is Brickellia wislizeni A.Gray, an accepted species that occurs only in Mexico.

The dagger (†) refers to an undescribed Stevia in Coulter's Mexican collection.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia eupatorioides;  

Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners. “False Boneset.”


Literature Cited:
- Linne, Carl von, and Lars Salvius, 1763.  

Linnaeus (1763) publication of Kuhnia eupatorioides from a collection in Pensylvania by Adam Kuhn.
Original Text
Eupatorioides. 289. KUHNIA. (Pentandra, Monogyna.)
  Eupatoria conyzoides odorata, folio crenato molli fubincano. Pluk. alm. 140. t. 87. f. 2?
  Habitat in Penfylvania , unde vivam attulit Adam Kuhn. ♃
  Caules fesquioedales, erecti, laeves, rigiduli. Folia alterna, petiolata, lato-lanceolata, nuda, fubrugefa, fubtus venofa, fusdentata ferraturis mediis majoribus. Rami alterni, e medio caule. Corymbi parvi, terminales & etiam fape ramorum lateralium. Corollae albe. Stamina albo-flavefcentia. Planta refert Eupatorium, fed Piftilla clavata, & Antherae diftinctae, cylindricaw, apice labio dehifcentes, absque exemplo in alio Compofits flore.

Immediately above this entry is one for Ellisia nyctelea.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Brickellia grandiflora;  

Brickellia grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt. “Tasselflower Brickellbush.”


Literature Cited:
- Hooker, Sir William Jackson, 1840.  

Hooker (1840) described a single spcimen collected by Douglas.
Original Text
Post Eupatorium occidentale, v. 1. p. 305, adde
5.* Eupatorium? grandiflorum; glabrum, foliis alternis petiolatis cordato-triangularibus acuminatis grosse serratis venosis, paniculae floribus glomeratis, incolucri foliolis multiserialibus lineari-oblongis acutis striatis exterioribus e lata basi subulatis subsquarrosis, acheniis cylindraceis striatis scabridis.
Hab. On the low hills betweeb the north and south branches of Lewis and Clarke's River, in stony places. Douglas. — Three to four feet high, herbaceous. Stem rounded. Flowers large, white, clustered. The leaves bear a considerable resemblance to those of E. occidentale, but the flowers are totally different, larger than is usual in this Genus, each of many florets, and with the stigmas less exserted than usual. I possess only a solitary specimen.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.  

Nuttall (1841) described Brickellia grandiflora from collections on his trip with the Wyeth expedition, citing Eupatorium grandiflorum Hook. as a synonym.
Original Text
Brickellia grandiflora, leaves alternate, deltoid-cordate, acuminate, incisely dentate towards the base, entire at the point, smooth on both surfaces, and covered beneath with resinous atoms; flowers in fastigiate clusters, the upper part of the stem branching; inner scales of the involucrum linear-lanceolate, acute; pappus white, achenia smooth. — Eupatorium? grandiflorum. Hook. Flor. Am., Vol. II., p. 26.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountain range, by streams, in gravelly places, and west, to the lower falls of the Columbia. — Perennial. Stems many from the same root, about twelve to fifteen inches high. The whole plant almost perfectly glabrous. Leaves alternate, sometimes almost opposite, approximate, on longish petioles, deltoid-cordate, acuminate, coarsely and deeply toothed towards the base, smooth and green, but shhining, aith a coating of yellow resinous atoms having a heavy aromatic scent; stem branching above; branches terminating in corymbulose clusters of subsessile flowers, about five capituli in each. Florets straw-yellow, inclining to white, cylindric and smooth, the border connivent. Stigmas exserted, smooth, thicker toward the extremity. Achenium cylindric, ten-striate. Pappus of a single series of twenty to twenty-four scabrous hairs. Receptacle naked, flat.


Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Cirsium Mill. Thistle.

Twenty species of Cirsium “Thistle” are found in Colorado (Ackerfield, 2015). Eighteen of them are native, while two are introduced: C. arvense and C. vulgare. There are two endemic thistles: C. osterhoutii and C. perplexans.


Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cirsium undulatum;
Full Size ImageDistribution of collections of Cirsium undulatum  

Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. Wavy Leaved Thistle.

Cirsium undulatum is widely distributed in the wstern half of North America from the dry plains and plateaus of the Pacific Northwest eastward across the Great Plains to Manitoba and the Dakotas and south to Texas, New Mexico, and northwestern Mexico. It occurs in scattered localities in the Rocky Mountains and northeastern Great Basin region. At least some of the few widely scattered records from the eastern United States are probably introductions. Cirsium undulatum is both widespread and variable. Plants of the Great Plains region tend to be low-growing with a few large heads and elongate corollas. Plants of the Pacific Northwest are usually taller and produce smaller, more numerous heads with shorter corollas. A detailed study of this species might reveal races worthy of recognition as infraspecific taxa.

Wavyleaf thistle is listed by California as a noxious weed. However, most reports of Cirsium undulatum in California are based upon misidentifications of C. canescens. Cirsium undulatum is known to hybridize with C. flodmanii, C. hookerianum, and C. scariosum var. coloradense. J. T. Howell (1960b) reported that C. undulatum was suspected to hybridize with C. brevifolium in the Pacific Northwest.

— David J. Keil in Flora of North America (vol. 19, 20 and 21)

Literature Cited:
- Miller, Philip, 1754.  

The genus Cirsium was first proposed by Miller (1754) in his Gardener's Dictionary.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  ventricose;  

Nuttall (1818) published his Cnicus undulatus in his Genera of North American Plants. He saw the plant on Lake Huron and in the upper Louisiana Territory. I have not found a type specimen, but saw a note that the material might be in the Gray Herbarium.
538. CARDUUS. L. (Thistle.) Calix ventricose, imbricate, scales spiny. Receptacle villous. Pappus pilose or plumose, deciduous.
§ II. CNICUS. Pappus plimose
11. * undulatus. Stem low and few-flowered; leaves amplexicaule, pinnatifidly sinuate, and plicately undulated, on both sides tomentose, but beneath white, lobes bifid and spiny; calix subglobose, scales lanceolate, eredt and mucronate. HAB. On the calcareous islands of lake Huron, and on the plains of Upper Louisiana. — Leaves almost like some species of Cynara, but not remarkably large, moreslenderly tomentose on the upper side; stem often 1,2, or few-flowered, and 1 to 2 feet high. Flowers large, reddish purple.

Literature Cited:
- Sprengel, Curt Polycarp Joachim, 1826.  

Original Text Translation
undulatum * 45. C. caule humili paucifloro, foliis amplexicaulibus finuato-pinnatifidis undulato-plicatus utrinque tomentofis, laciniis 2fidis fpinofis, fquamis anthodii lanceolatis erectis mucronatis. In infulis lacus Huronum et Louifiana fuper. (Cnicus Nutt.) undulatum * Cirsium [with] short few-flowered stems, leaves amplexicaul curved-pinnatifid undulate-plicate both sides hairy, lobes divided spiny scales anthodii laneeolatis putting pointed. The islands of Lake Huron and upper Louisiana.

Literature Cited:
- Frankton, C., and R. J. Moore, 1961.  

Frankton and Moore (1961) compare and contrast of Cirsium undulatum and C. flodmanii, both of which are known to occur in Colorado is behind a paywall, so I have reproduced the abstract here.
Abstract. The morphology and specific differences of Cirsium undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. And of C. flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur are described and their Canadian distributions are reported in detail. The chromosome numbers are C. undulatum f. undulatum and f. album Farwell, 2n = 26; C. flodmanii f. flodmanii and f. albiflorum D. Löve, 2n = 22. The origin of four North American species of Cirsium that do not follow the world-wide base number 17 is discussed; it is postulated that reduction in number has occurred by translocations. The chromosomes of species with reduced numbers are larger than those of the unreduced species but the total length of the chromosomes of both groups is approximately the same.

Literature Cited:
- Häffner, Eva, and Frank H. Hellwig, 1999.  

Haffner and Hellwig (1999) investigated relationships within tribe Cardueae using ITS sequence data. The sole North American Cirsium in their study was C. texanum which does not occur in Colorado.

Literature Cited:
- Garcia-Jacas, Nuria, Teresa Garnatje, Alfoonso Susanna, and Rosier Vilatersana, 2002.  

Garcia-Jacas, et al. (2002) worked on tribal and subtribal delimitation of the Cardueae, unfortunately without any North American specimens.

Literature Cited:
- Kelch, Dean G., and Bruce G. Baldwin, 2003.  

Kelch and Baldwin (2003) studied historical biogeography and ecology of true thistles (Cirsium, Cardueae, Compositae) in the New World. Unfortunately, their sample of thistles did not include Cirsium undulatum. However, three other native thistles, C. muticum, C. discolor, and C. rhaphilepis, that commonly cluster with C. undulatum and did in fact cluster together in this study.

Literature Cited:
- Bodo Slotto, Tracey A., David P. Horvath, and Michael E. Foley, 2012.  

Abstract. Weedy invasive Cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of North America and some of their biological control agents have attacked native Cirsium spp. A phylogenetic tree was developed from DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native and non-native Great Plains Cirsium spp. And other thistles to determine if host specificity follows phylogeny. The monophyly of Cirsium spp. And Carduus within the tribe Cardinae was confirmed with native North American and European lineages of the Cirsium spp. Examined. We did not detect interspecific hybridization between the introduced invasive and the native North American Cirsium spp. Selected host-biological control agent interactions were mapped onto the phylogenic tree derived by maximum likelihood analysis to examine the co-occurrence of known hosts with biological control agents. Within Cirsium-Cardueae, the insect biological control agents do not associate with host phylogenetic lines. Thus, more comprehensive testing of species in host-specificity trials, rather than relying on a single representative of a given clade may be necessary; because the assumption that host-specificity follows phylogeny does not necessarily hold. Since the assumption does not always hold, it will also be important to evaluate ecological factors to provide better cues for host specificity.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Coreopsis tinctoria;  

Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. “Golden Tickseed”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1821.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1821, publication details;  

Original Text
1. COREOPSIS * tinctoria, foliis radicalibus pseudobipinnatis, foliolis subovalibus integris glabris, superioribus pseudopinnatis laciniis linearibus; floribus binatis ternatisve; calcibus exterioribus brevissimis; radiis bicoloribus; seminibus nudis immarginatis.
Habitat. Throughout the Arkansa territory to the banks of Red River, chiefly in the prairies which are subject to temporary inundation. — Flowering, from June to October.
Description. Annual and biennial, stem erect, smooth, and much branched, extremely variable in magnitude, being from one to five feet high. The leaves, in common with the genus, are somewhat think and succulent, the primary ones simple, radical pseudobipinnate, the segments also occasionally pinnate, oblong-oval, commonly smooth, and entire, the ultimate divisions largest. Flowers often terminating the branchlets by pairs, with the peduncles unusually short. Exterior calix, minute, much shorter than the interior, and in common with it. And the number of rays mostly eight-leaved. Rays three-lobed at the extremity, of a bright orpiment yellow and brown towards the base; disk brown, and rather small. Receptable paleaceous, the leaflets deciduous. Seed small, blackish, immarginate, curved and naked at the summit.
Economical Use. The flowers of this species afford a yellow dye, in common with those of the C. senifolia.
As an ornamental plant, of easy culture and uncommon brilliance, it promises to become the favourite of every garden where it is introduced.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis;  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;  

Crepis occidentalis Nutt. “Largeflower Hawksbeard.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.  

Nuttall (1834a) described Crepis occidentalis from a collection by Nathaniel Wyeth in 1833 between the Falls of the Columbia and the first navigable waters of the Missouri.
50. Crepis *Occidentalis. Canescente-pubescens, pumila, foliis sessilibus, runcinato-pinnatisentis, laciniis linearibus, acutis subdenticulatis, floribus paucis fastigiatis.
♃ About a span high, covered with a close very short whitish pubescence, The leaves runcinate and acute, about two on the spem, greatly resembling those of the common Shepard's purse ; above, beneath the ultimate flowers, diminishing into simple undivided bracts. Flowers (in the only specimen before me) three, axillary and terminal, all attaining nearly the same height on the stem. Calyx slightly caliculate, the larger leaves of it disposed in a single series, the divisions linear and rather obtuse. Flowers bright yellow, rather large, about the size and appearance of those of Apargia autumnalis ; liguli five-toothed ; the anthers simple, the style bifid, deeply and far exserted. Pappus pilose, somewhat scabrous through a lens, the hairs more than twenty, not dilated at base, or in any way distinguishable from those of Hieracium, nor are they all stipitate. Seed smooth, brown. Probably the Hymenonema laciniatum of Hooker, in Flor. Boreal. Amer. L. c.
Hab. Common on the borders and in the vicinity of the river Columbia.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;
• Glossary:  achenium;  testa;  

In his Descriptions of new Species and Genera of Plants … Nuttall (1841) proposed Psilochenia occidentalis for his previously published Crepis occidentalis Nutt.
Original Text
Crepis, but with the achenium cylindric, curved, narrower above, and without any visible striae, the testa indurated, and, when mature, black ; an abortive outer series of florets, with the achenium empty. Pappus copious, slenderly pilose, scabrous, and yellowish white, about the length of the achenium. Receptable naked, alveolate, the alveoles minutely fringed. — A low perennial herb; stem dichotomous and corymbose. Leaves lanceolate, runcinately pinnatifid, and, as well as the somewhat hirsute involucrum, cinereously and closely lanuginous; flowers yellow, rather large.
Psilochenia * occidentalis. Crepis occidentalis, Nutt. In Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., Vol. VII., p. 29.
Hab. On the plains of the Platte, towards the Rocky Mountains. The whole plant more or less canescently pubescent. Stem about six or seven inches high, forked and corymbose at the summit. Leaves about an inch wide, four or five inches long, deeply and runcinately pinnatifid, the segments linear-lanceolate and denticulate, uppermost leaves linear. Involucrum campanulate; sepals about twelve to fifteen in a single series, linear and somewhat acute; involucel or bractes four or five, small and subulate: there are blackish hairs mixed with the hoary pubescence of the sepals. Florets about twelve, yellow, exserted.

Literature Cited:
- Babcock, E. B., and G. Ledyard Stebbins, 1938.  

Original Text
The first record of the occurrence of Crepis in North America (outside of the arctic regions) was made by Hooker in his “Flora Boreali-Americani” (1834, vol. 1, p. 297), in which he identified as the European C. biennis James's Hieracium runcinatum. In the same year Nuttall published his C. occidentalis, and seven years later (1841), in describing the plants collected on a tour to the Pacific added another species, C. acuminata. In this publication he created a new genus, Psilochenia, for C. occidentalis, and another, Crepidium, for Hieracium runcinatum (Hooker's “C. biennis” of America), and placed Crepis acuminata in a new sub-genus, Leptotheca. Two new species, Crepidium glaucum and C. caulescens, were also described. Two years later Torrey and Gray (1843) reduced Nuttall's two genera to Crepis, and recognized, in addition to the arctic-alpine C. nana Richards., and C. elegans Hook., four species, C. runcinata, C. glauca, C. occidentalis, and C. acuminata. For the next fifty-three years the group received little attention, although a few species and varieties were described by Gray and others. In his “Syntopical Flora of North America” (1876) Gray recognized, in addition to the six species included in his earlier work, two more, C. Andersonii Gray and C. intermedia Gray, and listed two varieties under the latter and three under C.occidentalis. With the heading of the section including C. occidentalis, intermedia, and acuminata he made the terse comment “species difficult,” an opinion with which all later workers on the group, including the present writers, are inclined to agree.
Coville (1896) was the first to make a monographic study of any of the American species. Omitting the arctic-alpine species and the group of C. runcinata, as well as C. acuminata and C. intermedia, which latter he considered to be not well enough understood, he included seven species, four of which, C. monticola, C. scopulorum, C. rostrata, and C. barbigera, were described as new. His treatment, although well worked out according to the knowledge then available, was based on a relatively meager series of specimens, and included little information on the interrelationships of the species, while their distribution could be stated only in relatively broad terms.
Since the work of Coville, no particular attention has been paid to the genus in North America, except for the description of numerous new “species,” mostly of the group of C. runcinata, by Greene, Rydberg, and others. These were published without consideration of the group as a whole, were based on fickle characters such as leaf shape and pubescence, and none of them are considered valid by the present writers. Meanwhile in the affinity of C. occidentalis and C. acuminata the species were variously interpreted by the writers of the different floras, the keys to them varied considerably, while the identification of the ever increasing number of collections by various students of the western flora bore out Gray's opinion, “species difficult.”

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., 1983.  

Original Text
The American species of Crepis were treated in a now classic monograph by Babcock & Stebbins (Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 504. 1938). The authors seem to have been preoccupied with the species alone, and unfortunately they did not discuss the significance of their cytological findings as having a bearing on the generic level, even though Nuttall (1841) had proposed the name Psilochenia for the American species.
All of the native American species of Crepis, with the exception of two Old World species (C. elegans and C. nana), representing an ancient Tertiary extension of the genus onto western North America, have the chromosome base number x=11. “This is in striking contrast to the Old World species of Crepis, whose basic haploid numbers range from x=3 to x=7, 4 and 5 being much the most common" (Babcock & Stebbins, op. cit.). The authors went on to postulate that the American species may have arisen by amphidiploidy from a cross involving Crepis species with x=4 and x=7. Whether or not this can ever be substantiated, the fact remains that the American species of Crepis form an indisputably monophyletic line, spatially and genetically isolated from the Old World species.
Recently Love (1982, p. 360) transferred Crepis runcinata to Nuttall's genus Psilochenia because of this evidence. but among the rest of the species, only the type, Psilochenia occidentalis Nuttall, has a name in that genus. The following combinations are needed.
Weber then goes to to propose 23 new combinations in Psilochenia.

Literature Cited:
- Enke, Neela, 2009.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis, Weber & Wittman, 2012;  

Enke (2009) is one of several papers by Enke and others exploring the genomics of the genus Crepis. Unfortunately their data includes only one representative of the indigenous North American CrepisC. acuminata — which, I think, resulted in their results being somewhat unclear with regard to that group. Nevertheless, their data supports the maintenance of section Psilochenia within Crepis and does not rule out elevation of the section to the rank of genus as Weber (1983) has proposed.
Original Text
Crepis acuminata differs from all other species of clade V in morphology, karyology and geographic distribution. As all members of sect. Psilochaenia it occurs exclusively in North America, is polyploid and has a basic chromosome number of x=11. The singularity of these features within Crepis s.str. Support the maintenance of sect. Psilochaenia.

Original Text
Crepis sect. Psilochenia (Nutt.) Babc. (1947) ≡ Psilochenia Nutt. (1841). — Type: C. occidentalis Nutt.

Note. — The North American species of Crepis sect. Psilochaenia are polyploid and their placement within the genus remains unlcear at present.

*C. acuminata Nutt.
?C. atribarba A. Heller
?C. bakeri Greene
?C. barbigera Coville
?C. intermedia A. Gray
?C. modocensis Greene
?C. monticola Coville
?C. occidentalis Nutt.
?C. pleurocarpa A. Gray
?C. runcinata (E. James) Torr. & A. Gray

Literature Cited:
- Babcock, E. B., and G. Ledyard Stebbins, 1938.
- Weber, William A., 1983.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Crepis occidentalis, Enke, 2009;  Solidago nana, Nuttall, 1841;  

Weber & Wittmann (2012) place the indigenous North American Crepis in Psilochenia also spelled Psilochaenia saying,
Original Text
The genus Psilochenia encompasses the indigenous North American species of Crepis (with the exception of the Old World taxa C. elegans and C. nana, which represent a Tertiary extension). The chromosome base number x=11 is unknown in Eruasia. See Babcock & Stebbins 1938, Weber 1983. The FNA ignores Psilochenia altogether.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield retains our Largeflower Hawksbeard in Crepis as C. occidentalis Nutt.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Cyclachaena xanthifolia;  

Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. “Carelessweed”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) described his Iva xanthiifolia from a collection made near Fort Mandan. Fort Mandan was the name of the encampment which the Lewis and Clark Expedition built for wintering over in 1804-1805. The encampment was located on now-private land on the Missouri River approximately twelve miles from the site of present-day Washburn, North Dakota, which developed later. The exact location is unknown and may be partially submerged by the river.
602. IVA. L.
Calix about 5-leaved, or 5-parted. Feminine florets of the ray 5, naked. Receptacle setosely paleaceous. Seed obovate, naked.
Herbaceous or shrubby; leaves 3-nerved, mostly carneous, opposite and alternate; flowers spiked or paniculated, axillar and terminal.
Species. 1. ciliata. ... 2. * xanthiifolia. Annual; leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate-ovate, acuminated, douply serrate, softly villous, beneath canescent; spikes paniculated, naked; calix 5-cleft. Hab. In arid soils, near Fort Mandan, &c. on the banks of the Missouri. Obs. Plant very large, 5 or 6 feet high, with leaves nearly of the size and form of Xanthium Strumarium, but covered with a soft and almost velvet-like villus; upper leaves ovate; flowers extremely numerous, in a diffuse panicle. Calif 5-cleft, divisions ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. Style of the discal florets simple; stigma subcapitate. Fertile florets 5, naked. Receptacle subsetaceous. — Flowering in August.
3. imbricata. ... 4. axillaris. ... &c.
A North American genus with the exceptionof I. annua indigenous to the tropical regions of the same continent.

There is a collection of Iva xanthiifolia attributed to Nuttall with a location of Upper Louisiana at the Harvard University Herbaria.

Literature Cited:
- Fresenius, Georg, 1836.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fresenius, 1836, publication details;
Full Size ImageFootnotes from Index Seminum in which Cyclachaena is proposed  

Georg Fresenius is the apparent author of Index Seminum. Frankfort am Main, a list of seeds available from the Senckenberg Herbarium in Frankfort am Main. In the 1836 Index, seeds are available for Cyclachaena xanthiifolia Fresen. Footnote 4 in that document proposes Cyclachaena as a new genus. However, there is no reference to Iva xanthiifolia Nutt. As the basionym.

Although no basionym reference was given Art. 41.4 (Melbourne Code) applies,

41.4. If, for a name of a genus or taxon of lower rank published before 1 January 1953, no reference to a basionym is given but the conditions for its valid publication as the name of a new taxon or replacement name are fulfilled, that name is nevertheless treated as a new combination or name at new rank when this was the author’s presumed intent and a potential basionym (Art. 6.10) applying to the same taxon exists.

— International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, 2012 — Melbourne Code text: © 2012, IAPT — web-edition: © 2014, Paul van Rijckevorsel (all rights reserved)

Basionym Iva xanthiifolia Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. [Nuttall]. 2: 185 (1818).

Full Size Image
Page 1 from Index Seminum Frankfort/Am Main

Literature Cited:
- Miao, Bomao, Billie L. Turner, and Tom Mabry, 1995.  

Results support the dismemberment of Iva s.l. and recognition of Iva s. str., largely because Iva s. l. is shown to be paraphyletic. Most members of the section Cyclachaena were found to have relatively close interspecific relationships. Nevertheless cpDNA data strongly support two lineages within Cyclachaena. One lineage, including I. xanthiifolia, I. acerosa, I. nevadensis, and I. dealbata, has a close relationship with genus Euphrosyne.

Literature Cited:
- Flann, C (ed), 2009+.  

The Global Composite Checklist treats Iva xanthiifolia as an accepted name, and Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. as a synonym. Plants of the World (Kew) does not follow their lead and accepts Cyclachaena xanthiifolia (Nutt.) Fresen..



The Erigerons that are known from collections in Golden s.l. are:
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. (Syn: Erigeron compositus Pursh var. discoideus A. Gray, Erigeron compositus Pursh var. glabratus Macoun) Cutleaf Daisy.
  • Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.
  • Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.
  • Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. (Syn: Stenactis strigosa (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC.) Prairie Fleabane.
  • Erigeron tracyi Greene. (Syn: Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson, Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray) Running Fleabane.
  • Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.


Erigeron compositus Pursh. Cutleaf Daisy.


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Locations: Kooskoosky River.  

Of the western Erigerons found in Golden s.l. the first to be described was E. compositus Pursh. The holotype was collected by Meriwether Lewis on the Kooskoosky (Clearwater) River, date unknown, and the voucher is now at ANS.

Pursh (1814) described it as follows:

Syngenesia Superflua. Erigeron 535
14. E. pilosum, subacaule; foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis triplicato-3-partitis, laciniis linearibus divaricatis, caulinis linearibus plerumque indivisibus, caule superne nudo unifloro. compositum
  On the banks of the Kooskoosky. M. Lewis. ♃. July, Aug. v. s.; v. v. cultum. Not above a span high; flowers resembling a daisy exceedingly; they change during their flowering, from white to a lively pale red.  

My collection of this taxon was made as Little Scraggy Peak, (Buffalo Creek Recreation Area), Jefferson County, Colorado.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1901, Erigeron compositus
  A. Gray (1862) proposed variety discoideus. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.
  Macoun (1884) proposed variety glabratus, but the name is not now recognized. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.


Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Glossary:   fastigiate;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2092, Erigeron divergens  

The first publication of the entity we now call Erigeron divergens was by Nuttall (1840).
Erigeron *divaricatum; ☉ hirsute, stem branching from base; branchlets one-flowered, rather naked, fastigiate; radical leaves spathulate, the rest linear, sessile, acute, attenuated below, all entire; inner pappus of about eight setæ rays nery numerous, narrow, white.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains and the plains of Oregon. About one foot high, at length very much branched, the leaves an inch or more long, about a line wide. Pappus double in ray and disk, the inner of remarkably few rays, very deciduous.

It might be helpful to remember that the plains of Oregon would include a good part of southwest Wyoming.

The name E. divergens had been previously used by Michaux (1803) and was not available for use be Nuttall.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Torrey & Gray, 1841;  

Torrey & Gray (1841, p. 175) in Flora of North America proposed Erigeron divergens for the small fleabane that was previously illegimately published by Nuttall as E. divaricatuum.
26. E. divergens: somewhat hoary with a minute hirsute pubescence, diffusely branched from the base; leaves small, entire, acute; the radical somewhat spatulate, narrowed into a short petiole; the cauline scattered, sessile, linear, narrowed at the base; heads (small) mostly solitary terminating the naked branchlets or pecuncles; rays very narrow and numerous, twice the length of the hirsute involucre; inner pappus of few (8-12) very slender and deciduous bristles. — Erigeron (Oligotrichum) divaricatum, Nutt. ! In trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7. p. 311, not of Michx.
Rocky Mountains, and plains of the interior of Oregon, Nuttall ! — ① Stems about a foot high, diffuse, ascending, slender, at length much branched. Leaves half an inch to an inch long, 1 to 2 lines wide, mucronate-acute. Heads rather smaller than in E. tenue; the rays (white, Nutt.) nearly similar; the exterior pappus shorter.


Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:  Gray, A., 1849;  

334. E. flagellare (sp. nov.): bienne? striguloso-puberulum, pumilum; caulibus gracillimis e basi ramosis, floriferis seu primariis simplicibus superne aphyllis monocephalis, sterilibus patentibus flagelliformibus; foliis spathulatis mucronulatis inferioribus in petiolum attenuatis integris seu radicalibus parce inciso-lobatus, ramealibus parvulis sublinearibus sessilibus; ligulis numerosis gracilibus (albis purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et discii conformiduplici, exteriore coroni-forme-squamellato conspicuo, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus. — Low, moist places, along Santa Fe Creek; May, June. (381.) — Root slender. Flowering stems 5 to 7 inches high, very slender, few-leaved below the middle, naked, and pedunculiform above; the head rather than the preceding species; the involucre, &c., similar. Lower leaves one to two inches long, including the slender petiole; those of the runner-like sterile branches decreasing to 2 or 3 lines in length. This species should rank next to the foregoing.*

The “preceding species” and “foregoing” was Erigeron cinereum (sp. Nov.), now treated as a synonym of E. tracyi Greene.

The head was described as “… as large as those on Bellis perennis …” and the involucre was described as “… hirsutum duplo superantibus …” [… coarse erect or ascending hairs doubly … ??? ]

The asterisk “*” refers to some collections sent by Mr. Spaulding from Oregon, which I don't think are particularly relevant to E. flagellaris.

Other articles:
• Plainview Road:   near coll loc;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1116, 28 May 2015;   Coll. No. 1829, 16 May 2018;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1116, Erigeron flagellaris
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1829, Erigeron flagellaris  



Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Erigeron pumilis;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  nutant;  

Syngenesia. Superflua. 147
557. ERIGERON. L. (Flea-bane.)
Calix imbricated, subhemispherical, in fruit often reflected. Rays of the corolla linear, very narrow, and numerous. Receptacle naked. Pappus double, exterior minute, interior pilose, of few rays. (12 to 25?)
Herbaceous; stems simple or branched, flowers solitary, axillary and terminal, subcorymbose or fastigiately paniculate; radii white, or purplish, rarely destiture of pappus. Seed very small, rather smooth, oblong, and compressed; pappus simply pilose, deciduous, not much longer than the seed, exterior pappus minute and paleaceous.
§ I. Stem simple
SPECIES. 1. E. alpinum. 2. * pumilum. Hirsute; stems aggregated, 1-flowered, leaves oblong-linear, entire and sessile; flower large and hemispherical, before flowering nutant; calyx very hirsute. HAB. On the plains of the Missouri. Flowering in May. E. hirsutum. Ph. 2. Suppl. p. 742. but this name has been previously employed for another species. OBS. Stems several from the same root, often, indeed, connected at the base, 4 or 5 inches high, 1-flowered. Leaves 2 inches, more or less, nearly linear, attenuated downwards, scarcely 2 lines wide. Flower naked, (or pedunculate) white, and large as a Daisy; rays as long as the calix, narrow and numerous. Pappus double, internal short, about 12-rayed.
“nutant”, adj., drooping or nodding.


Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Ex Willd. Prairie Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1803.  

The first of the Erigeron found in the Golden, Colorado area was described from a collection made in Pensylvania. Willdenow (1803) published the name from a description written by Mühlenberg.
11. ERIGERON ʃtrigoʃum.
E. foliis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis ſubdentatis ſtrigoſo-piloſis, floribus corymboſo-paniculatis. W.
Erigeron ſtrigoſum. Mühlenb. In litt.
Behaartes Berufungskraut. W.
Habitat in Penſylvania. (v. ʃ.)
Caulis erectus ʃtriatus, pilis ʃparʃis albis obʃitus. Folia alterna lanceolata baʃ et apice attenuata, utrinque oilis copioʃis adpresʃis obʃita, integerrima, vel medio utrunque ʃerraturis 2. ʃ. 3 inʃtructa. Flores corymboʃo-paniculati. Radius copioʃus filiformis albus. W.

Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.  

DeCandolle (1836) proposed Stenactis strigosa DC.

5. S. strigosa, caule erecto sparse et patentim piloso, foliis lanceolatis utrinque stteniatis dentatis strigoso-hispodid, capitulis laxe corymboso-paniculatis, invol. Glaberrimo, ligulis numerosis filiformibus. ② ? In Pensylvania (Muhl.), Noveboraco (Torrey!). Erigeron strigosum Muhl. In Willd. Sp. 3. p. 1956. Erig. Australe Horn. Ex Spreng. An Erig. Strigosun Ell. Sketch 2. p. 394 et Doronicum ramosum Walt. Fl. Car. 206 in Carolina cresc. Ad hanc speciem referenda? (v. s. comm. A cl. Torr.)

Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 2008.  

Stenactis is currently treated as a section of Erigeron (Nesom, 2008).


Erigeron tracyi Greene. Running Fleabane.

  Some of the current synonyms for E. tracyi are:
  • Erigeron cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron cinereus var. cinereus
  • Erigeron cinereus var. aridus M. E. Jones
  • Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson
  • Erigeron commixtus Greene
  • Erigeron dicladus Greene
  • Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron tephroides Greene
  • Erigeron williamsii Phil. The Plant List and the Global Composite Checklist each give E. williamsii Phil as a synonym of E. tracyi. does not. I suspect that E. williamsii is a valid name for a South American species, and does not apply to E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Gray, 1849, publication details;  

The first known description of the taxon we now call E. tracyi was by A. Gray (1849) in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae, a description of plants collected by Augustus Fendler in New Mexico in 1841
333. E. cinereum (sp. Nov.): bienne? Undique molliter cinereo-pilosum: caule e basi ramoso; ramis adsurgentibus apice longe nudis monocephalis; foliis spathulatis vel lineari-oblongis basi attenuatis integerrimis seu radicalibus paucidentatis incisisve; ligulus numerosissimis gracilibus (albis nunc purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et disci conformi duplici, exteriore coroniformi-squamellato, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus deciduis. — Var. a. Is a dwarf, vernal form, only a span high, quite hoary, the primary flowering stems erect and almost scapiform (no. 374 of the distribution). Dry, exposed places around Santa Fe; May. Var. ß has taller and more diffuse stems (10 inches high), the leaves almost lanceolate, entire, the lower tapering into slender petioles. Low, sandy banks of the Rio del Norte and of Santa Fe Creek; May to June. (380.) Var. ? is a larger, coarser, and much more leafy state; from the valley of Santa Fe Creek, near irrigating ditches; May to July. (385.) — The heads are as large as those of Bellis perennis, solitary on peduncles, or the naked summit of the stems, of from 2 to 4 inches in length. The species belongs to the first division of the section Phalacroloma, Torr. & Gray, l. c. † Some forms of this, or of an allied species (possibly E. affine, DC.), with rather less numerous and white rays, and either entire or incised leaves, were gathered at Buena Vista and Encantada by Dr. Gregg.

Unfortunately, the name was unavailable, having been previously used by Hooker and Arnold for their E. cinereus, a native of Chile.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Gray (1852, pt. 1, p. 91) places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae. He make no comments that describe his thinking.

268. E. divergens, var. cinereum. E. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 68. New Mexico; the locality not recorded.

Gray (1852, pt. 2 p. 77) also places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae, part 2.

E. divergens, var. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Wright, l. c. Moutains, around the copper mines; Oct: a late, much-branched state. (1169) Hills near El Paso; March, April: the early normal form (1398.)

This placement is still accepted by Harrington one hundred years later (Harrington, 1954, 1964 2nd ed.).

Literature Cited:
- Buckley, S. B., 1861.  

These plants were collected by the author while engaged in the State Geological Survey of Texas, during 1860 and '61. Specimens of them are in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, and also in the herbarium of Elias Durand, Esq.

Erigeron (Eurigera) nudiflorum, s. n. — Hirsutum pumilum, ramosum; foliis lineari-oblongis, integris, sentis, confertissimis; ramis apice longe nudis, monocephalis; ligulis albis, plurimis, subuniseriatis, involucrum duplo excidentibus, acheniis oblongis glabris vel parum pilosis; pappo radii et disci conformi, duplici; exteriore breve setacea.

Northern Texas. May.
Very much branched from the root. Stems erect, 4-6 inches high; leaves numerous near the root and upwards on the stems about 3 inches; the upper stems, two inches below the flowers, naked; whole plant strigose hirsute, the white hairs not appressed; flowers about 1/4 of an inch in diameter; leaves 1/2 - 1 inch long and a little more than a line wide.


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.

Other articles:
• Field Notes:   Greene, E. L., 1902;  

E. L. Greene (1902) then published two names for what we now treat as a single species. The names he published were: Erigeron commixtus and E. tracyi.

Erigeron commixtus. With the habit of E. flagellaris, smaller, less stoloniferous, the leaves relativelt broader, some entire, others with one or more conspicuous lobes at base of the blade, the whole plant almost hoary with stiffly hirsute pubescence, this spreading on the leaves and petioles, retrorse on the stems and peduncles: heads, rays, achenes, etc., much as in E. flagellaris.
Cañon of the Limpia, mountains of western Texas, 26 April 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle; also collected by the present writer, in the same general region, namely in the mountains near Silver City, New Mexico, 18 May 1880, and distributed for E. flagellaris. The species last named has a rather obscure, fine closely appressed hairiness. That of the new one is so extremely different, that were the plants the size of a Sunflower or Goldenrod, no botanist would confuse them as one species, were the pubescence the only character. I may remark that true E. flagellaris reaches the mountains of even southern New Mexico, where, however, it occurs only in a more elevated biological zone

Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.
- Nesom, Guy L., 2004.  

Erigeron Tracyi. Allied to the last (Erigeron commixtus — Ed.) but dwarf, only 2 or 3 inches high, densely leafy at base and with no stolons (at least at flowering time): petioles of the spatulate-lanceolate entire leaves shorter than the blade or obsolete; the whole herbage silvery-hoary with a fine dense strigulose pubescence, or this more sparse and spreading on the solitary scapiform peduncle: involucre hispidulous: outer pappus very conspicuous though consisting of only shorter and setiform hairs, the inner of a few very delicate capillary ones.
Davis Mountains, western Texas, Tracy and Earle, 28 April 1902.

E. commixtus was published before E. tracyi, quite literally a matter of a few inches. It would therefore seem to have priority over E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Aven Nelson, 1909.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  cinereous;  

33. Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Stems few to several from s slender annual taproot, ascending, naked pedunculiform above the middle, very leafy, flowering when very short, the later heads on stems 7-15 cm. long: leaves mostly linear-spatulate to linear, the basal sometimes oblanceolate and 3-lobed at apex, all softly cinereous-pubescent: heads musc as in E. divergens. (E cinereus Gray, Pl. Fendl. 68. 1848; not E. cinereus H. & A. Comp. Bot. Mag. 2: 50. 1836) — Southern Colorado and New Mexico.

It is interesting to me that A. Nelson does not mention Greene's (1902) publication of Erigeron tracyi, whereas other names of Greene are acknowledged.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1910.  

Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58. 1902
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. 4: 68. 1849. Not E.cinereus H. & A. 1836.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels,; Coult. & Nels. New Man. Cent. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
Another specific name proposed by Professor Nelson, Erigeron colo-mexicanus, to replace the untenable E. cinereus A. Gray, is in my opinion rather distasteful. Fortunately I do not need to use the name, as the same species has been described by Dr. Greene under the name E. commixtus.

Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, 1925.  

Tidestrom (1925) recognizes Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

7. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 4: 68. 1849. Not E. cinereus Hook. & Arn. 1836
Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. in Coulter, New Man. Rocky Mount. 529. 1909.
Artemisia, pinyon and yellow pine belts; Utah and Colorado to Mexico.

The author also recognizes E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.

Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, and Sister Teresita Kittel, 1941.  

Tidestrom and Kittell (1941) recognize Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

9. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Artemisia, Pinyon and Yellow Pine belts; Utah and Colorado southward to Mexico.

The authors also recognize E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.

Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, Arthur, 1947.
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Cronquist (1947) accepts Grays (1852) treatment of E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens.

Along the way his key uses arrangement of hairs on stems as as a character to distinguish between E. divergens and E. flagelaris:

6. Some or all of the hairs of the stem appressed or closely ascending, or the stem glabrous.
which leads to E. flagellaris. The other half of the couplet:
6. Hairs of the stem all spreading.
leads to E. divergens where E. tracyi is treated as a variety.

Key to the varieties of Erigeron divergens
1. Earliest heads on leafy peduncles; plant without long stoloniform branches. A. var. typicus.
1. Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long leafy stolons or stoloniform branches. B. var. cinereus.

112B. Erigeron divergens var. cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II 4:68. 1849. Not H. & A. 1836.
E. nudiflorus Buckl. Prec. Acad. Phil. 1861: 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902.
E. tracyi Greene. Pittonia 5: 59. 1902.
E. divergens nudiflorus A. Nels. Man. Bot. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Loc. Cit.
? E. dicladus Greene. Leafl. 2: 214. 1912.
Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long loafy stolons or stoliform branches; basal leaves more often persistent than in var. typicus. Southern Nevada and Utah, through Arizona and New Mexico to northern Mexico, central Texas, western Oklahome, and southwestern Kansas; reported from Colorado and western Arkansas.
Type: Fendler 374, near Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1847 (NY).
… Texas: Tracy & Earle 279, Limpia Canyon, April 26, 1902 (type of E. commixtus Greene) (MI, NY); Tracy & Earle 320, Davis Mountains, April 28, 1902 (type of E. tracyi Greene) (MI, NY); … Colorado: Rydberg & Vreeland 5438, 5 miles southwest of La Veta, Huerfano Counto, May 22, 1900 (NY); …
The variety cinereus has usually been treated as a distinct species under the name E. nudiflorus Buckl., but there are two many intermediates for it to stand. There are occasional intermediates with E. modestus, having the pubescence of the latter, and habit of E. divergens var. cinereus. These plants are more likely to have conspicuously lobed basal leaves than is typical var. cinereus.

The variety cinereus is what we are calling E. tracyi today.

Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (2nd ed., 1964, p. 565) placed E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens. This repeats his treatment of the taxon in his first edition (Harrington, 1954).

8B. Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, (var.) Pl. Wright. 1:91. 1852.
E. cinereus A. Gray; E. nudiflorus Buckl.; E. commixtus Greene; E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels.; E. divergens nudiflorus (Buckl.) A. Nels. -- Earliest heads on long naked or nearly naked peduncles; plants producing long leafy stolons later in the season. --- Dry often sandy soil. Kansas ro Nevada, south to Texas and Arizona. Our records scattered over Colorado, mostly in the southern part, at 4000-8000 feet.

Of note is Harrington's acceptance of E. commixtus but not E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 1989.  

Nesom (1989c) accepted E. tracyi as having priority over E. colomexicanus.
Erigeron tracyi an earlier name for Erigeron colomexicanus
I have been using Erigeron colomexicanus as the name for this species, but both E. tracyi and E. commixtus were published seven years earlier, simultaneously (immediate succession in the same paper: Greene 1902). Plants of the type collections of E. tracyi, as well as those of E. commixtus, are early season forms (essentially a basal rosette with a single, subscapiform, monocephalous stem) that had not yet produced runners characteristic of the species.
Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia 5:59. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Davis Mts., 28 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 320 (Holotype: US!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!, OC!).
Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Cañon of the Limpia, Mountains of west Texas, 26 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 279 (Holotype: US!; isotypes: GH!, NY!, TAES!, TEX!).
Erigeron cinereus A, Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts n.s., 4 [Pl. Fendler.]; 68. 1849 (not Hook. & Arn. 1836). Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 3, Art. 5 [Pl. Wright.]:91. 1852. Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nels. [nom. Nov.], Man. Bot. Rocky Mts., 529. 1909. Type: U. S. A. NEW MEXICO. [Santa Fe Co.:] near Santa Fe, 1847, A. Fendler 374 (Holotype: GH!; isotypes: GH, NY! UC-2 sheets!, US!).

Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.  

Volume 20 of Flora of North America North of Mexico was published in 2006. The treatment of Erigeron was written by Guy L. Nesom.

160. Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia. 5: 59. 1902.
Running fleabane
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849, not Hooker & Arnott 1836; E. colomexicanus A. Nelson; E. commixtus Greene; E. divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 2.5–8(–12, 18) cm; usually taprooted, sometimes fibrous-rooted, caudices simple or branched. Stems first erect (greenish proximally), then producing herbaceous, leafy, prostrate runners (stoloniform branches, sometimes with rooting plantlets at tips), densely hirsutulous (hairs spreading-deflexed, of relatively even lengths and orientations), sparsely minutely glandular. Leaves mostly basal (persistent in early season); blades oblanceolate to spatulate (obovate-elliptic laminae), 10–30(–60) × 3–6(–12) mm, cauline abruptly reduced distally, margins entire, dentate, or lobed, faces densely hirsute, eglandular. Heads 1(–3 rarely, from midstem or proximal branches). Involucres 3.5–4.5(–6) × 6–9(–12) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, sparsely to moderately hirsute, minutely glandular. Ray florets 60–130; corollas white, often purplish abaxially, sometimes with an abaxial midstripe, 5–9 mm, laminae not coiling or reflexing. Disc corollas 2–3 mm (throats indurate and slightly inflated). Cypselae 0.7–1.3 mm, 2-nerved, faces sparsely strigose; pappi: outer of setae, inner of 12–16 bristles. 2n = 27.
Flowering Mar–Oct. Desert scrub, grassy slopes, oak chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodlands, Douglas fir-ponderosa pine; 700–2300(–2400) m; Ariz., Colo., Kans., Nev., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Utah; Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sonora, Zacatecas).
In March through June, plants of Erigeron tracyi produce leaves in a basal rosette usually with a single, erect, monocephalous, stem. Stoloniform branches are soon formed (often recognized on pressed specimens by the leaves mostly on one side of the branches), and by the end of the season (August through October), prostrate runners are usually evident, sometimes forming terminal, rooting plantlets.
Erigeron tracyi is similar in habit to E. flagellaris, particularly in the herbaceous stolons or stoloniform branches; the stem pubescence of E. tracyi is different, the stolons much less commonly produce rooting plantlets at the tips, and the plants tend to be perennial with woody or lignescent caudices, although they are variable both in habit and duration. Apparent hybrids with E. modestus and E. flagellaris are occasionally encountered, and the most common form of E. tracyi is perhaps (speculative) a stabilized, apomictic hybrid between the latter and E. divergens. All chromosome counts thus far have shown E. tracyi to be triploid and asynaptic.

Literature Cited:
- Snow, Neil, 2009.  

Erigeron tracyi Greene - FNA
[Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849 {not Hook. & Arnott 1836} - FNA
[Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson] - KTZ, E
[Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nelson] - SFE, W&W
[Erigeron commixtus Greene] - FNA
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray] - HDH, UTF
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray] - IMF
[Erigeron modestus A. Gray] - GPF

Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

11a. [10] Heads solitary on elongate, mostly leafless stems from the basal leaf clusters; plants developing long, nonrooting, stolon-like, spreading shoots. E. tracyi Greene [for Samuel Mills Tracy, 1847-1920]. Dry, gravelly floodplains and meadows, mimicking E. flagellaris but with spreading stem hairs. Flowering very early in the spring. The FNA suggests that this is a triploid apomictic hybrid between E. divergens and E. flagellaris. (E. colomexicanus is a later name.)

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield's (2015) description of E. tracyi does not describe the stem hairs, or the direction in which they point. Also, I think the stated length of the stoloniferous branches is quite short. Perhaps, the length should be expressed in decimeters, such as “... stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) dm. Long.” Finally, the only synonym identified is E. colomexicanus perhaps because it has long been used in Colorado and New Mexico, but E. commixtus and E. nudiflorus are not noted.

Erigeron tracyi Greene, Running Daisy. [E. colomexicanus A. Nelson]. Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 1-4 dm.; leaves oblanceolate to linear, entire or few-toothed, the stems forming stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) cm. long; involucre 3-5 mm. hih, hirsute with curved hairs; disk flowers 2-2.5 mm. long; ray flowers 4-6 mm. long, white or pink; pappus double. Common on the eastern slope in open meadows and on dry slopes, with scattered occurrences on the estern slope, 4000-9000 ft. April-July. E/W

Couplet 24 of Ackerfield's key to Erigeron addresses the question of stem hairs:

24a Stems with spreading or tangled (pointing in all directions) hairs or mostly glandular … 25
24b. Stems with appressed or ascending hairs (at above the middle), not glandular … 34

Couplet 25 eventually ends up at Couplet 29 which differentiates between E. tracyi and E. divergens.

Couplet 34 eventually leads to E. flagellaris.


Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1905.  

Erigeron vetensis sp. nov.
Densely cespitose-puvinate perennial ; stems 5-8 cm. high, hirsute, few-leaved ; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, hirsute, 2-4 cm. long; heads solitary, about 7 mm, high ; bracts hnear, acuminate, hirsute as w^ell as slightly glandular-puberulent ; rays purple, 8-10 mm. long, over i mm. wide; achenes strigose; pappus more or less double.
In dry places on high mountains of southern Colorado at an altitude of 2400-3000 m. It is intermediate between E. radicatus and E. glandulosus, resembling the former most in pubescence, and the latter in habit.
Colorado: Mountains near Veta Pass, 1900, Rydberg & Vreeland 5427 (type); Veta Mountain and Ojo, 5421, 5422; West Spanish Peak, 5424.


Other articles:
• Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens:  Introduction;  

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. Ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler

  • How did we get to the name of Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens?
    • What is the history of the genus name Chrysothamnus?
    • What is the history of the name Ericameria nauseosa?
    • What is the history of the name ____ graveolens? And how did it become a variety of Ericameria nauseosa?

See my page about Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens or “How did rubber rabbitbrush get that long scientific name?”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heliomeris multiflora;  

Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. “Showy Golden Eye”

The International Plant Names Index continues to use H. multiflorus, whereas nearly all other floras and checklists use the corrected Latin gender of H. multiflora.

Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.  

Original Text
Capitulum many-flowered, heterogamous; rays ligulate, in a single series, neuter; discal florets tubular, hermaphrodite. Involucrum irregularly imbricated and leafy, in about two series, and rather spreading. Receptacle conic, the palea embracing the florets, lanceolate and acute. Corolla, rays ligulate, (10-12,) those of the disk tubular, the tube short, throat wide and cylindric, border five-toothed. Stigmata with obling tips. Achenia laterally compressed, somewhat tetragonous, smooth, and without any pappus.
A perennial tall herb, exactly resembling an Helianthus, with narrow, entire, somewhat scabrous leaves, the lower ones opposite ; flowers yellow, terminal, numerous.
H. *multiflorus. A stoutish perennial, three or four feet high, much branched ; stems terete and striated ; leaves narrow, lanceolate, entire, nearly sessile, above somewhat scabrous, opposite below, on the branchlets alternate ; flowers terminal, numerous and showy, bright yellow, with to to twelve rays, sometimes with deeper discoloured blotches towards the base or lower half, entire and oblong ; leaflets of the calyx oblong-lanceolate, somewhat spreading, in nearly a simple series ; achenia black and smooth. Scarcely distinguishable from Helianthus, except by a short conic receptacle, and naked seeds.
Hab. Mountains of Upper California, (Dr. Gambel,) and was also collected in the Rocky Mountains by Mr. Gordon.
‡ In allusion to its close affinity to Helianthus.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Helianthus pumilus;  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Helianthus pumilus Nutt. “Little Sunflower”

Original Text
Helianthus * pumilus; ♃ hirsutely pilose and scabrous; leaves ovate-lanceolate, opposite, attenuated below, subpetiolate, nearly entire, and three-nerved, upper leaves lanceolate, alternate; involucrum hoary, hispid; sepals imbricated, lanceolate, acute, as well as the receptacular paleae; achenia smooth.
Hab. Rocky Mountains and plains of the Platte. A low, perennial, simple stemmed species, about a foot high, leaves two to three inches long, about an inch wide. Capituli about three to five (apparently) sessile. Rays about sixteen, longer than the disk, paleae somewhat obtuse, hirsute at the summit, scales of the achenium rather large and wide.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Heterotheca foliosa;  

Heterotheca foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners. “Hairy False Goldenaster.”




Original Text Interpretation
3a. Basal leaves and most stem leaves deeply pinnatifid or runcinate-pinnatifid. P. fendleri (A. Gray) Weber & Love. Abundant in gravelly soil, open forests of the foothills. Producing rosettes from long, slender rhizomes; leaf lobes uniform, shallow; leaves white tomentose.  
3b. Basal leaves oval, rately pinnatifid except at the very base. … 4  
4b. Basal leaves narrower, on winged petioles, irregularly toothed, lobed or entire. … 10 Leads eventually to P. plattensis.
Original Text Interpretation
2a. Basal and stem leaves nearly all deeply and evenly pinnately dissected or runcinate-pinnatifid … 3 This couplet leads to P. multilobata and P. fendleri.
2b. Basal leaves with entire, toothed, or crenate margins (in P. plattensis and P. tridenticulata a few basal leaves may have pinnatisect margins, but the majority of the leaves will have entire or merely toothed margins), stem leaves entire to pinnatisect or sublyrate … 4 This couplet eventually leads to P. plattensis after elininating seven other taxa, and arriving at a group including P. plattensis, P. streptanthifolia, and P. pseudaurea.


Packera fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve. (Syn: Senecio fendleri A. Gray ) Fendler"s Ragwort.



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Packera plattensis;  

Packera plattensis (Nuttall) W. A. Weber & Á. Löve. “Prairie Groundsel”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  

Original Text
Senecio * Plattensis; ♃, somewhat pubescent; base of the stem arachnoidly tomentose; leaves all pinnatifid, the radical petiolate, cauline amplexicaule, lobes oblong, denticulate, the centre lobe sublanceolate; corymb nearly simple; involucrum subcampanulate, minutely bracteolate; sepals about twenty, scute; rays usually twelve, oblong, a little longer that the short involucrum; achenium puberulous; pappus about the length of the florets.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountain range, and in Arkansa. About ten to fourteen inches high ; stem simple, striated. Corymb nearly simple, with ten to twelve heads of flowers, pedicels one to two inches long, slightly bracteolate. The Arkansa specimen is taller and more slender, with the primary small radical leaves entire and smooth, the leaves more elongated, and less denticulate. The whole habit of the plant, as well as the flowers, are very similar to S. tomentosus, at lease the smoother variety, but the achenium is less pubescent.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Picradeniopsis oppositifolia;  

Picradeniopsis oppositifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. ex Britton. “Opposite Leaf Bahia.”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Ratibida columnifera;
• Water Tank Road:   above the curve;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1198, 12 Jul 2015;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1198, Ratibida columnifera  

Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl. “Upright Prairie Coneflower”

“Upright Prairie Coneflower” Ratibida columnifera is predominantly a Great Plains species which extends from southeastern British Columbia to Manitoba and Michigan, south through Illinois to Louisiana, and west through Texas and northern Mexico to Arizona.

[So, is the cypsela ciliate on the abaxial side, or the adaxial side?]


Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Greene, Edward L., 1889.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Fraser's Catalogue, publication details;
• Glossary:  flosculi;  fulvous;  

Fraser's (1813) catalogue of new and interesting plants published for the first time a number of new taxa for North America. Many of these were Thomas Nuttall collections that were subsequently published in Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis and Nuttall (1818) Gen. Am.

Original Text Comments

75 * Rudbeckia columnifera. ‡ Spontaneous varieties of this plant sometimes occur with bright fulvous flowers, colored like Tagetes patula : the stem is simple, seldom producing more than three flowers, which are of an uncommon length, appearing like a column of flosculi, subtended by 5-8 neutral florets, and a simple calyx.

Tagetes patula is commonly called the French Marigold, also in the Asteraceae, and native to Mexico and Guatemala.

76 Rudbeckia purpurea. * serotina. ‡ Stem somewhat branching and hirsute, flowers brighter and more numerous.

I think this might be what we now call Echinacea purpurea, not native to Colorado, but widely cultivated, and found occasionally as a garden escapee.
* New Species. — † A Shrub. — ‡ Perennial. — M. from Missourie.  

Copies of Fraser's (1813) catalogue were quite rare, so Greene (1889) republished it. It is unclear who actually wrote the catalogue. Greene was convinced that Nuttall wrote it having seen an original copy sent to Zaccheus Collins from Messrs. Fraser, saying

It had passed through the hands of Nuttall, and had received one or two slight corrections from his pen. Moreover, he had written his name in ink, as the author of the Catalogue …

Literature Cited:
- Pursh, Frederick, 1816.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Pursh, 1814, publication details;  

Pursh (v. 2, 1816) published the name, citing Fraser's (1813) catalogue.
Original Text
657. RUDBECKIA. Gen. pl. 1324.
11. R. caule stricto simplici summutate paucifloro, pedunculis elongatis, foliis pinnatifidis incisis, laciniis linearibus, calyce simplici 5-phyllo, radiis 5-8., disco cylindraceo elongato.
R. columnifera, Fraser catal. 1813
On the Missouri. v. s. The singular appearance of the receptacle of this plant distinguishes it from all the other known species.

Literature Cited:
- Fraser, John, 1813.
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Nuttall (1818) published Rudbeckia columnaris
Original Text
Calix subequal, mostly consisting of a double series of leaflets. Receptacle paleaceous, conic. Pappus a 4-toothed margin.
Herbaceous; leaves alternate, entire, lobed of pinnaifid ; flowers terminal ; disk often dark, rays yellow, rarely brown, in R. purpurea purple. — Stigma often obtuse.
Species. ....
12. columnaris. Hispid; stem nearly simple, 1 or few-flowered, peduncles very long; radical leaves nearly entire, cauline pinnatifid, segments linear-lanceolate; calix simple, 5 to 8-leaved, rays 5 to 8; disk cylindric, elongated. Hab. On the plains of Upper Louisiana. Flowering in July. Perennial: 1 to 2 feet high. Rays sometimes brown-red, as in Tagetes patula.
13. ...
A North American genus, with the exception of R. nudicaule of Monte Video, which appears to be scarcely distinct from R. spathulata. The seeds of R. purpurea are pungently aromatic.

In this publication, Nuttal has altered R. columnifera to R. columnaris not referred to R. columnifera as published in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue. I suspect this might be enough to render R. columnaris and illegitimate name. If so, this will have an impact on Rafinesque's proposal of Ratibida columnaris Raf., nextunder.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818a.
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1818b.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Amer Monthly Mag Crit Rev, publication details;  

Rafinesque (1818) wrote a two-part review of Pursh (1814) Flora Americae Septentrionalis.
Original Text
125. Rudbeckia columnaris must form the genus Ratibida of Raf. Fl. Miss.
Ratibida columnaris Raf. is treated as a synonym of R. columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.

The reference to “Fl. Miss.“ is a puzzle. I have seen another reference to this publication that it was “ined.” However, it is unclear whether “Miss.” refers to either Mississippi or Missouri.

Literature Cited:
- Wooton, E. O., and Paul C. Standley, 1915.  

Original Text
2.Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. Fraser's Cat. No. 75. 1813.
Rudbeckia columnaris Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 575. 1814.
Ratibida columnaris D. Don in Sweet, Brit. Flower Gard. II. 4: pl. 361. 1838
Lepachys columnaris Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2:313. 1842.

Type locality: Upper Louisiana.

Range: British Columbia and Saskatchewan to Arizona, Texas, and Tennessee.

New Mexico: Sierra Grande; mountains west of Grants Station; Santa Fe and Las Vegas mountains; Clayton; Lower Plaza; White and Sacramento mountains. Plains and low hills, in the Upper Sonoran and Transition zones.

2a. Ratibida columnifera pulcherrima (DC.) Woot. & Standl.

Obeliscaria pulcherrima DC. Prodr.5:559. 1836.
Ratibida columnaris pulcherrima D. Don in Sweet, Brit. Flower Gard. II. 4: pl. 361. 1830
Lepachys columnaris pulcherrima Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 313. 1842.

Type locality: “In Mexici provinc. Texas as San-Fernando de Bejar, et in sinu Spiritus-Sancti ad lacum Sancti-Nicolai.”

Range: With the species, but more common in New Mexico.

New Mexico: Dulce; Chama; Pecos; Santa Antonita; Ramah; near Las Vegas; mountains west of Grants Station; El Cedro; Tucumcari; Mongollon Mountains; White Mountains; Buchanan; Redlands; Queen; Knowles; Artesia.

This is a mere form of the type and hardly deserves a name. Both forms almost invariably occur together, although occasionally they grow alone, It is possible to find in a single patch every possible gradation in the color of the rays from pure bright yellow to solid brown-purple. The same variation in color occurs in R. tagetes, but since that has very small and inconspicuous rays no one has yet thought to distinguish the various forms by name.

Literature Cited:
- Reveal, James L., 1968.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Reveal (1968) comments on Fraser (1813) Catalogue - 1;  

Reveal (1968) summarized the evidence and opinions on the author of the names in Fraser's (1813) Catalogue and the legitimacy of them. Excerpts from Reveal's introduction were presented above, whereas his specific comments on Ratibida columnifera are below.

75. Rudbeckia columnifera Nutt. In Fras. Catal. 1813. In my opinion, this species is adequately described in Fraser's Catalogue, as Nuttall states:
“Spontaneous varieties of this plant sometimes occur with bright fulvous flowers, coloured like Tagetes patula: the stem is simple, seldom producing more than three flowers, which are of an uncommon length, appearing like a column of flosculi, subtended by 5-8 neutral florets, and a simple calyx.”
This species was also described as R. columnaris Sims, Bot. Mag. 39: 1601. 1813, from cultivated plants given to Sims by the Fraser Brothers who had grown the species from seeds collected by Nuttall. The Pursh name, R. columnaris Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 2: 575. 1814, is an illegitimate substitute for Nuttall's R. columnifera and is thus an exact synonym of it. The species is now commonly known as Ratibida columnifera (Nutt. In Fras.) Woot. & Standl., Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 19: 706. 1915.

Literature Cited:
- Richards, Edward Leon, 1968.  

Monograph on Ratibida


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Senecio integerrimus;  

Senecio integerrimus Nutt. “Columbia Ragwort”


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
• Glossary:  carnose;  sphacelate;  

Original Text
564. SENECIO. L. (Ragwort.)
Calix cylindric, subcaliculate: scales sphacelate at the point. Receptacle naked. Pappus simple, capillary, and copious.
Suffruticose oe more commonly herbaceous; leaves entire or pinnatifid; flowers mostly corymbose or terminal; yellow or rarely purple. A few species are destitute of rays.
Species. 1. ...
15. * integerrimis Smooth; stem simple and attenuated; leaves perfectly entire; radical ones long petiolate, lanceolate, acute, cauline, sessile, acuminate, uppermost minute; corymb simple, 8 to 12-flowered? peduncles 1-flowered, rays shorter than the hemisperical caliculate calix. HAB. In depressed and moist situations on the plains of the Missouri, near the Great Bend. Flowering in June. Flower large and yellow. Stem 12 to 18 inches high. Lower leaves thickish and somewhat carnose, very smooth, uppermost minutes, slightly tomentose; corymb coarctate. Seeds smooth. Nearly allied to S. aquaticus.
A genus of more than 140 species principally indigenous to Europe and the Cape of Good Hope.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Senecio spartioides;
• Field Notes:  6 Sep 2020;
Full Size ImageSenecio spartioides adventive in my garden.  

Senecio spartioides Torr. & A. Gray. “Broomlike Ragwort.”

Known from Apex Park and Tin Cup Ridge, North and South Table Mountains, and North Washington Open Space.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles:
• US Highway 287:   at Jeffrey City;

Locations: Jeffrey City.  

Senecio spartioides was described by Torrey and A. Gray (1843) from a Lt. John Fremont collection.
Original Text
* * * * Perennial : heads corymbose, chiefly radiate
† Leaves entire or denticulate.
8. S. spartioides : glabrous throughout; stems suffruticose, very numerous from the same ligneous tap-root, rigid, corymbose at the summit, leafy; leaves fleshy, narrowly linear, perfectly entire, rather obtuse, sessile; heads (large and showy) fastigiate-corymbose, on short minutely bracteolate peduncles ; the calyculate scales subulate, minute ; scales of the cylindrical involucre about 12, lanceolate-linear, acutish; rays mostly 7, oblong-linear, elongated ; achenia silky-canescent.
Upper Platte; on a steep sand-bank of the Sweet-water River, Lieut. Fremont! Aug.–Sept. — Stems a foot high, forming a dense tuft. Leaves 1-3 inches long, about a line wide, very numerous. Heads half an inch in length. Rays golden-yellow. Pappus as long as the disk-corolla. — A remarkable and handsome species.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago missouriensis;
Full Size ImageHabitat of Coll. No. 1256, Solidago missouriensis at Ranson/Edwards.
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1732, Solidago missouriensis at North Table Mountain.  

Solidago missouriensis Nutt. “Missouri Goldenrod”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834a.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834a, publication details;  

Original Text
55. Solidago * Missouriensis. Pumila, glabra, recemis erectis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis, acutis, inciso-subserrularis, superioribus integris, panicula brevi laxa, floribus majus-culis
Stem slender, smooth, leafy, about a foot or so high. Leaves scabrous at the margin. Panicle about three inches long, the branchlets slender, the flowers pedicellate, and brought together in a somewhat rhomboidal raceme. Rays as long as the calyx.
Hab. in the upper branches of the Missouri and in Arkansas.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago nana;  

Solidago nana Nutt. “Baby Goldenrod.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1841, publication details;  Crepis occidentalis, Weber & Wittman, 2012;  

Nuttall's (1841) description of S. nana.
Original Text
Solidago * nana; somewhat cinereous and pulveulently pubescent, dwarf, many stems from the same root; lower and radical leaves spathulate, obtuse, entire, or subserrulate at the apex, stem leaves linear, narrowed below; ramuli fastigiate, subcorymbose; bractes linear; involucrum nearly smooth, scales ovate; rays about seven, oblong, as long as the disk; achenium pubescent.
HAB. In the Rocky Mountain range, near Lewis' River of the Shoshonee. About a span high, with a large, black, almost woody root. Stem leaves small, radical ones about one and a half inches by half an inch wide; scales of the involucrum unusually broad, pubescent on the margin, rays conspicuous. Apparently allied to S. nemoralis, though very distinct and alpine.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Solidago speciosa;  

Solidago speciosa Nutt. “Showy Goldenrod.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Original Text
560. SOLIDAGO. L. (Golden-Rod.)
†† Racemes erect
27. *speciosa. Stem tall and smooth, simple or virgately branched; leaves lanceolate, entire, somewhat carnose. scabrous on the margin, the lower very broad, radical ones subserrate; racemes mostly terminal, erect and compound, pubescent; pecuncles mostly shorter than the calix; rays elongated about 5; seed smooth. Hab. In shady woods, on the banks of the Schuykill, also in Jersey; near Philadelphia, but rare. S. sempervirens. Mich. S. integrifolia? Persoon, 2. p. 449. Allied to S. petiolaris. Stem often 6 feet high, smooth and sulcate. Lowest leaves a span long, and 3 inches broad, irregularly and remotely subserrate, upper leaves very entire. gradually diminishing upwards, in dry and shady situations, membranacei=ous and veined, in gardens subcarnose and smaller, with the veins partly obliterated, racemes also numerous, but always rigid, terminal and erect. Flowers larger than the preceding, with the calix also coloured (which in the preceding is green); rays bright yellow, unusually broad. The seeds in this species are perfectly smooth, in our sempervirens pubescent. This is one of the most ornamental plants of the genus.


Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom


Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.  

Publication of Aster ericoides L. var strictus Porter in Porter and Coulter (1874).
Aster ericoides, L., var strictus, Porter. Low ¾ °-1° high, glabrous, except the scabrous margins and ciliate bases of the leaves, erect, slender, paniculately branched above, branches short; scales of involucre narrowly linear, lax, outer ones very acute, often entirely green, inner ones scarious with a central green line; radical leaves narrowly oblanceolate. -- “In the mountains at middle elevations,” Hall & Harbour, 254. Near Denver, Coulter. Foot-hills west of Denver, Porter; Meehan; Hoopes.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1880.  

basionym:Asteraceae Aster porteri A.Gray Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts xvi. (1880) 99.

Among the true Asters are several forms which have to be named, such as A. Porteri for A. ericoides, var. strictus, Porter & Coult. Fl. Colorado. 56, and A. pringlei, from the northern end of Lake Champlain …


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Aristida purpurea;  

Aristida purpurea Nutt. “Purple Threeawn. ”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1834.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1834, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea  

First collected and described by Nuttall (1834) in his report in his near-fatal trip to Arkansa Territory.
Original Text
1. Aristida stricta. 2. A. oligantha. 3. A. dichotoma. 4. A. pallens
5. A. * purpurea. Panicula erectiuscula gracili ; cal. Valvulis remotis aristulatis apice bifidis ; aristis capillaribus longissimis ; foliis brevibus scabris. — Hab. On the grassy plains of Red river, in arid situations. Flowering in May. — Obs. Perennial ' leaves narrow, short and scabrous ; ligula pilose ; culm about one foot high ; panicle many flowered, a little spreading, branches capillary ; flowers commonly in pairs (after the manner of the genus), bluish purple ; one valve of the calyx nearly double the length of the other, both bifid at the summit and shortly awned, the longer valve exceeding the corolla ; awns equal, capillary, nearly three times the length of the corolla and scabrous ; corolla minutely stipitate.
Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1140, Aristida purpurea var. longiseta


Bouteloua Grama Grass

Genus name honors two Spanish brothers Claudius (d. 1842) and Exteban Boutelou (d. 1813) professors of botany and agriculture respectively.

Literature Cited:
- Gould, Frank W., 1979.  

Abstract. Bouteloua was established in 1805 by Mariano Lagasca. The type species is B. curtipendula (Michaux) Torrey, originally named B. racemosa by Lagasca. In the present treatment, 39 species are recognized, 29 of these restricted to North America and Central America, 2 species are endemic to the Antilles, 2 species occur in the Antilles, as well as at other locations, 5 species are distributed in both North and South America, and 1 species, B. megapotamica, is represented only in southern South America. Bouteloua is a characteristic member of the tribe Chlorideae of the subfamily Eragrostoideae (Chloridoideae). The species all are C4 plants with typical Kranz leaf anatomy and starch storage features. Chromosome numbers have been reported for 29 species with most species being diploid (2n = 20) or tetraploid (2n = 40). Aneuploid records or series of counts have been reported for 9 species.

All species of Bouteloua are characterized by features of the Kranz Syndrome. They are C4 in their photosynthesis and have a characteristic chloridoid leaf anatomy. Starch storage is in specialed plastids of the leaf sheath bundles, and the arrangement of cells in the leaf blade is typically Kranz. The 39 recognized species are all variously stapted to shortgrass prairies, desert grasslands, and xeric sites along desert shrub areas, and sandy shores.

The genus Bouteloua was described in 1805 by Mariano Lagasca. Lagasca proposed five species, B. racemosa, B. hirsuta, B. barbata, B. simplex, and B. prostrata, but did not designate a type species. Griffiths (1912), Hitchcock (1920), and Hitchcock et al. (1939) all have accepted the first species, B. racemosa, as the type. As plants of the type species had been named Chloris curtipendula by Michaux in 1803, the legitimate name for this taxon is Bouteloua curtipendula.

Bouteloua was named in honor of two Spanish gardeners, the Boutelou brothers. Lagasca's original spelling of the genus name was Botelus. In a later publication (1816), he corrected this to Bouteloua.

Two subgenera, Bouteloua and Chrondrosium (Desvaux) Gould. Weber & Wittmann (2012) retain Chrondrosium at the rank of genus, though spelling it Chrondrosum Desvaux, suggesting that we see Clayton, W. D., 1986, Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. XIII. 389 p. Peterson, et al. (2015) treat Chrondrosum as a section of Bouteloua containing B. gracilis and one other known in Colorado, B. simplex.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bouteloua curtipendula;  

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. in Marcy. “Side-Oats Grama”


Literature Cited:
- Michaux, Andre, 1803.  

The basionym of B. curtipendula is Chloris curtipendula Michx.
Original Text My Interpretation
CHLORIS. Sw. CHLORIS. O. P. Swartz (1788) Nova Genera & Species Plantarum seu Prodromus
Spicae unilateriflorae, spiculis subsessiliter biseriatis : quarum gluma communis 2-valvis, 2-6-flora : floribus dissimilibus ; valva altera ( saltem nonnullorum ) aristata : uno hermaphrodito , fertili ; caeteris inperfectis , masculis neutrisve ; ultimo pedicellato. Spikes unilateral flowered, darts subsessiliter biseriatis, of which the husk common 2-doors, 2-6-flowered, flowers are different; second valve (at least some) anstata one hermaphrodito, fertile; the rest of the imperfect, or the males neutrisve; last pedicellatae.
curtipendula. C. racemo erecto longo ; e spicis plurimis , distiche alternis , e basí emittens rudimentum secundi floris inane , promisse aristatum ; intra quod bina alia rudimenta quasi in sola arista consistentia. curtipendula. Chloris, even on a long raceme; very many out of the ears of corn, distiche every other day, And I will send the initial stage of the second base of the flower out of the void, Retz promised; the rudiments of other things, and within it two of every sort as the only grain condition.
Plantae cultae statura major; spicae 6-12-glumes. If cultivated plants are taller; 6-12-spike glumes.
Hab. in aridis regionis Illinoensis ad Wabast et in rupibus ad prairie du rocher. ♃ Habitat. In arid regions of Illinois to Wabash River and watercourses of Prairie de Rocher (a town in southwest Illinois). Perennial.

Prairie du Rocher is one of the oldest communities in the 21st century United States having been founded in 1722 by French colonists, mostly migrants from Canada. About four miles to the west, closer to the Mississippi River, is Fort de Chartres, site of a French military fortification and colonial headquarters established in 1720.

Literature Cited:
- Emory, William H., 1848.  

Emory (1848) hinted as the existence of Bouteloua curtipendula as a name but this would be invalid because he really did not place B. racemosa in synonomy. I assume that Emory had heard from Torrey that B. curtipendula was the correct name but perhaps did not know that Torrey had not published the name.

____teloua racemosa, Lagasca. ? Culm erect, simple; spikes nu-
____s (20-40,) reflexed, 3-flowers; lower glume linear subulate;
____ one linear-lanceolate, scabrous, entire, nearly as long as the
____ts; lower palea of the perfect flower unequally tricuspidate,
____ent; abortive flower reduced to a slender awn which is nearly
____g as the perfect flower, furnished at the base with 2 short
____onspicuous bristles. Valley of the Gila, rare. This plant
____pretty well with Kunth's description of B. (Eutriana,) race-
____xcept in the pubescent lower palea, and the minute bristles
____base of the neiter flower. Whether it be the plant of La-
____r not is very difficult to determine from his brief character.
It certainly is very different from B. racemosa of the United States,
which has a large 3-awed neuter flower, and if distinct from La-
gasca's, must receive another name. That of B. curtipendula
would be appropriate.

Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

IPNI (2020) indicates that Bouteloua curtipendula was credit to Torrey in Marcy (1854), whereas Marcy seems to credit Torrey in Emory's report. IPNI also suggest that new combination was invalid, “Torrey (in Emory, Notes milit. Reconn. 154. 1848) mentioned this comb. Nov. (invalid)”
Bouteloua racemosa, Lag. Var. Cienc. (1805) p. 141 ; Torr. In Emory's Rep., p. 154 ; not of Torr. Fl. N. York. Dinebra curtipendula, DC.? Kunth, Syn. Pl. Eq. 1, p. 281 ; excl. syn. Michx. Eutriana curtipendula, Trin. Fund. P. 161 (in part); Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 280, and Suppl. P. 233 ; excl. syn. Michx. And Willd. Main Fork of Red River; July. The detailed description of this species by Kunth, l. c., (drawn from a Mexican specimen collected by Humboldt) shows that the Chloris curtipendula of Michaux (Bouteloua curtipendula, Torr.) is a distinct species, as indicated in Emory's report, l. c.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Bouteloua gracilis;  

Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths. Blue Grama Grass.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

110. ATHEROPOGON. Muhlenberg.
... [Description of A. apludoides, syn: Chloris curtipendula, Mich. = Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torrey – Ed.]
2. A. * oligostachyum. Spikes 2 or 3, nearly terminal, many flowered; calix and corolla pilose; outer valve of the corolla distinctly 3-awned, the 2 lateral awns shorter, arising near the middle of the valve; neutral valve 3-awned.
On the plains of the Missouri with the above. [Bouteloua curtipendula – Ed.] Common.
Culm round, filiform, nearly naked, or with a single leaf, 8 to 12 inches high, smooth and erect. Leaves very short, smooth, and subulate, stipule and base of the spikes shortly bearded. Spikes 1, 2, or 3, about an inch long, usually curved backwards, unilateral, compressed, and pectinate, the second spikes bibracteate, rachis semiterete. Glumes in a double row, opposite; each 2-flowered; calix bluish-purple, exterior valve lanceolate, mucronate, with a single nerve; the nerve beset with a few scattered hairs arising from so many tubercles; inner valves shorter, very narrow. Corolla, outer valve lanceolate, carinate, 3-awned, pilose along the margins of the nerves, and at the base; inner valve smooth, shortly bi-cuspidate. Neutral flower 1-valved, obtuse, with 3 awns, and pubescent at the base.
This species, though certainly a congener of the preceding, is considerably allied to Chloris, appearing to unite that genus and Sesleria, agreeing partly with the latter in the structure of the flowers, and with the former in its habitus. (A North American genus)


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloe dactyloides;
• Field Notes:  Coll. No. 1673, 16 Jun 2017;   Coll. No. 1674, 19 Jun 2017;  Coll. No. 1690, 29 Jun 2017;  

Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  v. v.;  

Buffalo Grass was first recognized in the field and published by Nuttall (1818). However, Nuttall only saw the staminate plants, and published the grass that way. He also was not sure of the genus, but settled on Sesleria as his best guess.
95. SESLERIA. L. (Moor-grass.)
Calix 2 to 5-flowered. Corolla 2-valved, valvea toothed at the point. Stigmata somewhat glandulous. — Flowers spiked, often purplish, base of the spike breacteate, or involucrate. Early flowering subalpine grasses, growing in calcareous mountains.
Species. 1. S. Dactlyoides. Culm setaceous, leafy; leaves short, flat, subulate, and somewhat hairy; stipules bearded; spikes 2 or 3, few-flowered; flowers in 2 rows, disposed upon an unilateral rachis, calix mostly 2-flowered, and with the corolla acuminate and entire.
Hab. On the open grassy plains of the Missouri; abundant. Flowers in May and Junes. v. v. Root after flowering resembling a bulb.
Culm smooth and round, furnished with 2 or 3 leaves, about 4 or 5 inches high. Leaves flat, subulate, and somewhat hairy, 1 to 2 inhes in length, and about 2 lines wide; sheathes shorter than the internodes, very hairy around the stipules. Spikes 2 or 3, somewhat ovalm subtended by a single leaf, with which they are at first sheathed; rachis compressed, margined,spikelets 6 to 8, by pairs, inclined to one side. Calix 2-valved, 2 or 3-flowered, vales very unequal, each with a single nerve and carinate, the larger oblong-ovate, mucronulate. Outer valve of the corolla oblong-lanceolate, entire, 3-nerved, smooth, and menbranaceous, longer than the calix; inner 2-nerved, nearly the length of the outer. Anthers linear, entire, fulvous, exserted. Styles filiform, pubescept.
This species appears on the one hand, alloed to Atheropogon, and on the other to Dactylis. Though rather a Sesleria than any other genus, it recedes from it in having the valves of the corolla entire at the apex, and thus it approaches Dactylis at least, the D. glomerata.
With the exception of the present species, the genus Sesleria is confined to the alpine regions of Northern Europe.

Literature Cited:
- Rafinesque, C. S., 1819.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  nomen nudum;  

Rafinesque (1819), recognizing that the grass must be distinct from the Old World Sesleria, published a genus name Bulbilis for Nuttall's grass.

18. Sesleria dactyloides must form a peculiar genus by Mr. N's. own account, it may be called Bulbilis.

The question will become whether this is a validly published name, or whether it is a nomen nudum.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.  

I don't see any grasses in Torrey & Gray's (1838-1843) Flora of North America.

Literature Cited:
- Marcy, Randolph B., 1854.  

Sesleria dactyloides, Nutt. Gen, 1, p. 65; Kunth, Enum, 1, p. 323; Torr, in Emory's report, p. 323, t. 10. Upper tributaries of the Red River; July. This is the well known Buffalo-grass of the western prairies. It is remarkable that neither the grain nor the fertile flowers of this grass are known.

Literature Cited:
- Engelmann, George, M.D., 1859.  

Original Text Comments and Interpretation
By George Engelmann, M.D.  
The grasses, though usually hermaphrodite, show a tendency to a separation of the sexes, and polygamous flowers are not rare among them. About 25 to 28 genera, one-twelfth of the whole number known, comprising only 75 to 80 species, about one seventy-fifth of all species, * are described as having monoecious and mostly heteromorphous flowers.  
Only two genera of dioecious grasses are known to the books; of these, Spinifex, Lin., with 6 species from the East Indies and Australia, bearing on some plants staminate and on others complete flowers, is only incompletely dioecious; the other genus is Gynerium, H. B. K., five South American species. Some other dioecious species of genera, generally hermaphrodite, are noticed; such as Calamagrostis dioica, Lour., and Guadua dioca, Steud.  
The unisexual grasses mostly belong to Oryzeae, Phalarideae, Paniceae, and Rottboellieae; none have been known among the tribes of Stipeae, Agrostideae, Chlorideae, Avenaceae, Festiceae, and Hordeeae.  
They were unknown in the northern temperate zone, with the exception of Zizania and Tripsacum of North America and the cultivated Zea, all with heteromorphous staminate and pistillate flowers on the same plant. The dioecious grasses of our Flora are both species of Brizopyrum;† Eragrostis reptans is also frequently or mostly dioecious, and other species of this genus seem to be imperfectly so.  
In the following pages, two new dioecious North American grasses are described, both types of new and very distinct genera, and both, it is believed, belonging to Chloridae.  

* In the latest work on Grasses, Steudel's Glumaceae, published in 1855, about 6,000 species of Grasses are described, very unequally distributed in about 300 genera, many general containing only a single species, while Panicum alone comprises 864, Andropogon 461, Eragrostis 247, and Festuca 239 numbers.  
Brizopyrum spicatum, Hook. Is from the eastern seacoast, and B. strictum from the saline soils of the Missouri region and of Utah. The flowers of both sexes are conform, but the staminate plants are readily distinguished from the pistillate ones by their more slender growth, the spikes overtopping the leaves; while in the pistillate plants the latter are longer than the spikes. = Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene
  Engelmann's description of the new genus:
Original Text Comments and Interpretation
BUCHLOË, Nov. Gen. BUCHLOË, New Genus
Gramen plantitierum Americae Septentrionalis aridarum Missouriensium, Texensium, Mexicanarumque gregarium, perenne, stoloniferum, humile, sparse pilosum vel glabriusculum; ligulis barbatis. — Buchloe pro nimis longo Bubalochloe nomen vernaculum “Buffalograss,” graece reddit. Grass of arid North America, Missouri, Texas, Mexico, perennial stoloniferous, small, sparsely hairy or glabriusculus; ligules bearded. — Buchloe from a long form, Bubalochloe (Χορτ ο βου β αλ ου) The name of the breed “ Buffalograss” in Greek.

Literature Cited:
- Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb, 1855.  

Description of the new species:
Buchloe dactyloides.
Syn. Plantae masculae: Sesleria dactyloides, Nuttall, Gen. I. p. 64. Sesleria (?) dactyloides, Torrey, in Emory's Rep. 1848, p. 153, Pl. X; id. In Whipple's Rep. Pacif, R.R. Expl., IV., p. 157. Calanthera dactyloides, Kenth (?) in Hooker's account of Geyer's Rocky Mountain plants, in Kew Journ. Bot., VIII., p. 18. Triodiae spec., Bentham, in Pl. Hartweg, nro. 250, p. 28. Lasiostega humilis, Rupprecht (ined) in Benth, Pl. Hartw. Corrig., P. 347. — Drummond Tex., Ill., nro. 378. Lindheimer, Pl. Tex. Exsicc. 569. Fendler N. Mex., 940. Berlandier, nro. 1612 and 1614. Hartw, 250 (fide Gray).
Syn. Plantae faemineae: Antephora axilliflora, Steudel, Glum. I. . 111 — Drummond Tex., II., 359. Wright, 1849, 785; 1851-1852, 2079 (fide Torrey).
This remarkable plant is found in our western pariries from the British possessions throughout the Mossouri Territory, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico, down to Texas and Northern Mexico, and is, under the name of “Buffalo-grass,” well known to hunters and trappers as one of the most nutricious grasses, on which, for a part of the year, subsist and fatten immense herds of buffalo and the cattle of the hunter and emigrant. Since the time of Nuttall, who published an account of it, in his “Genera,” as early as 1818, the male plant has been collected by almost every botanist traversing those regions. The female plant had escaped the observers until it was described by Steudel, in the year 1855, from Drummond's Texan specimens, as a totally different plant and belonging even to a different tribe. Though Prof. Torrey had already, in Emory's Report, 1848, suggested the probability of the Buffalo-grass being a dioecious plant, the possibility that Nuttall's Sesleria dactyloides and Steudel's Antephora axilliflora could be the male and female of the same species was not even suspected, till finding both together in a collection sent by my brother, Henry Engelmann, who, as a geologist, accompanied the topographical corps attached to the army of Utah, I was struck with their similarity. My surmise, much doubted at first, became a certainty, when I discovered among some male plants, collected by A. Fendler, about Fort Kearny on the Platte River, a monoecious specimen, showing both male and female flowers on different stalks from the same rhizome. A figure of this important specimen is given on Pl. XII., fig. 3.
That our plant is distinct from Sesleria has already been stated by Torrey (l. c. p. 154), and indeed by Nuttall himself (l. c. p. 65), and both have pointed to its affinity to Atheropogon or Chondrosium. The description now given fully confirms both positions. It also leaves no doubt that is is not an Antephora, nor at all paniceous. A new generic name, therefore, had to be given, and I have preferred to propose an abbreviated translation of the popular and widely known name of “Buffalo-grass,” retaining of course Nuttall's original specific appellation. The synonyms of the male plant, supplied through the kindness of Prof. Gray, are uncertain, Kunth never having published such a name as Calanthera, which, moreover, is quite unmeaning; nor can I learn that a genus Lasiostega has ever been described.
The Buffalo-grass grows in dense tufts, sending out stolons. These, in most herbarium specimens, are only a few inches long, with internodes of 1/2-2 incles in length; Lindheimer, however, sends specimens from New Braunfels, Texas, with stolons 1-2 feet long, the internodes often measuring over 3 and even as much as 5 inches. The male plant seems to throw out more numerous runners than the female, and may often overspread and kill it out. Which would account for the much greater scarcity of the latter.
Leaves 2-4 inches long, 1/2-1 1/2 lines wide, sparsely hairy or ciliate or glabrous; sheaths striate, glabrous, strongly bearded at the throat.
  Engelmann (1859) wrote a very long and detailed description of the staminate plant.

  Engelmann (1859) then wrote a very long and detailed description of the pistillate plant. The Engelmann article then continues with a description of Monanthochloë, and M. littoralis Engelm. This is also known as shore-grass and not known from Colorado, so the description is not included here.

Literature Cited:
- Plank, E. N., 1892.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1895;  

E. N. Plank (1892) argued that the plant was actually monoecious. He based this on a single observation,
During one of my botanical rambles in Kansas, while walking over soil newly moved by a freshet, I noticed the peculiar appearance of the individual plants of buffalo grass growing upon it. There were scores of them, if not hundreds. All of them appeared to be seedlings, having not yet sent out stolons. All of these plants were monoecious. That seems to be sexually the original character of the species. The fact of the unisexual flowering stems, proceeding from different parts of the plants, with its stoloniferous character generally increasing and spreading in that way, will fully account for its dioecious habit.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1895.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Plank, 1892;  

Hitchcock (1895) refuted Plank's (1892) observation that Buffalo Grass was monoecious.
Note on buffalo grass. — I read with interest an article by Mr. Plank on “Buchloe dactyloides Englm., not a dioecious grass.” He asserts that the grass in question is not dioecious, as usually described, but monoecious, and in support records observations made in Kansas.
Wishing to satisfy myself experimentally as to the correctness of this assertion, a few seeds were germinated in the greenhouse in the spring of 1893. A single seedling was transferred to an outdoor plat. This grew vigorously through the season, sending out stolons and forming a compact mat. During 1894 the mat became larger and denser, but no flowers appeared.
However, the plant flowered this season (1895). Both staminate and pistillate flowers were present, the former preponderating. The flowers arose mostly from nodes that had taken root and thus become essentially independent plants. In no case did I find the two kinds of flowers from the same node, but from the interwoven state of the stolons I was unable to determine whether the two kinds of flowers were borne upon independent stolons.
The plant was first described by Nuttall (Gen, 1: 65. 1818) from a staminate specimen, and named Sesleria dactyloides. He is evidently doubtful about the plant belonging to the genus Sesleria.
Rafinesque having occasion to review Nuttall's Genera (Am. Monthly Mag. 2: 190. 1819) makes a note regarding this plant: “18. Sesleria dactyloides must form a peculiar genus by Mr. N.'s own account. It may be called Bulbilis.” It is upon this basis that Dr. Otto Kuntze establishes Bulbilis dactyloides (Nutt.) Raf. (Rev. Gen. Pl. 763).
Nuttall remarks in his description: “Root, after flowering, resembling a bulb,” from which, doubtless, Rafinesque derives Bulbilis. Upon the margin of the copy of the American Monthly Magazine above quoted (in the library of the Missouri Botanical Garden), someone has suggested another derivation, “bull's bile!” — A. S. Hitchcock, Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan.

Literature Cited:
- Lamson-Scribner, F., 1900.  

Uses Rafinesque's name of Bulbilis dactyloides.

Literature Cited:
- Schaffner, John H., 1920.  

Schaffner (1920) published an article on the dioecious nature of Buffalo Grass. He combined field observations and greenhouse experiments to support his contention that Buffalo Grass is strictly dioecious.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1927.  

Hitchcock (1927) proposed conservation of Buchloë against Bulbilis and others because Engelmann's Buchloë was the first name under which both staminate and pistillate plants were described.
Buchloe Engelm. (1859) is conserved against Bulbilis Raf. (1819), Calanthera “Nutt.&rdquo: (1856), and Casiostega Rupr. (1857). Bulbilis was proposed by Rafinesque in a review of Nuttall's Genera as follows: “Sesleria dactyloides must for a peculiar genus by Mr. N's own account, it may be called Bulbilis.” Calanthera was mentioned by Hooker in a list of Geyer's plants from the Upper Missouri. “Calanthera dactyloides Kth.–Nutt. Sesleria.” Casiostega (of the Nomina Conservanda, a lisprint for Lasiostega Rpur.; Benth, Pl. Hartw. 347. 1857) is a nomen nudum. Nuttall's description of Sesleria dactyloides was based on the staminate plant only and until Engelmann gave his full description of both sexes of the buffalo grass there had been no mention of pistillate spikelets. Though in Bulbilis and Calanthera the type species is indicated and a previously published description is referred to, that description is so inadequate, compared to the detailed study published by Engelmann, that they may well be rejected in favor of Buchloe.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1971, 2nd ed.;  

See Hitchcock, 1971, below.

Literature Cited:
- Anderson, Kling, and A. E. Aldous, 1937.  

An article on monoecious Buffalo Grass by Anderson & Aldous (1937) is behind a paywall I have been unable to penetrate.

Literature Cited:
- Gernert, W. B., 1937.  

An article by Gernert (1937) appears to address the height of pistillate spikes relative to harvesting them, but is behind a paywall I have not penetrated.

Literature Cited:
- Hensel, R. L., 1938.  

Hensel (1938) wrote about perfect-flowered buffalo grass which might be interesting to read were it not, alas, behind a paywall.

Literature Cited:
- Spurlock, Clay, 1940.  

Spurlock (1940) surveys monoecious and dioecious grasses in America, finding 17 genera and 54 species of monoecious, and 13 genera and 23 species of dioecious grasses of the Western Hemisphere, of which Buffalo Grass is one of the latter. Note is made of the controversy about the degree of dioecism seen in Buffalo Grass.

Literature Cited:
- Burr, Richard D., 1951.  

Burr (1951) wrote about his observations in variations of sex along stolons of

Literature Cited:
- Rickett, H. W., and F. A. Stafleu, 1959.  

In a review of conserved names, Rickett and Stafleu (1959) note that conservation of the name “Buchloë” was superfluous.
† 308. Buchloë Engelmann, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 1 432. 1859 quadrim. 1. T.: B. dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann (Sesleria dactyloides) Nuttall).  
Note: Conservation superfluous: Calanthera Nuttall ex W. J. Hooker, Journ, Bot. Kew Misc. 8: 18 (1856), Bulbilis Rafinesque, Am. Mon. Mag. Crit. Rev. 4: 190. (1819), and Lasiostegia Ruprecht ex Betham, Pl. Hartw. 347 (1857), are all nomina nuda.

The meaning of the dagger (†) is unclear. All names with daggers were subjects of a superfluous conservation. However, not all with superfluous conservation were marked with a dagger.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1971.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Buchloë dactyloides, Hitchcock, 1935;  

115. BÚCHLOË Engelm. (Bulbilis Raf.)
Plants dioecious or monecious. … Type species, Buchloë dactyloides. Name contracted from Greek boubalos, buffalo, and chloë, grass, a Greek rendering of the common name, “buffalo grass.”
1. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass. … The sod houses of the early settlers were made mostly from the sod of this grass. In 1941 it was planted at Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers, N. Y., and is proving to be an excellent cover for exposed dry banks.

Literature Cited:
- Bai, T. J., 1990.  

Abstract : Seventy-five stands with different compositions of blue grama (B. gracilis) and buffalograss (B. dactyloides) were sampled in 1987. Multiple regression and principal component analysis techniques were used to investigate the relationship between blue grama and buffalograss composition and soil characteristics. Blue grama was often more abundant on sandy soil, while buffalograss was found on clay soil. Blue grama was also found on clay soils when lime content was high. The essential factor underlying sand, clay and lime content of soil was interpreted as water stress. Relative crowding coeff. calculated for blue grama and buffalograss showing that both species had greater height and produced more vegetation when found intermingled than when growing in monoculture.

Literature Cited:
- Quinn, James A., 1991.  

Quinn (1991) examined multiple hypotheses for dioecy in Buffalo Grass and found support only for “out-crossing” as an advantage afforded by dioecy.
Abstract. Buchloe dactyloides is a perennial dioecious grass in which male and female inflorescences are so strikingly dimorphic that they were originally assigned to different genera. The objective of this paper is to present the results of tests for sex-specific vegetative characters, ecological differences, and sexual niche-partitioning, combining them with prior information on the reproductive biology of Buchloe for an evaluation of the key factors leading to the evolution of dioecy and sexual dimorphism. Field and greenhouse data were collected from Oklahoma and Kansas populations on vegetative characters, allocation to reproduction, and relative growth and competitive success along resource gradients. Except for greater susceptibility to leaf rust by males, there were no significant differences between males and females in vegetative characters, total biomass, or reproductive effort. Field studies of spatial distributions of males and females failed to show any relation to soil, topography, or soil moisture. In a 45-month greenhouse experiment starting at the seedling stage, the relative growth and competitive success of randomly paired individuals showed no evidence for differential competitive success or for niche-partitioning of males and females. The "outcrossing advantage" and subsequent sexual specialization of the female inflorescence appear to be the major factors underlying this dimorphic system.

Literature Cited:
- Huff, David R., and Lin Wu, 1992.  

Abstract. Variations of sex inconstancy were examined for vegetative and seed samples from eight natural populations of buffalograss located along two east-west transects crossing the shortgrass prairies of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. Each of the eight populations was found to contain inconstant (monoecious) sex forms. Sex form distributions ranged from the Guymon vegetative sample, having no inconstant sex forms, to the Chillicothe seed sample in which the frequency of inconstant sex forms was nearly 70%. Frequencies of inconstant sex forms were generally higher for seed samples than for vegetative samples. Male to female sex ratio of constant (dioecious) sex forms generally did not differ from 1:1 expectations. Inconstant sex forms were more common among peripheral populations where buffalograss vegetation coverage was sparse than for more central populations having a higher concentration of buffalograss vegetation. Quantitative measures of sex inconstancy from artificial crosses were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with the additive linear model of general combining ability, suggesting that sex determination in buffalograss has high heritability. The possible selection forces affecting the frequency of monoecious sex forms among natural populations are discussed.

Literature Cited:
- Columbus, J. Travis, 1999.  

An expanded circumscription of Bouteloua (Graminae: Chloridoideae): New Combinations and Names

Literature Cited:
- Columbus, J. Travis, Michael S. Kinney, Maria Elena Siqueiros Delgado, and J. Mark Porter, 2000.  

Phylogenetics of Bouteloua and Relatives (Granineae: Chloridoideae): Cladistic Parsimony Analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer (nrDNA) and trnL-F (cpDNA) Sequences.

Literature Cited:
- Peterson, Paul M., and Konstatin Romaschenko, 2015.  

Phylogeny and subgeneric classification of Bouteloua with a new species, B. herrera-arrietae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Cynodonteae: Boutelouinae) … Buchloe is reduced to a section of Bouteloua.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Hordeum pusillum;  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1453, Hordeum pusillum  

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. Little Barley.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.  

Nuttall's Text My interpretation
119. HORDEUM. L. (Barley)  
Calyces lateral, 2-valved, mostly 1-flowered, aggregted by threes, so as to resemble a setaceous 6-leaved involucrum; the central flower sessile, the lateral ones stipitate, usually sterile. Corolla 2-valved, acute; exterior valve awned.  
Very nearly allied both by habit and character to the preceding genus. Flowers spiked, imbricated mostly in 2 rows; calycine involucrum setaceous, 6 leaved, division approaching by pairs. In the H. hexastichon, the flowers are imbricated in 6 ranks, because all the flowers are hermaphrodite; probably a mere effect of cultivation. [The preceding genus was ElymusEd.]
Species. 1. H. vulgare. Cultivated … 2. * pusillum Lateral masculine or nertral flowers awnless, acute; four internal calicina glumes, coriaceous and dilated, those of the hermaphrodite sublanceolate; internal valve of the lateral masculine flower, subsemi-ovate. [The description of H. vulgare is skipped. – Ed.]
Culm 4 to 6 inches, decumbent, or somewhat genoculate at the base. Leaves rather glaucous, a little pubescent on the under surface, striate, about one and a half inches long, and almost obtuse; uppermost sheath tumid and very smooth, embracing the spike. Spike linear; about one and a half inches long. Glumes by threes, distichally imbricated. Lateral imperfect flowers awnless, acute; central sessile flower awned, the awn almost exactly the length of that of the subtending calix; awns scabrous. Calix smooth, nerveless, exterior valve in the outer flowers setaceous from its base, the inner valves obliguely dilated, and rigidly coriaceous, all awned, the inner divisions of the lateral flowers, appearing nearly semi-ovate, the central ones sublanceolate. Corolla nerveless, the inner valve furnished with a short awn, arising from its base. Nearly allied, apparently, the the H. maritimum.  
On the arid and saline plains of the Missouri.  
3. jubatum. On the calcareous islands of Lake Huron and Michigan, also on the banks of the Missouri.  
The genus Hordeum exists chiefly in Europe, extending into Northern Africa, and Tartary in Asia. The 2 species above described are natives of North America, and the F. jubatum is also common to Smyrna. [One would assume that Nuttall was referring to Smyrna in what we now call Turkey. However, there are towns named Smyrna in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Delaware, Michigan, and Maine, and Nuttall may have been in or near some of those towns in his travels. – Ed.]


Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. “Tall Fescue”


Literature Cited:
- Gmelin, Johan Georg, 1747-1769.
Full Size ImageGmelin's (1747) description of Tall Fescue.  


Literature Cited:
- Gmelin, Johan Georg, 1747-1769.
- Scheuzer, Johann Jacob, 1719.
- Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von, 1771.  

There seems to be general agreement (by extensive Google search) that what is called “Tall Fescue” is the grass known by its basionym of Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

Original TextInterpretation and Comments
1000. FESTVCA (arundinacea) panicula ſpicata ſtricta, ſpiculis oblongis erectis paucifloris, ariſtatis, calycibus anguſtatis. Gmel. Sibir. 1. p. 111. 1000. Festuca arundinacea panicle spike strict, spikes oblong erect awn, calyx angular. Gmelin, Flora Sibirica sive Historia Plantarum Siberiae. 1. p. 111.
Gramen arundinaceum, locuſtis viridi-ſpadiceis loliaceis brevius ariſtatis. Scheuchz. Agr. p. 266. t. 5. f. 18. Grass reed-like, … Scheuzer, Agrostographia sive Graminum, … p. 266. t. 5. f. 18.
In prato acclivi hinter dem Biniz, loco humido. In the steep field beyond the Biniz [East Germany], in a damp location.

  • “arundinacea” would mean cane-like from arundo (“cane”) +? -aceus.
  • “loliaceis” could mean chaffy, but Lolium itself is a name given by Virgil to a troublesome weed.
  There is less agreement as to its current accepted name, whether it should be Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., or Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.

Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.
- Baldwin, Bruce G., Douglas H. Goldman, David J. Keil, Robert Patterson, and Thomas J. Rosatti, 2012.
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.
- Shaw, Robert B., 2008.
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.
- Wingate, Janet L., 1994.  

Starting close to home, most Colorado authors use Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., including Ackerfield (2015), Weber & Wittman (2015), and Shaw (2008).

Wingate (1994) uses Festuca arundinaceus Schreb., although it is a older reference. Harrington (1964, 2nd ed.) used Festuca elatior var. arundinaceae (Screb.) Celak..

By way of comparison, the Jepson Manual of California (Baldwin, et al., 2012) retains Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

  On a regional level, the Southwest Biodiversity Network (SEINet) taxon tree has kind of a split personality with regard to “Tall Fescue.” The current (3 October 2019) taxon tree accepts both Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire and Schedonorus asundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.

               [Lolium x aschersoniana]
                 Lolium arundinaceum  
                       [Festuca arundinacea]
                       [Festuca elatior subsp. Arundinacea]
                       [Festuca elatior var. arundinacea]
                 Schedonorus arundinaceus 
                       [Avena secunda]
                       [Bromus arundinaceus]
                       [Bromus elatior]
                       [Festuca elatior f. aristata]
                       [Festuca elatior f. elatior]
                       [Festuca fenas]
                       [Festuca mediterranea]
                       [Festuca orientalis]
                       [Festuca phoenix]
                       [Festuca uechtritziana]
                       [Poa elatior]
                       [Poa kunthii]
                       [Poa phoenix]
                       [Poa uliginosa]
                       [Schedonorus elatior]
                       [Schedonorus phoenix]
                       [Tragus elatior]

One consequence is that both names have to be entered into a query when searching for collections of “tall fescue.”

Full Size ImageCollections of “tall fescue” entered into SEINet  
The map at left (3 Oct 2019) shows the locations of Colorado collections of “tall fescue” that have coordinates entered into SEINet. Within Jefferson County, collections have primarily been made at Chatfield Farms, Hildebrand Park and Deer Creek Canyon Park. There are no collections of this grass from Golden s.l.

Literature Cited:
- Henson, James F., 2001.  

USDA Plants accepts Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. as a conserved name. Festuca arundinacea Schreb and Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire are treated as synonyms. Perhaps somewhat ironic is the USDA NRCS plant guide for “Tall Fescue” (Henson, 2001) which accepts the name of Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.

Literature Cited:
- Soreng, Robert J., Edward E. Terrell, John Wiersma, & S. J. Darbyshore, 2001.  

Conservation of Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. was proposed by Soreng, et al. (2001). S. arundinaceus Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 2: 700. 1817 was rejected because it is not the basionym of any currently accepted taxon. Rather is it a synonym of Scolochloa festucacea (Willd.) Link.

Literature Cited:
- Fribourg, H. A., D. B. Hannaway, and C. P. West, 2009.  

Tall Fescue Online monograph. (

id="tblhistlitorg"> Hexaploid tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Var. arundinacea] is an agronomically vital member of the grass family that has been characterized based on morphological characteristics, interfertility relationships, and, more recently, genetic criteria such as gene sequences. Efforts to improve tall fescue for forage or turf and to gain insight into processes of grass evolution hinge on an accurate depiction of the interrelationships that exist between this species and other Lolium and Festuca grasses. The evolution of hexaploid tall fescue, and a majority of grasses, has involved interspecific hybridization that obscures species boundaries but, more importantly, serves as a rapid means of combining distinct genomes into novel progeny with enhanced evolutionary potential. We discuss here the systematics of the Festuca-Lolium complex within the context of such processes and highlight the dynamic and often confounding evolutionary history that characterizes tall fescue and its relatives (Fribourg, et al., 2009).

Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Tall fescue (

Forage Identification: Tall fescue. Department of Plant Sciences. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.) Darbysh) (

Phylogeny of tall fescue and related species using RFLPs. Theor Appl Genet. 1994 Aug;88(6-7):685-90. doi: 10.1007/BF01253971. (

Melanie L Hand, Noel OI Cogan, Alan V Stewart & John W Forster Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex BMC Evolutionary Biologyvolume 10, Article number: 303 (2010) (


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Muhlenbergia andina;
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2392, Muhlenbergia andina.
Full Size ImageRhizome of Coll. No. 2392, Muhlenbergia andina.  

Muhlenbergia andina (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Foxtail Muhly.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.  

Nuttall (1847) described the grass from a collection by William Gambel.
Original Text
§ *Trichagrostis. — Spikelets one-flowered, the flower sessile, with long hairs at the base. Glumes two, subequal, membranaceous, acute, longer than the flower, the lower with a short terminal awn. Paleae two, very acute, the lower carinate, ending in an exserted capillary awn ; the upper one-nerved, acuminate. Caryopsis free, cylindric-oblong, much shorter than the glume.
C. *andina. A simple stemmed small grass, with a compressed culm, about two or three feet high ; ligules minute ; flowers in a short, paniculate, narrow spike, about three or four inches long, half an inch wide, with a habit very distinct from the general character of the genus ; glumes very long and slender, each with about a single nerve ; very narrow and membranaceous ; one of them distinctly awned, the other acuminate ; pappus copious, longer than the small flower ; no lateral rudiment of another flower.
Hab. In Upper California, on the Colorado of the West.

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1920.  

Hitchcock (1920) moved C. andina to Muhlenbergia.
Original Text
Vaseya Thurb., in Gray, Proc, Acad. Phila. 1863: 79. 1863. The type is V. comata Thurb., the only species described. This is Muhlenbergia andina (Nutt.) Hitchc. (Calamagrostis andina Nutt.).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Muhlenbergia montana;  

Muhlenbergia montana (Nutt.) Hitchc. “Mountain Muhly.”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1848.  

Nuttall (1848) published Calycodon montanus from a collection by Gambel near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Nuttall's Text Comments and Interpretation
Spikelets one-flowered, the flower sessile, bearded at the base. Glumes two, unequal, shorter than the flower, membranaceous, the lower truncate, acutely three-toothed; the lower smaller, one-toothed. Paleae two, the lower sublanceolate, carinate, terminaing in a longish scabrous awn; at length indurated, with a silky pilose margin; the upper palea lanceolate, one-nerved, indurated and involute. Anthers three. Stigmas two, plumose. — A scabrous leaved grass, with a simple inarticulated culm, terminated by a loose, narrow, somewhat spiked panicle. So called in allusion to the remarkable toothing of the calyx.
C. *montanum. Leaves short and narrow, somewhat scabrous; ligules membranaceous, elongated; panicles four or five inches long, narrow, with the branches appressed; flowers clustered on the branches, three or four together, some nearly sessile and others pedicellate; glumes variable, membranaceous and eroded at the summit, the lower, three-nerved, with three wither short, or rather long and acute teeth, sometimes with a fourth membranous tooth; the upper glume also eroded, and ending in a single tooth from the nerve; the lower palea lanceolate, carinate, scabrous, and indurated, terminated by a long, slender, scabrous awn; the inner margin silky, with soft shining hair, of which there are two tufts at the base of the paleae; the inner paleae also indurated and herbaceous in the centre, involving the germ and the stamens.
A perennial grass, with a simple, unnjointed culm, about eighteen inches high. Somewhat allied to Muhlenbergia, (when restrained to its proper limits,) but perfectly distinct by its very remarkable glumes. The ripe seed we have not seen.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains, near Santa Fe, Mexico. Flowering in August.  

Literature Cited:
- Hitchcock, A. S., 1920.  

Hitchcock (1920) placed Nuttall's C. montanum into Muhlenbergia.
Original Text
Calycodon Nutt. Journ. Acad, Phila. II 1: 186. 1848 The type is C. montanum (Muhlenbergia montana Hitchc.), the only species described.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Munroa squarrosa;  

Munroa squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr. False Buffalograss.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Glossary:  squarrose;  

75. CRYPSIS. Lamarck. (Thorn-Grass.)
Calix 2-valved, oblong, 1-flowered, Corolla 2-valved, longer than the calix. Stamina 2 or 3. (Spike surrounded at the base by the sheath of the leaf; or the flowers collected into a leafy capitulum.)
Culm decumbent or procumbent, extremely branched; leaves rigid and pungent; flowers collected in squarrose heads, or short and dense irregularly involucrate, lobed spikes.
SPECIES. 1. C. * squarrosa. Stem decumbent, much branched; leaves short, all rigid, and sharply pungent; capituli squarrose, few flowered; dorsal valve of the corolla coriaceous, somewhat cleft at the point, with a shortish subulate central cusp.
On arid plains near the “Grand Detour” of the Missouri, almost exclusively covering thousands of acres, and as pungent as thorns. ☉ Not more than 3 or 4 inches high; the flowers not collected into heads, as in the European species, but merely in squarrose terminal fascicles; the outer glume of the corolla is likewise cleft so as to present 3 short coriaceous subulate points.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Schedonnardus paniculatus;  

Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel. “Tumblegrass”


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Nuttall, 1818, publication details;  

Original Text
113. LEPTURUS. R. Brown. (Rotbollia, species, Willd.)
Flowers polygamous, spiked. Rachis articulated, filiform; articulations single-flowered. — Calix fixed, or growing to the rachis, 1 or 2-valved, the valve simple, or biparted.
With the precise characters of this genus, as described by Mr. R. Brown, I am unacquainted, but satisfied with the propriety of separating plants of such dissimilar habits, as have been hitherto referred to Rotbollia, I have ventured to give it, however imperfectly.
Species. 1. L. * paniculatus. Rachis incurved, compounded, acutely triangular, branches and summit flower-bearing; spikes on one side, subulate, compressed, unilaterals; calix 2-valved, acuminate, 1-flowered; flowers all hermaphrodite, 2-valved.
Obs. Annual. Culm scarcely a foot high, roundish, compressed, leaves short, rigid, sheathing the base of the panicle; panicle of naked rachis, slender, rigid, angular, bearing 6 to 10, compressed, subulate, spikes on one side, not soluble or fragile at the articulations, each 1 or 2 inches long; flowers remote, on one side of the rachis. Calix rigidly fixed, of 2 unequal parallel valves closing the scrobiculum; flower 2-valved, the exterior valve resembling the calix, the interion membranaceous.
On dry saline plains, near Fort Mandan, on the Missouri. Flowering in June.

Literature Cited:
- Branner, John C., and F. V. Coville, 1888.
- Coville, F. V., 1888.  

Original Text
The work of Nuttall. — The botanical work done in Arkansas up to 1887, when the work of the present Geological Survey began, was confined to a few individuals and a few exploring parties. The earliest explorer was Thomas Nuttall, one of the prominent early naturalists. He spent several years in the territory, as it rhen was, most of his time being occupied in botanical observations. The results of these observations were not published as a report, but at odd times and in different places. They are all long out of print.
“Journal of Travels Into Arkansas Territory, 1819 : By Thomas Nuttall, p. 236, Phila., 1821.” This book has not been obtained by the writer, and no sketch of its contents can be given.
“A Description of Some New Species of Plants Recently Introduced Into the Gardens of Philadelphia, from the Arkansas Territory : By THomas Nuttall. Journ Phil. Acad. Sci., Vol. II, pp. 114-123 ; Phila., 1821.” Twelve species of Arkansas plants are described.
“Description of Two New Genera of the Natural Order Cruciferae : By Thomas Nuittall. Ibid., Vol. V, pp. 132-135.” The plants are Selenia aurea and Streptanthus maculatus ; the latter from Red River, the former from the Arkansas.
“Collections Toward a Flora of the Territory of Arkansas : By THomas Nuttall. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. II (New Series), pp. 139-203. Philadelphia, 1837." There are included two fungi, and several Pteridophyta, the remainder being flowering plants, some newly described. The paper appears to be a list of all the plants, so far as it goes, found in Arkansas up to the time of publication. But the Polypetalae and several orders of the Gamopetalae (one of the Compositae) are omitted.
Nomenclature. — The oldest specific or varietal names are used in this list (not going back of Linnaeus' Species, 1753) under whatever genera they may originally have been employed. On this principle Professor William Trelease, Director of the Missouri Botanical Gardens at St. Louis, has kindly revised the list. It is but just to Professor Trelease to add, however, that the time that could be allowed for this revision was too short to admit of the necessary investigations in all cases, so that a few plants appear under questionable names current in Gray's Manual or other works in general use.
Schedonnardus, Steud.
    paniculatus (Nutt.) (S. texanus, Steud.); Nuttall, Lesquereux.

Remarks [from Kew]: Branner & Coville, who authored the article, acknowledged Trelease for revising their list (of plant names), but did not ascribe any nomenclatural novelty to Trelease.

Literature Cited:
- Peterson, Paul M., Konstatin Romaschenko, and Gabriel Johnson, 2010.  

Original Text
The moderately supported clade of M. sect. Pseudosporobolus ( Fig. 3 ) includes a diverse assemblage of species, such as Schedonnardus paniculatus, that has panicles with long primary branches that do not rebranch, hence containing nearly sessile spikelets; …
Taxonomy — Because our molecular analysis renders Muhlenbergia paraphyletic, we propose incorporating Aegopogon, Bealia, Blepharoneuron, Chaboissaea, Lycurus, Pereilema, Red?eldia, Schaffnerella, and Schedonnardus within Muhlenbergia. Muhlenbergia is the oldest name. Expansion of the circumscription to include these nine genera within Muhlenbergia requires the least amount of nomenclatural changes and still allows us to recognize a strongly supported monophyletic and morphologically cohesive unit.


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Zigadenus paniculatus;  

Zigadenus paniculatus (Nutt.) S. Watson. “Death Camas”



Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Spiranthes diluvualis;  

Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak. “Ute Lady's Tresses.”


Literature Cited:
- Sheviak, Charles J., 1984.  

Original Text
TYPE: U.S.A. Colorado. Jefferson Co.: mesic to wet alluvial meadows along Clear Creek just W of junct. Rts. 6 & 58, Golden, 17 Jul 1982, C. J. Sheviak, J. K. Sheviak, W. Jennings, L. Long & S. Smookler 2257 (Holotype: NYS; isotype: NY).


Other articles:
• Golden Checklist Flora:  Leucocrinum montanum;  

Leucocrinum montanum Star Lily


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1848.  

Original Text
Leucocrinum montanum, Nutt. Ined.
Radix e fibris plurimis crassitie pennae Corvi. Folia plurima, (ut videntur) crasiuscula, plana, 8 unc. Longa. Vix 2 lin. Lata, acutiuscula. Flores (6-8) foliis multò breviores; pedunculis omnibus radicalibus, unifloris, demùm ferè uncialibus. Perianthii tubus persistens, 2-3 unc. Longus, filiformis; limbus magnitudine florum Ornithogali umbellati. Stamina perianthium vix aequantia; antheris linearibus. Stylus staminibus paulò brevior; stigmatibus ferè obcordatis. Capsulae (immaturae) vix supra terram, membranaceae, 3-4 lin. Latae, (ut videntur loculucidè dehiscentes,) stylo et perianthio persistente coronatae. Semina ut in Colchico. — Floret Aprili.
Hab. In planitiebus altis fluminis Platte, Nuttall!
Obs. Genus a Colchico diversum, stylis coalitis, antheris adnatis, at capsulis membranaceis non inflatis, a Bulbocodia, unguibus perianthii totus concretis, etc. ; anutroque praesertim stigmatibus lamellatis, radice fascicilata, et defectu cormi. Si tamen Merendera, Bulbocodium, at Monocaryum, et monet doctiss. Brownio, * potius subgenera Colchici sunt, forsan hoc quoque illi referendum est.
Specimina sicca a cel. Nuttallio lecta et mihi benevole communicata.

Literature Cited:
- Ornduff, Robert, and Marion S. Cave, 1975.  

Sand-lily, Leucocrinum montanum Nutt., is a showy perennial that occurs widely in arid regions of the western United States. Recently, the second author reported chromosome counts of n = 11, 13, and 14 for this species (Cave, 1970). Plants from the Rocky Mountain region have n = 14 (see also Löve et al., 1971), those from several localities in California, western Nevada, and Oregon have n = 13, and one population from Nevada has n = 11. In addition, Cave noted that in some populations pollen is shed in tetrads and in others it is shed singly. In this paper we further discuss the variation in chromosome number and in the condition of pollen at the time of shedding (Ornduff and Cave, 1975).


Studies of Prairie or Foothill Ecosystems



Restoration and Effects of Attempts Thereof


Literature Cited:
- Wilson, Scott D., 1989.  

Wilson, Scott D., 1989. The suppression of native prairie by alien species introduced for revegetation. Landscape and Urban Planning. 17(2), april 1989, pp. 113-119.


Natural prairie has become uncommon in North America, making the revegetation of disturbed areas by native species a desirable goal. Alien species are often introduced for revegetation because of their abilities to stabilize and nitrify soil. The objective of this study was to test whether these attributes of introduced species would allow them to promote the recovery of native vegetation. Seven treatments (six commercially-available mixtures of introduced species and an unseeded control) were applied to a randomized field experiment in disturbed mixed-grass prairie in south-west Manitoba, Canada. Sampling eight years later revealed that introduced species suppressed native vegetation. Introduced species did not aid revegetation: plots seeded with introduced species did not produce significantly higher standing crop or below-ground biomass than did unseeded plots. Unseeded plots had the lowest frequency of bare ground. Allowing prairie to revegetate without sowing introduced species produced both the highest cover of bare ground and the greatest abundance of native species.

Literature Cited:
- Wilson, Scott D., and Joyce W. Belcher, 1989.  

Wilson, Scott D., and Joyce W. Belcher, 1989. Plant and Bird Communities of Native Prairie and Intoduced Eurasian Vegetation in Manitoba, Canada. Conservation Biology. 3(1), pp. 39-44, March 1989.

“… introduction of Eurasian plant species to North American prairie not only replaces the native plant community, but also produces significant changes in the species composition of a higher trophic level … ”

Abstract: Large areas of North American prairie are dominated by Eurasian plant species introduced either for range improvement or accidentally as weeds. We examined the impact of introduced plants on both native vegetation and bird communities in a mosaic of North American mixed-grass prairie and Eurasian vegetation. We established ten transects five in areas of native prairie and five in areas dominated by introduced plant species. Each transect comprised five sampling stations separated by 100 m. Vegetation was sampled in four 0.5m2 quadrats at each station. The cooers of eight of the ten most common plant species varied significantly (p < 0.05) between native and introduced vegetation. One common native plans Andropogon scoparius, was absent in introduced vegetation Singing birds were identified to species at each station on three occasions during the breeding season All bird species found were native to prairie. The total number of birds did not vary between vegetation types Two out of eight bird species, upland sandpiper and Sprague's pipit were signifcantly more abundant in native prairie than in introduced vegetation No bird species were significantly more common in introduced vegetation. A correlation matrix calculated for all bird species and the ten most abundant plant species divided the bird community into two groups. The first group (western meadow lark, upland sandpiper, Sprague's pipit, Baird's sparrow and savannah sparrow) was positively correlated with native plant species and negatively with introduced plants, while the second (vesper sparrow, clay-colored sparrow, and grasshopper sparrow) was negatively correlated with native species and positively correlated with introduced Discriminant analysis separated transects from native and Eurasian vegetation on the basis of their respective bird communities. The results illustrate that the introduction of Eurasian plant species to North American prairie not only replaces the native plant community, but also produces significant changes in the species composition of a higher trophic level.

Literature Cited:
- Heidinga, Lawrence, and Scott D. Wilson, 2002.  

Heidinga, Lawrence, and Scott D. Wilson, 2002. The Impact of an Invading Alien Grass (Agropyron cristatum) on Species Turnover in Native Prairie. Diversity and Distributions. 8(5), September 2002, pp 249-258.


Alien invasions typically reduce species richness of habitats, but few studies have examined their effects on species turnover, the difference in species composition between localities. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (crested wheat grass) has been planted on 6-10 million ha of North American prairie, and is invading native prairie. We studied the invasion of A. cristatum into native prairie by measuring species composition along a gradient from maximum to minimum A. cristatum abundance. As A. cristatum increased, the abundance of most common native species decreased, but one appeared to be unaffected (Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K.) Lag.), and another (Poa sandbergii Vasey) increased. The effect of A. cristatum on species turnover was investigated by examining species-area curves for areas from 0.5 m2 to 8.0 m2. Species diversity was reduced by 35% at high A. cristatum abundances at all areas. A. cristatum reduced the intercept of the species-area curve, but not the slope, suggesting that A. cristatum affected species turnover proportionally in all areas and habitats. This unusual result may indicate a homogeneous environment where species are distributed randomly. A. cristatum produced almost twice as many seeds as all native grasses combined. The number of seeds collected of native grasses and A. cristatum was highly correlated with the number of seed heads immediately nearby, but not with transect position. This suggests most seeds were dispersed over distances less than 5 m. In sum, the invasion of native prairie by A. cristatum might be related to high rates of seed production, and has the effect of decreasing species turnover by reducing the intercept of the species-area curve.

Literature Cited:
- Salesman, Jessica Bolwahn, and Meredith Thomsen, 2011.  

Salesman, Jessica Bolwahn, and Meredith Thomsen, 2011. Smooth Brome (Bromus inermis) in Tallgrass Prairies: A Review of Control Methods and Future Research Directions. Ecological Restoration. 29(4), December 2011, pp. 374-381.

Abstract. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis) is a cool-season rhizomatous grass of Eurasian origin that has escaped intentional plantings and spread widely in natural areas. A large body of work exists regarding smooth brome's biology and response to conservation management strategies designed to reduce its competitive effects on native prairie species, particularly for the tallgrass prairies of North America. Here we summarize that literature to improve restoration practice. In tallgrass prairie, smooth brome benefits from the early start of its growing season and its rhizomatous growth form, making it a strong competitor against native warm-season grasses. Late-spring burns timed to target smooth brome when root reserves are at their lowest have shown promise as a control strategy. Uncertainty remains, however, about the relative efficacy of fire, herbicide, mowing, or grazing to accomplish late-spring defoliation, the effect of repeated treatments, and the potential benefits of treatment combinations. The responses of resident or seeded natives to brome control treatments and/or the resulting decreases in brome cover also remain largely unexamined. Research focused on the questions we highlight would reduce costs associated with the control of smooth brome and increase confidence in the outcomes of restoration efforts.

Literature Cited:
- Grant, Todd A., Bridgette Flanders-Wanner, Terry L. Shaffer, Robert K. Murphy, and Gregg A. Knutsen, 2009.  

Grant, Todd A., Bridgette Flanders-Wanner, Terry L. Shaffer, Robert K. Murphy, and Gregg A. Knutsen, 2009. An Emerging Crisis across Northern Prairie Refuges: Prevalence of Invasive Plants and a Plan for Adaptive Management. Ecological Restoration. 27(1), March 2009, pp. 58-65.


In the northern Great Plains, native prairies managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) can be pivotal in conservation of North America's biological diversity. From 2002 to 2006, we surveyed 7,338 belt transects to assess the general composition of mixed-grass and tallgrass prairie vegetation across five "complexes" (i.e., administrative groupings) of national wildlife refuges managed by the Service in North Dakota and South Dakota. Native grasses and forbs were common (mean frequency of occurrence 47%-54%) on two complexes but uncommon (4%-13%) on two others. Conversely, an introduced species of grass, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), accounted for 45% to 49% of vegetation on two complexes and another species, Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) accounted for 27% to 36% of the vegetation on three of the complexes. Our data confirm prior suspicions of widespread invasion by introduced species of plants on Service-owned tracts of native prairie, changes that likely stem in part from a common management history of little or no disturbance (e.g., defoliation by grazing or fire). However, variability in the degree and type of invasion among prairie tracts suggests that knowledge of underlying causes (e.g., edaphic or climatic factors, management histories) could help managers more effectively restore prairies. We describe an adaptive management approach to acquire such knowledge while progressing with restoration. More specifically, we propose to use data from inventories of plant communities on Service-owned prairies to design and implement, as experiments, optimal restoration strategies. We will then monitor these experiments and use the results to refine future strategies. This comprehensive, process-oriented approach should yield reliable and robust recommendations for restoration and maintenance of native prairies in the northern Great Plains.


Recreation in Foothill and Prairie Ecosystems












Vegetation Descriptions






Dates To Do Things


Vouchers to Examine



Letters: Wednesday, November 5, 2014.  

UTC10764: was determined Polemonium caeruleum whereas UTC19762, also bearing MEJ's #299 is determined Polemonium foliosissimum A. Gray. However, per Mary Barkworth, 11/25/2014, both are P. foliosissimum.



Mystery Locations


Locations: Gray Hill.  

Gray Hill

Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose. Whiskbroom Parsley. Mountain slope. Near Golden: Gray Hill. J. H. Ehlers 6848. 6/2/1938 ( RM184550 )


West Cliff

Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf. (Syn: Physalis lobata Torr. ) Chinese Lantern. Golden, Road to West Cliff, Golden. Earl L. Johnston, with G. G. Hedgcock 813. 6/23/1917 ( RM101941 ).

  [Previous Page]

Go to page: [1] [9]

If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  

[Home Page] [Site Map]

Date and time this article was prepared: 10/15/2020 8:13:59 PM