Front Range, Eastern Slope, Rocky Mountains Checklist Flora of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Golden and Vicinity, Jefferson County, Colorado (Continued)  

Tom Schweich  

Home Page
Topics in this Article:
History of Botanic Exploration
Useful Publications
Floristic Tour of the Golden Area
Literature Cited
 Golden, Colorado sits in a valley formed by erosion along the Golden fault, the geotectonic boundary between the North American Cordillera and the Great Plains. Somewhat like Mono Lake, for which I have also prepared a checklist flora, it sits at a boundary, or perhaps ecotone. Things are always more interesting at the boundaries. I started this project when I realized no such list had been prepared for my newly adopted city. I hope you find this checklist flora helpful. Please write to me if you have questions or comments.








Ecological Systems of Colorado

  The Colorado Natural Heritage Program page on Ecological Systems of Colorado is found at: .

Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Don, Ralph H. Crawford, and David L. Tart, 2009.
- Federal Geographic Data Committee, 2008.
- Jennings, Michael D., Don Faber-Langendoen, Orie L. Loucks, Robert K. Peet,m and David Roberts, 2009.  

  Comparison of published vegetation types.
CNHP, 2005O'Shea-Stone, 2002Kilburn & White, 1992Zeise, 1976
    Lichen-rock type. Lichen stand types. Areas of bare rock from steep lava cliffs to the conical peaks on the mesa surface.
  • Short-grass grassland. Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Alyssum parviflorum, and Opuntia sp., Echinocereus viridiflorus, Coryphantha missouriensis, Coryphantha vivipara var. vivipara. Also Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), and Yucca glauca. Some short shrubs of Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. graveolens, Prunus virginiana (Syn: Padus v.), Rhus aromatica ssp. trilobata. Celtis reticulata at edge of mesa. Traditionally dominated by Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe dactyloides, but now dominated by Bromus tectorum.
Grassland type. Bromus tectorum and Alyssum simplex (Syn: A. minus. Occasional Achnatherum scribneri (Syn: Stipa s.) and Andropogon gerardii. Mixed-grass stand types. Dominated by Bromus tectorum and Agropyron sp. (Elymus sp. ?), with Buchloe dactyloides, and Alyssum alyssoides, Eriogonum umbellatum Torr., Heterotheca villosa, Opuntia compressa, Yucca glauca, and Ericameria nauseosa (Syn: Chrysothamnus nauseosus). West, south, and east exposures.
  Mixed-grass grassland. Stipa comata, Pascopyrum smithii, Bouteloua gracilis, Bromus tectorum, with Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula, Aristida purpurea, and Nassella viridula, with a large number of forbs. Mesa slopes and toe areas of STM.
RM Aspen Forest and Woodland - - -
RM Cliff, Canyon and Massive Bedrock - - -
RM Dry-Mesic and Mesic Montane Mixed Conifer Forest and Woodland - - -
SRM Pinyon-Juniper Woodland - - -
SRM Ponderosa Pine Woodland - - -
Rocky Mountain Lower Montane - Foothill Shrubland.
  • Cercocarpus montanus Shrubland Alliance
    • Series determination requires more data collection.
Upland shrubland. Cercoparpus montanus, with sparse cover of Bromus tectorum intermixed with Hesperostipa comata (Syn: Stipa c.), Yucca glauca, and many cacti.

Ravine shrubland. Skunkbush, chokecherry and Prunus americana, in dense thickets. Few plains cottonwoods and Salix amygdaloides

Shrubland type

  • Mixed shrub community. Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum, Prunus americana, and Prunus virginiana. Understory of Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum), Eriogonum umbellatum, Alyssum alyssoides, etc.
Mixed shrub stand types. Rhus [aromatica] ssp. trilobata, Ribes cereum Dougl., Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Cercocarpus montanus, Prunus virginiana L., Prunus americana Marsh. Acer glabrum in dense patches. Mostly north exposures.
    Shrubland type.

  • Mountain mahogany community. Cercocarpus montanus with an understory of Alyssum alysoides, Bromus tectorum, Agropyron cristatum (Syn: A. desertorum), Eriogonum umbellatum, etc.
Pure shrub stand types. Cercocarpus montanus, with Bromus tectorum, Alyssum alyssoides, and Eriogonum umbellatum.
    Grassland-shrub type. Common foothills species: Symphoricarpos occidentalis, Prunus americana, Rhus trilobata, and Ribes cereum. Grasses are Poa pratensis, Bromus tectorum, and Elymus trachycaulus (Syn: Agropyron trachycaulum). Also Cercoparpus montanus, Symphoricarpos rotundifolius (Syn: S. oreophilus), Prunus virginiana melanocarpa, Rosa arkansana, Physocarpus monogynus, and Ribes aureum. Shrub cover within grassland matrix is significant, but less than 50%. Shrub-grass stand types. Shrubs of Crataegus succulenta (Syn: C. erythropoda), Rosa sp., Rhus trilobata, Prunus virginiana, Prunus americana, Celtus reticulata, and Ribes cereum, with Agropyron sp. (Syn: Elymus sp. ?), Bromus tectorum, Achnatherum hymenoides (Syn: Oryzopsis h., and Alyssum alyssoides. Patches of shrubs in mixed grass-forb areas.
NA Arid West Emergent Marsh - - -
  Wetlands. Cottonwoods and willows, with Carex spp., and Juncus spp., and a variety of grasses and forbs. Patches of Typha spp.. Hydrology alteration.   Riparian (streamside) stand types. Salix exigua, Populus sargentii, Eleocharis macrostachya, Scirpus lacustris L., and Mentha spicata L.
    Woodland type.

  • Mountain maple community. Dense community of small Acer glabrum just below cliffs or in ravines with a dense understory of mixed shrub. North and east slopes.
  • Cottonwood woodland community. Scattered cottonwoods (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera (Syn: P. sargentii), and P. angustifolia) along permanent and intermittent streams. In Big Ravine, Acer negundo, Salix exigua, and S. amygdaloides also occur. Other shrubs also form a dense understory.
  • Juniper Savannah community. Juniperus scopulorum with an understory of typical grassland.
Woodland stand types. Juniperus scopulorum, with Bromus tectorum.
WGP (Western Great Plains) Cliff, Outcrop, and Shale Barrens - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Closed Depression Wetland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Foothill and Piedmont Grassland - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Riparian Woodland, Shrubland and Herbaceous - - -
WGP (Western Great Plains) Shortgrass Prairie - - -


  1. [R3C3] Stipa comata grassland of 30-60 acres near western rim of mountain, may be partly due to effects of the 1988 fire.

Recognized Ecological Systems


Ecological Systems Recognized by the Colorado Natural Heritage System

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  

Ecological systems are dynamic assemblages or complexes of plant and/or animal communities that 1) occur together on the landscape; 2) are tied together by similar ecological processes, underlying abiotic environmental factors or gradients; and 3) form a readily identifiable unit on the ground. These systems provide a coarser level unit than plant associations and alliances as defined under the International Vegetation Classification standard, and are more easily identified on the ground.

The descriptions and summarized viability guidelines presented here are intended to serve as a tool for conservation and management planning by providing a context for conservation and management (i.e., what systems do we have in Colorado), and by providing easy access to ranking and evaluation criteria for key ecological attributes of each system (i.e., what is the condition of our systems).

System descriptions and viability guidelines are based on materials compiled by NatureServe or developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Funding for the development of these documents was provided in part by the Bureau of Land Management, The Nature Conservancy, and the USDA Forest Service (CNHP, 2005).

Literature Cited:
- Colorado Natural Heritage Program, 2005.  


Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)

Literature Cited:
- Rondeau, R., K. Decker, J. Handwerk, J. Siemers, L. Grunau, and C. Pague, 2011.  

The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was a mapping and assessment of biodiversity for the five-state region encompassing Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The area comprises approximately 150 million hectares (560,000 square miles) representing 1/5 the coterminous United States. The primary objective of the project was to use a coordinated approach to create detailed, seamless maps of the land cover, habitat for native terrestrial vertebrate species, land stewardship, and management status for the Southwest region. This information was analyzed to identify animal species habitats and natural land cover types that are underrepresented on land managed for their long term conservation. SWReGAP was a multi-institutional effort with scientists based in all five southwest states.

USNVC -- United States National Vegetation Classification
  The U.S. National Vegetation Classification is supported by a formal partnership between the federal agencies, the Ecological Society of America (ESA), and NatureServe, working through the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee. Primary signators include the U.S. Forest Service (which chairs the subcommittee), ESA, NatureServe, and the U.S. Geological Survey Core Science Systems (USGS/CSS). Together we are committed to supporting the implementation and maintenance of the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) Standard (FGDC 2008).
  The overall objective of the Vegetation and Information Standards is to support the use of a consistent national vegetation classification system (NVCS) to produce uniform statistics in vegetation resources from vegetation cover data at the national level. It is important that, as agencies map or inventory vegetated Earth cover, they collect enough data accurately and precisely to translate it for national reporting, aggregation, and comparisons. Adoption of the Vegetation Classification and Information Standards in subsequent development and application of vegetation mapping schemes will facilitate the compilation of regional and national summaries. In turn, the consistent collection of such information will eventually support the detailed, quantitative, geo-referenced basis for vegetation cover modeling, mapping, and analysis at the field level.


Literature Cited:
- Faber-Langendoen, Dom, Todd Keeler-Wolf, Del Meidinger, Dave Tart, Bruce Hoagland, Carmen Josse, Gonzalo Navarro, Serguei Ponomarenko, Jean-Peirre Saucier, Alan Weakley, and Patrick Comer, 2014.



GIS Resources to Accompany the Checklist Flora




How the Flora is Built




Source Data




Literature Cited:
- Colbry, Vera Lyola, 1957.  




Literature Cited:
- Hufford, Larry, Michelle M. McMahon, Anna M. Sherwood, Gail Reeves, and Mark W, Chase, 2003.  

Names recognized by Harrington (1954) Names recognized by Snow (2009) Names recognized by Weber and Wittmann (2012) Names recognized by Ackerfield (2015) Names recognized by FNANM Mentzelia (s.l.) represented by collections in Jefferson County, Colorado
Section Bartonia
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
(Syn: M. speciosa Osterhout., Nuttallia multiflora (Nutt.) Greene, N. speciosa (Osterh.) Greene, N. sinuata Rydb.)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) A. Gray var. multiflora Nuttallia multiflora (Nuttall) Greene
(Incl: N. sinuata, N. speciosa)
Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray Mentzelia multiflora (Nutt.) Gray M. multiflora (Nutt.) Gray
Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R. J. Hill
Mentzelia speciosa Osterh. Mentzelia speciosa Osterhout
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) T. & G.
(Syn: Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene)
Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray Mentzelia nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & Gray
Section Trachyphytum
Mentzelia albicaulis Dougl ex Hook. Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray Acrolasia albicaulis (Douglas) Rydberg Mentzelia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray
(Syn: M. montana (Davidson) Davidson)
M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray M. albicaulis (Dougl. ex Hook.) Dougl. ex Torr. & Gray
Not recognized Mentzelia montana (Davids.) Davids. Not recognized M. montana (Davidson) Davidson M. montana (Davidson) Davidsona
Mentzelia dispersa Wats. Mentzelia dispersa S. Watsonb Acrolasia dispersa (S. Watson) Davidson Mentzelia dispersa S. Watson M. dispersa S. Wats. M. dispersa S. Wats.
Harrington, H. D. 1954. Manual of the plants of Colorado. Denver, CO.: Sage Books., 1954. Snow, Neil. 2009. Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Southern Rocky Mountain Region (Version 3). 316 p. Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 2012. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope. 4th Edition. Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2012. Ackerfield, Jennifer. 2015. The Flora of Colorado. Fort Worth, TX. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 16+. New York and Oxford. Published on the Internet; (accessed 2013 through 2019) Source: Southwest Environmental Information Network, SEINet. 2014. http// Accessed on September 04, 2014.


  1. bMentzelia dispersa S. Watson. Snow (2009) follows Dorn (2001) in not recognizing varieties in our region.
  2. aMentzelia montana (Davidson) Davidson is represented by two collections made by George E. Osterhout with Ira W. Clokey, Osterhout's #3095 (RM95508) and #5741 (RM162001). The collections were made 22 June 1918 and the locality is Morrison, Jefferson County, Colorado.


Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

“Towards a Species Level Phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA”

Literature Cited:
- Bell, Charles D., 2010.  

Authors for Symphoricarpos in FNANM are: Applequist, Wendy L./wendy.applequist at and Bell, Charles D./valerianaceae1969 at Caprifoliaceae will be contained in Volume 18, which, as of this date, 3 August 2014, is under production.

Types from the Golden Area


Namesakes of the Golden Area


Source Data, General Information, and Mysteries Regarding Other Non-Types or Non-Namesakes


Populus angustifolia E. James

James provided a validating diagnosis: "The long leaved cotton-wood … is found intermixed with the common cotton-wood, resembling in size and general aspect. Its leaves are long and narrow, its trunk smoother, and its branches more slender and flexile than those of Populus anuglata. Some of its fruits was fortunately still remaining …"


Eriogonum umbellatum Torr.

Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John G., 1827.  

Published in 1827 by John Torrey.

Lupinus argenteus Pursh

  Harrington (1954) and Ackerfield (2015) neither use keel decoration as a key character nor do they describe the decoration of the keel. California floras, e.g., Munz (1965) and Baldwin (2012), use a ciliate keel, as a key character to identify L. argenteus. Welch, et al. (1993) note that the keel can be glabrous or variously ciliate.

Scutellaria brittonii Porter

  Isotype: NY415671, T. C. Porter, s.n., Colorado, Clear Creek Canyon, 9000 ft, June 15, 1873. The 9000 ft elevation in Clear Creek Canyon is just below Silver Plume.

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 1143, 15 Jun 2015 Coll. No. 1379, 29 May 2016 Coll. No. 1614, 15 May 2017 Coll. No. 1865, 23 May 2018  

Castilleja integra Gray

In 1849, he joined an army expedition (with Gray's help) through Texas, botanising from Galveston to San Antonio and then on to El Paso. But he had to walk most of the 673 miles, (which took over 104 days effort). He collected seeds of Penstemon baccharifolius (Hook), between Texas and El Paso, which were later given to William Hooker. Also,Castilleja lanata (found near the Rio Grande) and Castilleja integra (found in the Organ Mountains, near El Paso). (Pennell, 1935) In the spring of 1851, he joined the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (also with Gray's help). (Wikipedia)


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

Castilleja integra is not listed in Gray (1849) Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae. Although, a good part of the report is "… to be continued."


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1852.  

Gray (1952) does not mention any Wright collections in the Scrophulariaceae


Literature Cited:
- Torrey John, 1859.  

Emory, William H., 1859. Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey. Volume II. Torrey, John, 1859. Part I. Botany of the Boundary Washington, 1859. p. 119


Castilleja integra (sp. nov.): perennis; caule stricto tomentoso; foliis linearibus integerrimis subtus tomentulosis, floralibus oblongis obocatisque integerrimis coloratis (paniceis);; spica conferta; calyce aequaliter vel postice profundius bifido, lobis bifidis lanceolatis obtusiusculis labium inferius galea multoties brevius adaequantibus. — Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright, (undistributed,) Bigelow. Guadaloupe cañon, Sonora; Capt. E. K. Smith. Also gathered in the Rocky Mountains further north by Dr. Kreuzfeldt, in Gunnison's expedition. Stem one or two feet high, mostly simple, rigid; leaves 1½ to 3 inches long, 2 to 3 lines wide, entire; most of the floral ones almost wholly petaloid, ample, shorted than the fully developed flowers. Calyx 8 or 12 lines long, red or reddish; “corolla reddish green;” glaea 6 to 8 lines long; the lower lip very short. Apparently a well marked new species of the section Callichroma. It is No. 584 of Fendler's New Mexican collection; and Dr. Bigelow gathered specimens in Whipple's expedition on the Llano Estacado.


  Pennell, Francis W. [Curator of Botany, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia] The Scrophulariaceae of Eastern Temperate North America The Academy of Natural Sciences Monogtaphs, Number 1 Philadelphia, 1935. p. 533

9. Castilleja integra Gray

Castilleja integra A. Gray, in Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. 119. 1859. “Organ mountains, east of El Paso; Wright ..., Bigelow. Guadaloupe canon, Conora; Capt. E. K. Smith."

Bracts red. Flowering from May to August.

Gravelly soil, plains and hills, Colorado to Texas, Chihuahua and Arizona. Known in our territory from a single reocrd along the Rio grande.

Texas. Valverde: bluffs of Devils R., Havard (U).



Balsamorhiza sagittata

Other articles: Tin Cup Ridge (social trail) at Coll. 1109 Field Notes Coll. No. 1109, 14 May 2015
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1109, Balsamorhiza sagittata  

How the heck did it get to Tin Cup Ridge?


The Erigerons that are known from collections in Golden s.l. are:
  • Erigeron compositus Pursh. (Syn: Erigeron compositus Pursh var. discoideus A. Gray, Erigeron compositus Pursh var. glabratus Macoun) Cutleaf Daisy.
  • Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.
  • Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.
  • Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.
  • Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. (Syn: Stenactis strigosa (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC.) Prairie Fleabane.
  • Erigeron tracyi Greene. (Syn: Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson, Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray) Running Fleabane.
  • Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.
Erigeron compositus Pursh. Cutleaf Daisy.


Literature Cited:
- Moulton, Gary E., 1999.
- Pursh, Frederick, 1814.

Locations: Kooskoosky River.  

Of the western Erigerons found in Golden s.l. the first to be described was E. compositus Pursh. The holotype was collected by Meriwether Lewis on the Kooskoosky (Clearwater) River, date unknown, and the voucher is now at ANS.

Pursh (1814) described it as follows:

Syngenesia Superflua. Erigeron 535
14. E. pilosum, subacaule; foliis radicalibus longe petiolatis triplicato-3-partitis, laciniis linearibus divaricatis, caulinis linearibus plerumque indivisibus, caule superne nudo unifloro. compositum
  On the banks of the Kooskoosky. M. Lewis. ♃. July, Aug. v. s.; v. v. cultum. Not above a span high; flowers resembling a daisy exceedingly; they change during their flowering, from white to a lively pale red.  

My collection of this taxon was made as Little Scraggy Peak, (Buffalo Creek Recreation Area), Jefferson County, Colorado.

Full Size Image
Coll. No. 1901, Erigeron compositus
  A. Gray (1862) proposed variety discoideus. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.


  Macoun (1884) proposed variety glabratus, but the name is not now recognized. The name is now treated as a synonym of the species.


Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray. Spreading Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1840-1841.

Other articles: Glossary fastigiate
Full Size ImageColl. No. 2092, Erigeron divergens  

The first publication of the entity we now call Erigeron divergens was by Nuttall (1840).
Erigeron *divaricatum; ☉ hirsute, stem branching from base; branchlets one-flowered, rather naked, fastigiate; radical leaves spathulate, the rest linear, sessile, acute, attenuated below, all entire; inner pappus of about eight setæ rays nery numerous, narrow, white.
Hab. In the Rocky Mountains and the plains of Oregon. About one foot high, at length very much branched, the leaves an inch or more long, about a line wide. Pappus double in ray and disk, the inner of remarkably few rays, very deciduous.

It might be helpful to remember that the plains of Oregon would include a good part of southwest Wyoming.

The name E. divergens had been previously used by Michaux (1803) and was not available for use be Nuttall.


Literature Cited:
- Torrey, John, and Asa Gray, 1838-1843.

Other articles: Field Notes Torrey & Gray, 1841  

Torrey & Gray (1841, p. 175) in Flora of North America proposed Erigeron divergens for the small fleabane that was previously illegimately published by Nuttall as E. divaricatuum.
26. E. divergens: somewhat hoary with a minute hirsute pubescence, diffusely branched from the base; leaves small, entire, acute; the radical somewhat spatulate, narrowed into a short petiole; the cauline scattered, sessile, linear, narrowed at the base; heads (small) mostly solitary terminating the naked branchlets or pecuncles; rays very narrow and numerous, twice the length of the hirsute involucre; inner pappus of few (8-12) very slender and deciduous bristles. — Erigeron (Oligotrichum) divaricatum, Nutt. ! In trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7. p. 311, not of Michx.
Rocky Mountains, and plains of the interior of Oregon, Nuttall ! — ① Stems about a foot high, diffuse, ascending, slender, at length much branched. Leaves half an inch to an inch long, 1 to 2 lines wide, mucronate-acute. Heads rather smaller than in E. tenue; the rays (white, Nutt.) nearly similar; the exterior pappus shorter.


Erigeron flagellaris A. Gray. Trailing Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.

Other articles: Field Notes Gray, A., 1849  

334. E. flagellare (sp. nov.): bienne? striguloso-puberulum, pumilum; caulibus gracillimis e basi ramosis, floriferis seu primariis simplicibus superne aphyllis monocephalis, sterilibus patentibus flagelliformibus; foliis spathulatis mucronulatis inferioribus in petiolum attenuatis integris seu radicalibus parce inciso-lobatus, ramealibus parvulis sublinearibus sessilibus; ligulis numerosis gracilibus (albis purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et discii conformiduplici, exteriore coroni-forme-squamellato conspicuo, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus. — Low, moist places, along Santa Fe Creek; May, June. (381.) — Root slender. Flowering stems 5 to 7 inches high, very slender, few-leaved below the middle, naked, and pedunculiform above; the head rather than the preceding species; the involucre, &c., similar. Lower leaves one to two inches long, including the slender petiole; those of the runner-like sterile branches decreasing to 2 or 3 lines in length. This species should rank next to the foregoing.*

The “preceding species” and “foregoing” was Erigeron cinereum (sp. Nov.), now treated as a synonym of E. tracyi Greene.

The head was described as “… as large as those on Bellis perennis …” and the involucre was described as “… hirsutum duplo superantibus …” [… coarse erect or ascending hairs doubly … ??? ]

The asterisk “*” refers to some collections sent by Mr. Spaulding from Oregon, which I don't think are particularly relevant to E. flagellaris.


Other articles: Plainview Road near coll loc Field Notes Coll. No. 1116, 28 May 2015 Coll. No. 1829, 16 May 2018
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1116, Erigeron flagellaris
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1829, Erigeron flagellaris  

Erigeron pumilus Nutt. Shaggy Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Nuttall, Thomas, 1818.

Other articles: Glossary nutant  

Syngenesia. Superflua. 147
557. ERIGERON. L. (Flea-bane.)
Calix imbricated, subhemispherical, in fruit often reflected. Rays of the corolla linear, very narrow, and numerous. Receptacle naked. Pappus double, exterior minute, interior pilose, of few rays. (12 to 25?)
Herbaceous; stems simple or branched, flowers solitary, axillary and terminal, subcorymbose or fastigiately paniculate; radii white, or purplish, rarely destiture of pappus. Seed very small, rather smooth, oblong, and compressed; pappus simply pilose, deciduous, not much longer than the seed, exterior pappus minute and paleaceous.
§ I. Stem simple
SPECIES. 1. E. alpinum. 2. * pumilum. Hirsute; stems aggregated, 1-flowered, leaves oblong-linear, entire and sessile; flower large and hemispherical, before flowering nutant; calyx very hirsute. HAB. On the plains of the Missouri. Flowering in May. E. hirsutum. Ph. 2. Suppl. p. 742. but this name has been previously employed for another species. OBS. Stems several from the same root, often, indeed, connected at the base, 4 or 5 inches high, 1-flowered. Leaves 2 inches, more or less, nearly linear, attenuated downwards, scarcely 2 lines wide. Flower naked, (or pedunculate) white, and large as a Daisy; rays as long as the calix, narrow and numerous. Pappus double, internal short, about 12-rayed.
“nutant”, adj., drooping or nodding.


Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Ex Willd. Prairie Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Willdenow, Carl L., 1803.  

The first of the Erigeron found in the Golden, Colorado area was described from a collection made in Pensylvania. Willdenow (1803) published the name from a description written by Mühlenberg.
11. ERIGERON ʃtrigoʃum.
E. foliis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis ſubdentatis ſtrigoſo-piloſis, floribus corymboſo-paniculatis. W.
Erigeron ſtrigoſum. Mühlenb. In litt.
Behaartes Berufungskraut. W.
Habitat in Penſylvania. (v. ʃ.)
Caulis erectus ʃtriatus, pilis ʃparʃis albis obʃitus. Folia alterna lanceolata baʃ et apice attenuata, utrinque oilis copioʃis adpresʃis obʃita, integerrima, vel medio utrunque ʃerraturis 2. ʃ. 3 inʃtructa. Flores corymboʃo-paniculati. Radius copioʃus filiformis albus. W.


Literature Cited:
- DeCandolle, Augustus Pyramus, 1836.  

DeCandolle (1836) proposed Stenactis strigosa DC.

5. S. strigosa, caule erecto sparse et patentim piloso, foliis lanceolatis utrinque stteniatis dentatis strigoso-hispodid, capitulis laxe corymboso-paniculatis, invol. glaberrimo, ligulis numerosis filiformibus. ② ? in Pensylvania (Muhl.), Noveboraco (Torrey!). Erigeron strigosum Muhl. in Willd. sp. 3. p. 1956. Erig. australe Horn. ex Spreng. An Erig. strigosun Ell. sketch 2. p. 394 et Doronicum ramosum Walt. fl. car. 206 in Carolina cresc. ad hanc speciem referenda? (v. s. comm. a cl. Torr.)

Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 2008.  

Stenactis is currently treated as a section of Erigeron (Nesom, 2008).


Erigeron tracyi Greene. Running Fleabane.


  Some of the current synonyms for E. tracyi are:
  • Erigeron cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron cinereus var. cinereus
  • Erigeron cinereus var. aridus M. E. Jones
  • Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson
  • Erigeron commixtus Greene
  • Erigeron dicladus Greene
  • Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
  • Erigeron tephroides Greene
  • Erigeron williamsii Phil. The Plant List and the Global Composite Checklist each give E. williamsii Phil as a synonym of E. tracyi. does not. I suspect that E. williamsii is a valid name for a South American species, and does not apply to E. tracyi.


Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1849.  

The first known description of the taxon we now call E. tracyi was by A. Gray (1849) in Plantae Fendlerianae Novi-Mexicanae, a description of plants collected by Augustus Fendler in New Mexico in 1841
333. E. cinereum (sp. Nov.): bienne? Undique molliter cinereo-pilosum: caule e basi ramoso; ramis adsurgentibus apice longe nudis monocephalis; foliis spathulatis vel lineari-oblongis basi attenuatis integerrimis seu radicalibus paucidentatis incisisve; ligulus numerosissimis gracilibus (albis nunc purpureo tinctis) involucrum hirsutum duplo superantibus; pappo radii et disci conformi duplici, exteriore coroniformi-squamellato, interiore e setis sub-20 fragilibus deciduis. — Var. a. Is a dwarf, vernal form, only a span high, quite hoary, the primary flowering stems erect and almost scapiform (no. 374 of the distribution). Dry, exposed places around Santa Fe; May. Var. ß has taller and more diffuse stems (10 inches high), the leaves almost lanceolate, entire, the lower tapering into slender petioles. Low, sandy banks of the Rio del Norte and of Santa Fe Creek; May to June. (380.) Var. ? is a larger, coarser, and much more leafy state; from the valley of Santa Fe Creek, near irrigating ditches; May to July. (385.) — The heads are as large as those of Bellis perennis, solitary on peduncles, or the naked summit of the stems, of from 2 to 4 inches in length. The species belongs to the first division of the section Phalacroloma, Torr. & Gray, l. c. † Some forms of this, or of an allied species (possibly E. affine, DC.), with rather less numerous and white rays, and either entire or incised leaves, were gathered at Buena Vista and Encantada by Dr. Gregg.

Unfortunately, the name was unavailable, having been previously used by Hooker and Arnold for their E. cinereus, a native of Chile.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Gray (1852, pt. 1, p. 91) places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae. He make no comments that describe his thinking.

268. E. divergens, var. cinereum. E. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Fendl. p. 68. New Mexico; the locality not recorded.

Gray (1852, pt. 2 p. 77) also places his E. cinereum as a variety of E. divergens in Plantae Wrightinae, part 2.

E. divergens, var. cinereum, Gray, Pl. Wright, l. c. Moutains, around the copper mines; Oct: a late, much-branched state. (1169) Hills near El Paso; March, April: the early normal form (1398.)

This placement is still accepted by Harrington one hundred years later (Harrington, 1954, 1964 2nd ed.).


Literature Cited:
- Buckley, S. B., 1861.  

These plants were collected by the author while engaged in the State Geological Survey of Texas, during 1860 and '61. Specimens of them are in the herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, and also in the herbarium of Elias Durand, Esq.

Erigeron (Eurigera) nudiflorum, s. n. — Hirsutum pumilum, ramosum; foliis lineari-oblongis, integris, sentis, confertissimis; ramis apice longe nudis, monocephalis; ligulis albis, plurimis, subuniseriatis, involucrum duplo excidentibus, acheniis oblongis glabris vel parum pilosis; pappo radii et disci conformi, duplici; exteriore breve setacea.

Northern Texas. May.
Very much branched from the root. Stems erect, 4-6 inches high; leaves numerous near the root and upwards on the stems about 3 inches; the upper stems, two inches below the flowers, naked; whole plant strigose hirsute, the white hairs not appressed; flowers about 1/4 of an inch in diameter; leaves 1/2 - 1 inch long and a little more than a line wide.



Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.

Other articles: Field Notes Greene, E. L., 1902  

E. L. Greene (1902) then published two names for what we now treat as a single species. The names he published were: Erigeron commixtus and E. tracyi.

Erigeron commixtus. With the habit of E. flagellaris, smaller, less stoloniferous, the leaves relativelt broader, some entire, others with one or more conspicuous lobes at base of the blade, the whole plant almost hoary with stiffly hirsute pubescence, this spreading on the leaves and petioles, retrorse on the stems and peduncles: heads, rays, achenes, etc., much as in E. flagellaris.
Cañon of the Limpia, mountains of western Texas, 26 April 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle; also collected by the present writer, in the same general region, namely in the mountains near Silver City, New Mexico, 18 May 1880, and distributed for E. flagellaris. The species last named has a rather obscure, fine closely appressed hairiness. That of the new one is so extremely different, that were the plants the size of a Sunflower or Goldenrod, no botanist would confuse them as one species, were the pubescence the only character. I may remark that true E. flagellaris reaches the mountains of even southern New Mexico, where, however, it occurs only in a more elevated biological zone


Literature Cited:
- Greene, Edward Lee, 1902.
- Nesom, Guy L., 2004.  

Erigeron Tracyi. Allied to the last (Erigeron commixtus — Ed.) but dwarf, only 2 or 3 inches high, densely leafy at base and with no stolons (at least at flowering time): petioles of the spatulate-lanceolate entire leaves shorter than the blade or obsolete; the whole herbage silvery-hoary with a fine dense strigulose pubescence, or this more sparse and spreading on the solitary scapiform peduncle: involucre hispidulous: outer pappus very conspicuous though consisting of only shorter and setiform hairs, the inner of a few very delicate capillary ones.
Davis Mountains, western Texas, Tracy and Earle, 28 April 1902.

E. commixtus was published before E. tracyi, quite literally a matter of a few inches. It would therefore seem to have priority over E. tracyi.

Literature Cited:
- Coulter, John M., and Aven Nelson, 1909.

Other articles: Glossary cinereous  

33. Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Stems few to several from s slender annual taproot, ascending, naked pedunculiform above the middle, very leafy, flowering when very short, the later heads on stems 7-15 cm. long: leaves mostly linear-spatulate to linear, the basal sometimes oblanceolate and 3-lobed at apex, all softly cinereous-pubescent: heads musc as in E. divergens. (E cinereus Gray, Pl. Fendl. 68. 1848; not E. cinereus H. & A. Comp. Bot. Mag. 2: 50. 1836) — Southern Colorado and New Mexico.

It is interesting to me that A. Nelson does not mention Greene's (1902) publication of Erigeron tracyi, whereas other names of Greene are acknowledged.

Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1910.  

Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58. 1902
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. 4: 68. 1849. Not E.cinereus H. & A. 1836.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels,; Coult. & Nels. New Man. Cent. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
Another specific name proposed by Professor Nelson, Erigeron colo-mexicanus, to replace the untenable E. conereus A. Gray, is in my opinion rather distasteful. Fortunately I do not need to use the name, as the same species has been described by Dr. Greene under the name E. commixtus.


Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, 1925.  

Tidestrom (1925) recognizes Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

7. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 4: 68. 1849. Not E. cinereus Hook. & Arn. 1836
Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nels. in Coulter, New Man. Rocky Mount. 529. 1909.
Artemisia, pinyon and yellow pine belts; Utah and Colorado to Mexico.

The author also recognizes E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.


Literature Cited:
- Tidestrom, Ivar, and Sister Teresita Kittel, 1941.  

Tidestrom and Kittell (1941) recognize Buckley's E. nudiflorus.

9. Erigeron nudiflorus Buckley, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1861. 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5: 58.1902.
Artemisia, Pinyon and Yellow Pine belts; Utah and Colorado southward to Mexico.

The authors also recognize E. divergens Torr. & Gray, and E. flagellaris Gray.


Literature Cited:
- Cronquist, Arthur, 1947.
- Gray, Asa, and Charles Wright, 1852.  

Cronquist (1947) accepts Grays (1852) treatment of E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens.

Along the way his key uses arrangement of hairs on stems as as a character to distinguish between E. divergens and E. flagelaris:

6. Some or all of the hairs of the stem appressed or closely ascending, or the stem glabrous.
which leads to E. flagellaris. The other half of the couplet:
6. Hairs of the stem all spreading.
leads to E. divergens where E. tracyi is treated as a variety.

Key to the varieties of Erigeron divergens
1. Earliest heads on leafy peduncles; plant without long stoloniform branches.

A. var. typicus.

1. Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long leafy stolons or stoloniform branches.

B. var. cinereus.

112B. Erigeron divergens var. cinereus A. Gray, Pl. Wright. 1: 91. 1852.
E. cinereus A. Gray, Mem. Am. Acad. II 4:68. 1849. Not H. & A. 1836.
E. nudiflorus Buckl. Prec. Acad. Phil. 1861: 456. 1862.
E. commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902.
E. tracyi Greene. Pittonia 5: 59. 1902.
E. divergens nudiflorus A. Nels. Man. Bot. Rocky Mts. 529. 1909.
E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels. Loc. Cit.
? E. dicladus Greene. Leafl. 2: 214. 1912.
Earliest heads on long naked peduncles; plant later producing long loafy stolons or stoliform branches; basal leaves more often persistent than in var. typicus. Southern Nevada and Utah, through Arizona and New Mexico to northern Mexico, central Texas, western Oklahome, and southwestern Kansas; reported from Colorado and western Arkansas.
Type: Fendler 374, near Santa Fe, New Mexico, 1847 (NY).
… Texas: Tracy & Earle 279, Limpia Canyon, April 26, 1902 (type of E. commixtus Greene) (MI, NY); Tracy & Earle 320, Davis Mountains, April 28, 1902 (type of E. tracyi Greene) (MI, NY); … Colorado: Rydberg & Vreeland 5438, 5 miles southwest of La Veta, Huerfano Counto, May 22, 1900 (NY); …
The variety cinereus has usually been treated as a distinct species under the name E. nudiflorus Buckl., but there are two many intermediates for it to stand. There are occasional intermediates with E. modestus, having the pubescence of the latter, and habit of E. divergens var. cinereus. These plants are more likely to have conspicuously lobed basal leaves than is typical var. cinereus.

The variety cinereus is what we are calling E. tracyi today.


Literature Cited:
- Harrington, H. D., 1954.
- Harrington, H. D., 1964, 2nd ed..  

Harrington (2nd ed., 1964, p. 565) placed E. tracyi as a variety of E. divergens. This repeats his treatment of the taxon in his first edition (Harrington, 1954).

8B. Erigeron divergens cinereus A. Gray, (var.) Pl. Wright. 1:91. 1852.
E. cinereus A. Gray; E. nudiflorus Buckl.; E. commixtus Greene; E. colo-mexicanus A. Nels.; E. divergens nudiflorus (Buckl.) A. Nels. -- Earliest heads on long naked or nearly naked peduncles; plants producing long leafy stolons later in the season. --- Dry often sandy soil. Kansas ro Nevada, south to Texas and Arizona. Our records scattered over Colorado, mostly in the southern part, at 4000-8000 feet.

Of note is Harrington's acceptance of E. commixtus but not E. tracyi.


Literature Cited:
- Nesom, Guy L., 1989.  

Nesom (1989c) accepted E. tracyi as having priority over E. colomexicanus.
Erigeron tracyi an earlier name for Erigeron colomexicanus
I have been using Erigeron colomexicanus as the name for this species, but both E. tracyi and E. commixtus were published seven years earlier, simultaneously (immediate succession in the same paper: Greene 1902). Plants of the type collections of E. tracyi, as well as those of E. commixtus, are early season forms (essentially a basal rosette with a single, subscapiform, monocephalous stem) that had not yet produced runners characteristic of the species.
Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia 5:59. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Davis Mts., 28 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 320 (Holotype: US!; Isotypes: GH!, NY!, OC!).
Erigeron commixtus Greene, Pittonia 5:58. 1902. Type: U.S.A. Texas. [Jeff Davis Co.:] Cañon of the Limpia, Mountains of west Texas, 26 Apr 1902, S. M. Tracy and F. S. Earle 279 (Holotype: US!; isotypes: GH!, NY!, TAES!, TEX!).
Erigeron cinereus A, Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts n.s., 4 [Pl. Fendler.]; 68. 1849 (not Hook. & Arn. 1836). Erigeron divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray, Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 3, Art. 5 [Pl. Wright.]:91. 1852. Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nels. [nom. Nov.], Man. Bot. Rocky Mts., 529. 1909. Type: U. S. A. NEW MEXICO. [Santa Fe Co.:] near Santa Fe, 1847, A. Fendler 374 (Holotype: GH!; isotypes: GH, NY! UC-2 sheets!, US!).


Literature Cited:
- Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds., 1993+.  

Volume 20 of Flora of North America North of Mexico was published in 2006. The treatment of Erigeron was written by Guy L. Nesom.

160. Erigeron tracyi Greene, Pittonia. 5: 59. 1902.
Running fleabane
Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849, not Hooker & Arnott 1836; E. colomexicanus A. Nelson; E. commixtus Greene; E. divergens Torrey & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray
Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 2.5–8(–12, 18) cm; usually taprooted, sometimes fibrous-rooted, caudices simple or branched. Stems first erect (greenish proximally), then producing herbaceous, leafy, prostrate runners (stoloniform branches, sometimes with rooting plantlets at tips), densely hirsutulous (hairs spreading-deflexed, of relatively even lengths and orientations), sparsely minutely glandular. Leaves mostly basal (persistent in early season); blades oblanceolate to spatulate (obovate-elliptic laminae), 10–30(–60) × 3–6(–12) mm, cauline abruptly reduced distally, margins entire, dentate, or lobed, faces densely hirsute, eglandular. Heads 1(–3 rarely, from midstem or proximal branches). Involucres 3.5–4.5(–6) × 6–9(–12) mm. Phyllaries in 3–4 series, sparsely to moderately hirsute, minutely glandular. Ray florets 60–130; corollas white, often purplish abaxially, sometimes with an abaxial midstripe, 5–9 mm, laminae not coiling or reflexing. Disc corollas 2–3 mm (throats indurate and slightly inflated). Cypselae 0.7–1.3 mm, 2-nerved, faces sparsely strigose; pappi: outer of setae, inner of 12–16 bristles. 2n = 27.
Flowering Mar–Oct. Desert scrub, grassy slopes, oak chaparral, pinyon-juniper woodlands, Douglas fir-ponderosa pine; 700–2300(–2400) m; Ariz., Colo., Kans., Nev., N.Mex., Okla., Tex., Utah; Mexico (Baja California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Sonora, Zacatecas).
In March through June, plants of Erigeron tracyi produce leaves in a basal rosette usually with a single, erect, monocephalous, stem. Stoloniform branches are soon formed (often recognized on pressed specimens by the leaves mostly on one side of the branches), and by the end of the season (August through October), prostrate runners are usually evident, sometimes forming terminal, rooting plantlets.
Erigeron tracyi is similar in habit to E. flagellaris, particularly in the herbaceous stolons or stoloniform branches; the stem pubescence of E. tracyi is different, the stolons much less commonly produce rooting plantlets at the tips, and the plants tend to be perennial with woody or lignescent caudices, although they are variable both in habit and duration. Apparent hybrids with E. modestus and E. flagellaris are occasionally encountered, and the most common form of E. tracyi is perhaps (speculative) a stabilized, apomictic hybrid between the latter and E. divergens. All chromosome counts thus far have shown E. tracyi to be triploid and asynaptic.


Literature Cited:
- Snow, Neil, 2009.  

Erigeron tracyi Greene - FNA
[Erigeron cinereus A. Gray 1849 {not Hook. & Arnott 1836} - FNA
[Erigeron colomexicanus A. Nelson] - KTZ, E
[Erigeron colo-mexicanus A. Nelson] - SFE, W&W
[Erigeron commixtus Greene] - FNA
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus A. Gray] - HDH, UTF
[Erigeron divergens Torr. & A. Gray var. cinereus (A. Gray) A. Gray] - IMF
[Erigeron modestus A. Gray] - GPF


Literature Cited:
- Weber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann, 2012.  

11a. [10] Heads solitary on elongate, mostly leafless stems from the basal leaf clusters; plants developing long, nonrooting, stolon-like, spreading shoots. E. tracyi Greene [for Samuel Mills Tracy, 1847-1920]. Dry, gravelly floodplains and meadows, mimicking E. flagellaris but with spreading stem hairs. Flowering very early in the spring. The FNA suggests that this is a triploid apomictic hybrid between E. divergens and E. flagellaris. (E. colomexicanus is a later name.)


Literature Cited:
- Ackerfield, Jennifer, 2015.  

Ackerfield's (2015) description of E. tracyi does not describe the stem hairs, or the direction in which they point. Also, I think the stated length of the stoloniferous branches is quite short. Perhaps, the length should be expressed in decimeters, such as “... stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) dm. Long.” Finally, the only synonym identified is E. colomexicanus perhaps because it has long been used in Colorado and New Mexico, but E. commixtus and E. nudiflorus are not noted.

Erigeron tracyi Greene, Running Daisy. [E. colomexicanus A. Nelson]. Annuals, biennials, or short-lived perennials, 1-4 dm.; leaves oblanceolate to linear, entire or few-toothed, the stems forming stoloniferous branches, 1-3(6) cm. long; involucre 3-5 mm. hih, hirsute with curved hairs; disk flowers 2-2.5 mm. long; ray flowers 4-6 mm. long, white or pink; pappus double. Common on the eastern slope in open meadows and on dry slopes, with scattered occurrences on the estern slope, 4000-9000 ft. April-July. E/W

Couplet 24 of Ackerfield's key to Erigeron addresses the question of stem hairs:

24a Stems with spreading or tangled (pointing in all directions) hairs or mostly glandular … 25
24b. Stems with appressed or ascending hairs (at above the middle), not glandular … 34

Couplet 25 eventually ends up at Couplet 29 which differentiates between E. tracyi and E. divergens.

Couplet 34 eventually leads to E. flagellaris.


Erigeron vetensis Rydb. Early Bluetop Fleabane.


Literature Cited:
- Rydberg, Per Axel, 1905.  

Erigeron vetensis sp. nov.
Densely cespitose-puvinate perennial ; stems 5-8 cm. high, hirsute, few-leaved ; leaves linear or linear-oblanceolate, hirsute, 2-4 cm. long; heads solitary, about 7 mm, high ; bracts hnear, acuminate, hirsute as w^ell as slightly glandular-puberulent ; rays purple, 8-10 mm. long, over i mm. wide; achenes strigose; pappus more or less double.
In dry places on high mountains of southern Colorado at an altitude of 2400-3000 m. It is intermediate between E. radicatus and E. glandulosus, resembling the former most in pubescence, and the latter in habit.
Colorado: Mountains near Veta Pass, 1900, Rydberg & Vreeland 5427 (type); Veta Mountain and Ojo, 5421, 5422; West Spanish Peak, 5424.


Other articles: Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens Introduction  

Ericameria nauseosa (Pall. Ex Pursh) G.L.Nesom & G.I.Baird var. graveolens (Nutt.) Reveal & Schuyler

  • How did we get to the name of Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens?
    • What is the history of the genus name Chrysothamnus?
    • What is the history of the name Ericameria nauseosa?
    • What is the history of the name ____ graveolens? And how did it become a variety of Ericameria nauseosa?

See my page about Ericameria nauseosa var. graveolens or “How did rubber rabbitbrush get that long scientific name?”

Other articles: Water Tank Road above the curve  

Ratibida columnifera

Other articles: Field Notes Coll. No. 1198, 12 Jul 2015
Full Size ImageColl. No. 1198, Ratibida columnifera  

So, is the cypsela ciliate on the abaxial side, or the adaxial side?

Symphyotrichum porteri (A. Gray) G. L. Nesom

Literature Cited:
- Porter, Thomas C., and John M. Coulter, 1874.  

Publication of Aster ericoides L. var strictus Porter in Porter and Coulter (1874).
Aster ericoides, L., var strictus, Porter. Low ¾ °-1° high, glabrous, except the scabrous margins and ciliate bases of the leaves, erect, slender, paniculately branched above, branches short; scales of involucre narrowly linear, lax, outer ones very acute, often entirely green, inner ones scarious with a central green line; radical leaves narrowly oblanceolate. -- “In the mountains at middle elevations,” Hall & Harbour, 254. Near Denver, Coulter. Foot-hills west of Denver, Porter; Meehan; Hoopes.

Literature Cited:
- Gray, Asa, 1880.  

basionym:Asteraceae Aster porteri A.Gray Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts xvi. (1880) 99.

Among the true Asters are several forms which have to be named, such as A. Porteri for A. ericoides, var. strictus, Porter & Coult. Fl. Colorado. 56, and A. pringlei, from the northern end of Lake Champlain …











Vegetation Descriptions






Dates To Do Things


Vouchers to Examine



Letters: Wednesday, November 5, 2014.  

UTC10764: was determined Polemonium caeruleum whereas UTC19762, also bearing MEJ's #299 is determined Polemonium foliosissimum A. Gray. However, per Mary Barkworth, 11/25/2014, both are P. foliosissimum.



Mystery Locations


Locations: Gray Hill.  

Gray Hill

Harbouria trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose. Whiskbroom Parsley. Mountain slope. Near Golden: Gray Hill. J. H. Ehlers 6848. 6/2/1938 ( RM184550 )


West Cliff

Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf. (Syn: Physalis lobata Torr. ) Chinese Lantern. Golden, Road to West Cliff, Golden. Earl L. Johnston, with G. G. Hedgcock 813. 6/23/1917 ( RM101941 ).

  [Previous Page]

Go to page: [1] [9]

If you have a question or a comment you may write to me at: I sometimes post interesting questions in my FAQ, but I never disclose your full name or address.  

[Home Page] [Site Map]

Date and time this article was prepared: 2/19/2020 5:16:19 PM